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Albert K. Mann Library 


Gift from the Library of 
Doc AND Katy Abraham, 

The Green Thumb, 
Naples, N.Y. 

Cornell University 

The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 


Handbook of Plants 





AUTHOR OF (.*:,-,- ^ 









Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1890, by 


In the Office of the Librarian of Congress at Washington, D. 0> 

Press of John C. Hankin Co., New York. 


ALTHOUGH I have every reason to be satisfied with the flattering reception 
given to the first edition of the Handbook of Plants, issued in 1881, yet I 
^_^^ have ever believed that its scope was too limited; that the requirements 
^> — ^ of the thousands of amateurs, young florists and gardeners, needed some- 
thing having a wider range. To meet that want there is not only added in the present 
edition all the new genera of any importance up to date, but there is specified in many 
instances the more important and useful species and varieties of the genera 
described, together with brief instructions for propagation and culture. The botanical 
and technical terms, and a very full list of the best-known English or popular names, are 
also given, and great care has been exercised to have all the generic names accentuated 
according to the latest authorities. Nearly one thousand engravings of the various 
plants described in the body of this work are shown. The natural system of arrange- 
ment being now generally used, is adopted in the descriptions instead of the Linnsean or 
artificial system. 

Very full instructions are given for the culture and forcing of all Fruits, Flowers 
and Vegetables of importance, such as Grape Vines, Strawberries, Boses, Bulbs of all 
kinds, Celery, Cauliflower, Tomatoes, Cucumbers, Mushrooms, etc. ; in short, I believe 
that there is sufficient matter given on all gardening subjects to allow me to claim for 
this book that it is an. 

Amkricak Gardener's Dictionary. 

A series of tables and memoranda on horticultural and agricultural subjects, such 
as Seeds, Crops, Stock, Forestry, Measures, Weights, Temperature, etc., is also added, 
which, together with a carefully compiled glossary of the technical terms used in 
describing plants, and a monthly calendar of operations for the green-house and window 
garden, flower, fruit and kitchen garden, will undoubtedly render this edition valuable 
as a book of reference. 

The name of the book wUl now be " The Handbook or Plants and General Horti- 
CULTDKE," and I beheve that for aU practical purposes it will be better adapted to the 
wants of American horticulturists than any of the more costly British works on garden- 
ing, and at one-third of their cost; for though from a foreign standpoint these are all 
ihey claim to be, yet for the American climate much of the information, and especially 
the gardening instructions, are not only useless, but actually misleading. 

In the first edition of this work I was largely indebted to the following books as 

authorities : 

Loudon's EnoyclopeBdla of Plants ; Paxton's Botanical Dictionary ; Paxton's Magazine of 
Botany; Johnson's Gardener's Dictionary; Mcintosh's Book of the Garden; Bhind's Vegetable 
Kingdom ; Lindley's Treasury of Botany ; Orchid Grower's Manual ; Miller's Gardener's Diction- 
ary ; Gerarde's Herbal (1597) ; Parkinson's Garden of Pleasant Flowers (1629) ; Dodoen's Plants 
(1587) ; Gray's Manual of Botany ; Chapman's Southern Flora ; American Agriculturist, of New 
York ; The Gardener's Monthly, of Philadelphia, Pa. ; and The Garden, London, England. 

In addition to the above, I am indebted for plants of late introduction to — 

Nicholson's Dictionary of Gardening, The Garden Oracle, Robinson's English Flower Garden, 
The Gardener's Chronicle, Journal of Horticulture (London), and the various American horticultural 

In compiling this edition, I have been most ably assisted by Mr. "Wm. J. Davidson, 

of Brooklyn, N. Y., who not only is a thorough botanist, but is perhaps the peer of any 

man in the United States to-day in his all-round knowledge of garden work. 

Jersey City, N. J., January, 1890. 


Although this work is alphabetically arranged, yet as a quicker means of looking up cultural 
directions of important plants and matters pertaining to general horticulture, we give the follow- 
ing Index : 


Alfalfa 16 

Alpine Flanta 17 

Annuals 24 

Asparagus 35 

Avenues 39 

Bark 42 

Bedding 46 

Bindiug Plants 50 

Blackberry 384 

Blight 51 

Borders, Flower 53 

Bouquets, etc 54 

Budding 59 

Cauliflower 75 

Celery 76 

Cisterns 88 

ClubKoot 92 

Coffee 94 

Cold Frames and Pits 96 

Color in Flowers 97 

Conserratory 100 

Coral Tree 144 

Cotton Plant 172 

Cranberry 294 

Cultivator Ill 

Damping off 120 

Designs 123 

Draining 133 

Egg Plant 137 

Ferns 152 

Fertilizers 153 

Florists' Flowers 156 

Forcing Fruits, Flowers and Vege- 
tables I'i6 

Fountains 167 

Frozen Plants.: 159 

Oas Lime and Gas Tar 163 

CHnkgo Tree 390 

Gladiolus 166 

Glass and Glazing 167 

Grafting 173 

Grape Vine 482 

Grasses 173 and 174 

Green-bouse 176 

Hand Glass 180 

Hanging Baskets 180 

Heating by Flues, Hot-beds, Hot 

Water, etc 181-183 

Hedges 184 

Herbaceous Plants 186 


Herbarium 188 

Horse-radish 193 

Hybridization 197 

Immortelles 186 

Insecticides 201 

Insects 202 

Johnson Grass 210 

Lawn 219 

Lilies 225 

Lily of the Valley 101 

Magnolia 238 

Manures 242 

Marker 244 

MUdew 263 

Moles 256 

Mulching 260 

Mushrooms 261 

Narcissus 269 

Orchard 286 

Orchid Culture 287 

Ornamental Planting 290 

Paper Plants 302 

Parlor Gardening 303 

Pearl Millet 309 

Pitcher Plants 273 

Planting 330 

Planting, Evil of Deep 330 

Plant Protectors 331 

Plantsin Booms 331 

Plants for Shady Places 331 

Plants for Sea Side 404 

Plant Stove 331 

Plants, Unhealthy 332 

Poisonous Plants '... .'..... 337 

Potting 344 

Propagation by Cuttings 350 

Propagation by Layering 352 

Propagation by Seeds, etc 349 

Pruning 353 

Bake.useof 363 

Baspberry 384 

Khubarb 367 

Bock Garden 373 

KockWork 374 

BoUers 376 

Boman Hyacinth 195 

Rose 376 

Bose, culture of the 380 

Botation of Crops 38S 

Bust 886 


Rustic Work 38« 

Sainfoin 28» 

Screens 402 

Sea Kale 403 

Seeds, where grown 406 

Shading 411 

Soil 417 

Sorghum 419 

Sowing, use of the feet in 422 

Smilax 261 

Strawberry 436 

Strawberry Forcing 436 

Stock GUliflower 246 

Subsoihng 440 

Sub-tropical Garden 440 

Table, Stage and Bench 444 

Temperature 448 

Transplanting 458 

Trenching 460 

Tuberose '. 838 

Vases 474 

Ventilating 474 

Violets 480 

Walks 487 

Wardian Case 488 

Water Cress 270 

WaterfaU 489 

Watering 489 

Water Lilies 278 and 478 

Water Plants 490 

Weeds 492 

Winter Flowering Plants 495 

WorkingKoots 497 

Glossary 504--51O 

Calendar of Garden Operations 

(Monthly) 611-618 

Tables un Temperature 619 

Soil, Memoranda on 520 

Manures, " 6217 

Fertilizers, " 5^0 

Crops, '* 621 

Seeds, " 521 

Stock, " 622 

Forestry, " 523 

Masonry, etc., ' 523 

Weights and Measures 624 

Foreign Money 626 

Measuring Trees and other Mis- 
cellaneous Information 636 






Aaron's Beard. Hyperiawm calyoinum. 
aron's Club. Verhascwm Thapsus. 

Aba'ca, a popular name given to. one of the 
Mvsas or Banauas of the Philippine Islands, 
which yields Manilla hemp. 

Abe'le. The White Poplar, Populvs alba, of Eu- 
rope ; a tree that has been extensively planted 
as an ornamental tree, but discarded because 
of its tendency to sucker and spread beyond 

Abe'lia. After Dr. Abel, physician to the embas- 
sage of Lord Amherst to China. Nat. Ord. 

A small genus of green-house shrubs, found 
in India, China, Mexico, and Japan. They are 
of a slender branching habit, bearing opposite 
leaves and terminal bunches of tubular rose- 
colored or dark crimson flowers. A. rupestris, 
a native of China, is of dwarf habit, and flow- 
ers profusely in autumn or winter. The 
flowers are in compact clusters, very fragrant. 
A. rvpestris grandijlora, a seedling of Italian 
origin, has larger flowers, and the whole plant 
is more robust. A. floribuwUi, a Mexican 
species, has dark-colored flowers, produced 
from the axils of the leaves. All the species 
are increased by cuttings. Introduced in 

Abelmo'scbus esculentus. The modern botan- 
ical name for Okra. See Hibiscus. 

Abe'ria. A genus of Macourtiaceoi, consisting of 
a few species, mostly natives of tropical Af- 
rica, the Cape, and" Ceylon. The fruits of A. 
Caffra, the Kei apple of the Cape, are of a 
golden-yellow color, about the size of a small 
apple, and are used by the natives for making 
a preserve. They are so exceedingly acid 
when fresh, that the Dutch settlers prepare 
them for their table as a pickle, without vin- 
egar. The plant is also much grown for 
hedges; being densely clothed with strong, 
dry spines, it forms an impenetrable fence. 

Aberrant. Something which differs from the 
customary or usual structure, or deviates 
from the natural or direct way. Also, a group 
of plants which stands intermediate, as it 
were, between two other groups ; e. g., Puma- 
riacecB, which are by some regarded as an 
aberrant group of Papameracem. 

A'bies. Spruce, Fir. The classical Latin name, 
Nat. Ord. Coniferm. 

An extensive genus of hardy evergreen trees. 
Most of the species are ornamental, and are 


extensively planted for hedges around large 
grounds, or for single specimens on the lawn. 
A. excelsa, the Norway Spruce, is the most 
commonly planted, and is one of the most 
graceful and popular species. A. alba is the 
White Spruce; A. balsamea, the Balsam Fir; 
and A. nigra, the Black or Double Spruce. 
The correct name of A. Canadensis, the Hem- 
lock Spruce, is Tsuga Canadensis, which see. 
A. Douglasii, syn. Pseudotsuga Douglasii, is a 
noble species, common west of the iRocky 
, Mountains. It attains a height of two hun- 
dred feet, and a diameter of ten feet, and is 
entitled to a place among the "great trees" 
of California. 

Abnormal. Opposed to the usual structure. 
Thus, stamens standing opposite to petals are 
abnormal, it being usual for stamens to be 
alternate with petals if equal to them in num- 
ber. Leaves growing in pairs from the same 
side of a stem, as in Atropa Belladonna, and 
flower stalks adherent to the midrib of a 
bract, as in Tilia, are also abnormal. 

Abo'bra. Its Brazilian name. Nat. Ord. Cu- 

A. viridiflora is a very pretty climber, suita- 
ble for planting out during summer. Foliage 
dark green and glossy ; flowers insigniflcant, 
but the small scarlet fruit makes the plant 
very effective. Eoot tuberous, perennial. 
Keep during winter like the Dahlia. 

Abortive. Imperfectly developed ; as abortive 
stamens, which consist of a filament only; 
abortive petals, which are mere bristles or 

Abro'ma. From a, privative, and broma, food ; 
unfit to be eaten. Nat. Ord. StercuUacece. 

Handsome, free-flowering species of easy 
culture, growing readily in common loam, and 
propagated by seeds or offsets. The flowers 
are in terminal or axillary clusters, yellow or 
purple. A. sinuosa, from Madagascar, intro- 
duced in 1884, is a very pretty plant of slender 
habit. The bark of A. a/ugusta, a native of the 
East Indies, furnishes a very strong white 
fiber, used in the manufacture of cordage that 
is not liable to be weakened by exposure to 
wet. Of easy culture; propagated by seeds 
or cuttings. Introduced to cultivation in 1770. 

Abro'nia. Sand Verbena. From dbros, deli- 
cate; referring to its involucrum. Nat. Ord. 

These charming annuals are natives of Cal- 
ifornia. A. umbellata, introduced in 1826, is a 



handsome trailing plant, well adapted for 
rook-work, suspended baskets, or beds, flow- 
ering freely during the autumn months. 
Flowers in trusses, like the Verbena, of a 
rosy-lilao color, very fragrant. They succeed 
well also in the garden border. Seed should 
be sown as soon as the ground is in order. 
They may with profit be started in a hot-bed 
or frame, and transplanted to any desired sit- 

A'bnis. Wild Liquorice. From abroa, soft ; in 
allusion to the delicacy of the leaves. Nat. 
Ord. heguminosm. 

A. precatoriua, the only species, is found in 
India, the West Indies, and the Mauritius. It 
Is chiefly remarkable for its small, egg-shaped 
seeds, which are of a brilliant scarlet color, 
with a black mark, indicating the place where 
they were attached to the pod. These seeds 
are much used for necklaces and other orna- 
mental purposes, and are employed in India 
as a standard of weight, under the name of 
Bati. The weight of the Koh-i-noor diamond 
is known to have been ascertained in this way. 
The specific name is from precatoriua, prayer, 
the seeds being used for rosaries. 

Absinth. See Artem/ma absinthium. 

Abu'tilon. Chinese Bell-flower. Arabic name 
for a plant like a Mallow. Nat. Ord. Malvacece. 
A highly interesting genus of free-growing 
and free-flowering shrubs, excellent both for 
the green-house and for garden decoration in 
summer. They produce white, rose, yellow, 
or orange-colored flowers, all except the white 
being veined or striped with red and crimson. 
They grow rapidly when planted in sandy 
loam, and are readily propagated by cuttings. 

Aca'cia. From akazo, to sharpen, on account 
of the prickliness of the species first noticed. 
N'at. Ord. LegitmmoscB. 

An extensive group of reaUy handsome 
plants, many of them assuming in their native 
positions the character of timber trees; but 
with us are easily accommodated in a good 
conservatory, where their bright yellow flow- 
ers, produced in winter and early spring, are 
highly ornamental. The species best deserv- 
ing of cultivation are all natives of Australia, 
New South Wales, and other temperate re- 
gions, and are among the hardiest and most 
easily cultivated of green-house plants. They 
succeed best when planted out in the green- 
house, but may be satisfactorily managed in 
pots, if grown in a sandy loam. Cuttings may 
be struck in a gentle heat under glass, though 
young plants are more easily obtained from 

Acse'na. From Akaina, a thorn ; in allusion to 
the thorns or bristles on the calyx or fruit. 
Nat. Ord. Roaacece. 

A small genus, natives of Australia and Tas- 
mania. A. microphylla is a dwarf-growing 
plant, with dark brown pinnately-divided 
leaves, growing freely in light soil ; flowers in 
globular heads in August and September. It 
is chiefly remarkable for the crimson-colored 
spines that protrude from the angles of the 
calyx. Propagation by cuttings. Introduced 
1854. Syn. A. if mice ZeaUmdice. 

Aca'lypha. From akalos, unpleasant, and aphe, 
touch. Nat. Ord. Euphorbiacece. 

This genus comprises over two hundred 
species, widely distributed over the -W^armer 


regions, several being extra-tropical Ameri- 
can. A. tricolor is a handsome green-house 
shrub with coppery-green foliage, curiously 
blotched, mottled, and splashed with red and 
crimson. It is a native of the New Hebrides. 
Introduced in 1866. A. Macafeeana, A. Mar- 
ginata, and others of the hybridized varieties, 
when well grown have highly-colored leaves, 
and as they stand the sun well, are desirable 
for vases, rustic designs, or garden decora- 
tions. They Are increased by cuttings. 

Aoantha'cese. A large order of soft- wooded 
herbaceous plants with monopetalous axillary 
flowers. In tropical regions they are very 
common, constituting a large part of the herb- 
age. One genus, however, the Acwnthua, is 
found in Greece, and two, Dianthera and 
Ruellia, are natives of this country. The 
greater part are mere weeds, but some are 
plants of great beauty, especially the species 
of Juaticia, Aphelandra, Cyrtanthera, and 
Ruellia. For the most part they are mucilag- 
inous and slightly bitter, and some are used 
in dyeing. 

Acantholi'mon. From Acanthos, a spine, and 
Umon, sea-Uvender ; referring to its leaves 
and bracts. Nat. Ord. Plumbaginacem. 

A. glwmcuxwm, the only species of interest, 
is a dense, tufty, prostrate plant, with needle- 
shaped leaves and pink flowers, closely re- 
lated to Statice, and formerly grown under the 
name of S. Ara/rati; it is well adapted for 
rock-work ; blooms in July and August. Na- 
tive of Armenia. Introduced in 1851. 

Acantbopa'naz. From acamthoa, a spine, and 
Panax ; alluding to the spiny stems andPanax- 
like aspect of the plants. Nat. Ord. Araliacea. 
A genus of green-house shrubs, natives of 
Japan, China, and tropical Asia, differing bo- 
tanically from Aralia, from which genus they 
are removed. There are about eight species, 
of which the most desirable are A. ridnifolia 
(syn. Aralia Maximowicsii) and A. spimoav/m, 
better known as Aralia pentaphylla. 

Acanthophlp'pium. A genus of terrestrial or- 
chids allied to Bletia, with large fleshy, tubu- 
lar flowers growing almost at the base of the 
leaves. The flowers are rather pretty and 
fragrant, remaining a long time in bloom. 
There are, however, so many more desirable 
orchids that they are rarely seen'in collections 
of these popular plants. 

Aoanthophoe'nix. A genus of Palms, estab- 
lished for two species, closely allied to Areca, 
from the Mascaren Islands. They do not ap- 
pear to differ from that genus except in habit. 
The stems are shorter, and the petiole and 
midrib of the leaves are armed with long fili- 
form prickles. Introduced in 1868. 

Acanthorhl'za. A small genus of Palms, 
closely allied to Chamasropa, from which, how- 
ever, they differ in having their leaves divided 
into brosid segments, and the peculiar spiny 
roots which surround the base of the stem. 
These plants are very ornamental, either for 
the conservatory or the sub-tropical garden. 

Acan'thus. From akanthoa, a spine ; some of 
the species being spiny. Nat. Ord. Acan- 

A group of stately ornamental perennial 
plants, mostly hardy, remarkable for their vig- 
orous growth and beautiful foliage. It is con- 








jectured that the leaf of A. spinosvs furnished ' 
the model for the decoration of the capitals of 
the columns in the Corinthian style of archi- 
tecture. Propagated by seeds or division of 
the roots. 

Acaulescent. With apparently no stem. 

Accessory. Something additional, not usually 

Acclimatize. To accustom a plant to live in 
the open air without protection, in a country 
where it is not indigenous. We give the 
meaning attached to the term, though we 
question the popular belief. Plants may be- 
come acclimatized in the course of ages, but 
not perceptibly in any one generation. It is 
true we can temporarily and gradually harden 
off a plant so that it will stand a great degree 
of cold, but the product of that plant, whether 
from cuttings or seeds, will not be hardier 
than the original individual. 

Accumbent. Lying against anything ; used in 
opposition to Incumbent, or lying upon some- 
thing ; a term employed in describing the em- 
bryo of Crucifers. 

A'cer. Maple. From acer, hard, or sharp ; the 
wood is extremely hard, and was formerly 
much used for making pikes and lances. Nat. 
Ord. AceracecB. 

A genus comprised for the most part of 
handsome deciduous shrubs and trees, well 
adapted for forming shrubberies, and used ex- 
tensively as shade trees. Several of the spe- 
cies produce very valuable timber. Sugar is 
one of the constituent parts of the sap in all 
of the species, and in this country large quan- 
tities of excellent sugar and syrup are manu- 
factured from the sap of the Sugar Maple, A. 
Sacetiaratum,. The beautiful varieties of A. 
Japonicum and A. palmatum, introduced by 
Mr. Thomas Hogg from Japan, form strildngly 
handsome objects for lawn decoration. The 
leaves of some of them are beautifully dis- 
sected, rivalling fern fronds in beauty, while 
many others have the richest tints of yellbW, 
pink, red and brown, giving them during the 
entire summer a rich autumnal appearance. 
They are perfectly hardy, and are increased 
by grafting on a dwarf Japanese species. A. 
negundo, or Box Elder, is now called Negwndo 
aeeroide8, or N. fraxinifolivmi, which see. 

Acera'cese. A natural order of trees and shrubs 
inhabiting Europe, the temperate parts of Asia, 
the north of India, and North America. The 
order is unknown in Africa and the southern 
hemisphere. The bark of some is astringent, 
and yields reddish-brown and yellow colors. 
The order only contains three genera, and 
rather more than fifty species, of which the 
Maple and Sycamore are well-known repre- 

A'ceras. Man Orchis. From a, without, and 
Keras, a horn; the lip having no spur. A 
very interesting genus of terrestrial orchids, 
the most singular of which is the Green Man 
Orchis, indigenous to dry, chalky pastures in 
the southeast of England. 

Acera'tes. Green Milkweed. A genus of J.8cte- 
pediacew, natives of America and Mexico. The 
leaves of A. Viridiflora, one of the most com- 
mon species, are singularly variable in form, 
ranging from obovate to lanceolate, or 


Acerose. Needle pointed ; fine and slender, with 
a sharp point. 

Acha'nia Malvavisoua. A synonym of MalvOr 
Discus arboreus, which see. 

Aohille'a. Tariow. Named in honor of Achilles, 
a pupil of Chiron, who first used it in medi- 
cine. Nat. Ord. CompoaUm. 

Free-flowering, hardy herbaceous plants, 
particularly suited to plant among rook-work, 
or in situations refused by more tender plants. 
They are chiefly European plants, and the pre- 
vailing colors of the flowers are yellow and 
white. A. miUefoliwm, or Milfoil, the common 
Yarrow, is common on our roadsides and neg- 
lected fields. A. tomentosa, of dense habit, 
is one of the best and brightest yellow flowers 
for the herbaceous border, or rock-garden. A. 
Ptarmica flore-pleno is another most useful 
hardy perennial, producing a wealth of its 
double white flowers all summer. It is also 
very useful for cutting. Called erroneously 
by some A. alba flora-plena. 

Achime'nes. From chdmaino, to suffer from 
cold, and a prefixed as an augmentive ; allud- 
ing to the tenderness of the genus. Nat. Ord. 

One of the finest of modern introductions, 
the whole of the species being splendid sum- 
mer ornaments of the greon-house or conserv- 
atory. Flowers of all shades, from white to 
crimson. The scaly bulbs or tubers require 
to be kept perfectly dormant in winter, and 
about January to be potted in light loam and 
leaf-mould, plunged into a moderate hot-bed, 
and encouraged with a warm, genial atmos- 
phere. When they have attained a few inches 
in height they may be placed several together 
in a shallow pan, or repotted separately, and 
by the end of April gradually inured to the 
temperature of the green-house, where they 
afford a blaae of beauty the whole of the sum- 
mer. They are mostly natives of Mexico and 
Guatemala, though a few have been received 
from the West Indies. 

Achyra'nthes. From ac^itron, chaff, and anthoa, 
a flower; in allusion to the chaffy nature of 
the floral leaves. Nat. Ord. Amaramthacece. 

Most of this genus are of but little value. 
Some of the species are very beautiful, and 
largely employed in ribbon-gardening, or any 
situation where plants need to be "trained," 
as they canoe made to grow in any desired 
shape or form. They require the full sunshine 
to develop their intense color. Propagated by 
cuttings. Syns. Ireaine and Chamissoa. 

Acine'ta. From akineta, immovable; the lip 
being jointless. Nat. Ord. Orchidacem. 

A small genus of curious epiphytal Orchids 
from Mexico. Flowers yellow, crimson and 
yellow, and chocolate and crimson, borne on 
slender spikes about one foot long. They are 
of easy culture, requiring a house of medium 
temperature, and to be grown in baskets of 
moss. Introduced in 1837. 

Aciphy'lla. From ake, a point, and phyllon, a 
leaf; referring to the sharply-pointed seg- 
ments of the leaf. 

A remarkable genus of UmhelUferm, differing 
only by its curious habit and spinescent char- 
acter from lAgusticum. A. Colenaoi, a native 
of New Zealand, forms a circular bush five or 
six feet in diameter, of bayonet-like spines, 
having flowering stems six to nine feet high. 



covered ■with very long spinous leaflets. Two 
species are known, botli of which are called 
Spear Grass and Wild Spaniard by the settlers. 
Propagated by seeds or divisions in spring. 
Introduced in 1875. 

A'cis. After Ads, a Sicilian shepherd. Nat. 
Ord. AmaryllidacecB. 

A genus of hardy bulbs closely allied to the 
Snowflake; propagated readily by offsets. 
They should have a sandy soil, and not be 
often divided. 

Acme'na. A small genus of green-house ever- 
green shrubs of the Nat. Ord. Myrtacece. A. 
ovata has ovate leaves, which, along with the 
stems and petioles, are dark purple, giving the 
plants when making new growth a very strik- 
ing appearance. 

Acni'da. Water Hemp. Taken from o, priva- 
tive, and knide, nettle ; the plant being like a 
Nettle, but without stings. Nat. Ord. Cheno- 

A . cannabina, the only Species, is a coarse- 
growing, uninteresting plant, common in salt 
marshes on the coast from Massachusetts to 
the Garolinas. 

Aconite. See Aconitv/m. 

Aconite, "Winter. A popular name for Eramthis 

Aconitum. Aconite, Monkshood, Wolfsbane. 
From Acone, a town in Bithynia, where found. 
Nat. Ord. RanimculacecB. 

Herbaceous perennials, chiefly natives of 
Europe, but partly of North America and Ja- 
pan. They are all hardy, and are generally 
tall-growing, handsome plants, producing 
abundance of dark blue, purple or yellow flow- 
ers. They grow freely, and are good plants 
for the open border. They are readily in- 
creased by division of the roots, which are 
generally tuberous, or by seeds. All the spe- 
cies are more or less poisonous, the poison 
being strongest in the root. Like all plants 
which grow with tall, erect stems, and pro- 
duce their flowers in terminal spikes, they are 
only suitable for growing in borders in large 
gardens, or for clumps on a lawn. The species 
may be divided into two kinds : those with the 
helinet like a monk's cowl, which are called 
Monkshood, and' those which have an elon- 
gated conical helmet, and are called Wolfs- 

Aco'ntias. A small genus of plants so named 
in allusion to the spots on the stem, which re- 
semble those of a species of serpent, so called. 
The genus belongs to the Caladium tribe 
of the Arwm family, and require the same 
treatment. Natives of Brazil. Syn. Xam- 

Acorus. Sweet Flag, Calamus. From a, priva- 
tive, and kore, the pupil of the eye ; referring 
to its medicinal qualities. Nat. Ord. Aroidece. 
A well-known genus of marsh plants, natives 
of the United States, Europe and Asia. A. 
calamua is the Sweet Flag, esteemed for its 
medicinal virtues. A. grammeua variegatua is 
a pretty species, with white-striped leaves 
forming handsome little tufts, very useful for 
hanging baskets, vases, <fcc., as well as for 

Acotyledons. Plants having no cotyledons or 
seed-lobes, as in CMscuto. In systematic bot- 
any applied to spore-bearing plants which do 


not produce cotyledons, as Ferns and Mosses ; 

also to spores themselves, which are embryos, 

without cotyledons. 
Acrade'nia. Nat. Ord. Butacece. 

A neat, compact, evergreen green-house 

plant, iiltroduced from Tasmania in 1845. A. 

PranklinuB has pure white flowers, produced 

In great profusion in terminal clusters. Leaves 

fragrant, opposite, and trifoliate. 
Acrocli'mum. From akros, top, and Mime, a 

bed ; referring to the open flowers. Nat. Ord. 

This interesting annual is one of the most 
valuable of the class known as Everlasting 
Flowers, and is grown extensively for winter 
bouquets. The seeds should be started in the 
hot-bed and transplanted where they are to 
grow. Flowers should be picked as they be- 
gin to expand, and carefully dried in the 
shade. Introduced from Western Australia 
in 1854. 

Acroco'mia. From akros, top, and home, a tuft ;. 
referring to the way the leaves are produced. 
Nat. Ord. Palmacem. 

A genus of gigantic Palms, natives of South 
America and the West Indies. Some of the 
species grow to the height of forty feet, with 
leaves fifteen feet In length, giving to the coun- 
tries they inhabit a feature of exquisite grand- 
eur. The young leaves are eaten as a vege- 
table, and the fruit, root, and stems are ap- 
plied to various economic purposes. Some of 
the species are found in our green-houses, but 
are too large for general hot-house culture. 

A'crogens. Plants increasing at the summit, 
as Ferns, etc. 

Aorony'chia. From ak'^on, tuft or summit, and 
omix, a claw, on account of the original spe- 
cies having an incurved point at the top of the 
petals. Nat. Ord. RutacecB. 

A Chirminghami, the only described species, 
is a taU handsome shrub, beaping clusters of 
white flowers of an exquisite odor, resembling 
orange blossoms, combined with the aromatic 
warmth of ginger. The leaves abound In a 
resinous or oily fluid of a powerful turpentine- 
like odor. It requires to be grown in a 
warm house, and is propagated by cuttings. 
Introduced in 1838 from Moreton Bay. 

Acrope'ra. From acros, the extremity and 
pera, a small sack ; because of the saccate ap- 
pendage at the apex of the labellum. Nat. 
Ord. OrchidacecB. 

A small genus of interesting plants from 
Mexico and Central America, producing their 
curious flowers plentifully in pendant bunches. 
A. Loddigesii is one of the more common spe- 
cies, and is a free-flowering plant of easy cul- 
ture. None of the species take a very high 
rank among Orchids. This genus is included 
under Oongora, by some botanists. 

Acro'phorus.^ From akros, summit, andpftoreo, 
to bear. Nat. Ord. PolypodiacecB. 

A small genus of handsome green-house 
Perns from Borneo and New Zealand. They 
are closely allied to Davallia and require the 
same treatment. 

Acrophy'llum. From akros, summit, and 
phyllon, a leaf ; referring to the way in which 
the leaves are produced at the summit of the 
branches above the flowers. Nat. Ord. 



A small genus of very handsome green-house 
plants, that flower profusely In the spring. 
The flowers are small, white tinged with red, 
produced in dense whorls round the upper 
part of the stem and branches. They are na- 
tives of New Holland, introduced in 1836. 
Propagated by cuttings. 

Acro'pteris. From akros, a summit, and pteris, 
a Eern. Nat. Ord. Polypodiacem. 

This beautiful Fern, allied to Asplenium, 13 
a green-house variety, readily propagated by 
division of the roots. It requires a light, 
loamy soil, with a liberal mixture of sand and 
leaf mould. A native of New Holland. 

Acros'tichum. Supposed to refer to the begin- 
ning of a verse, on account of the back sur- 
faces of the leaves being so lined as to resem- 
ble in some degree the commencement of lines 
in poetry. Nat. Ord. Polypodiacem. 

An interesting genus of tropical Perns, that 
succeed well in a mixture of loam and leaf 
mould. The species having long fronds, are 
admirably adapted for growing on blocks or 
in hanging baskets, and the dwarfer sorts do 
well in Wardian cases. Increased by division 
of roots, or by seed. Fii-st introduced from 
the West Indies in 1792. According to some 
botanists the genus now includes -AcoTiiopteris, 
Chrysodium, Egenolphia, Elaphoglossum, Cfym- 
nopteris, Olfersia, Polybotrya, Hhipidopteris, 
Soromanes, Stenochkena and Stenosemia. 

Actae'a. Baneberry. From aktara, the Elm; 
resemblance of the leaves. Nat. Ord. Ranun- 

A genus of hardy herbaceous perennials, of 
but little beauty; common in rich woods in the 
Northern Statea. The berries are poisonous. 

Actini'dia. From actin, a ray ; the styles radi- 
ate like the spokes of a wheel. Nat. Crd. 
TemstromiiacecB. A genus of ornamental, 
hardy, deciduous, climbing shrubs, with en- 
tire leaves and axillary corymbs of white 
flowers. A. polygama is a vigorous and ele- 
gant perfectly hardy climber, with white 
sweet-scented flowers much resembling the 
Hawthorn, followed by bunches of edible 
berries. It was introduced from Japan in 
1870, and is propagated by seeds, lajers or 

A'ctiuo'ineris. From aldin, a ray, and meria, a 
part referring to the radiated aspect of the 
plants. Nat. Ord. CompoaitcB. Hardy orna- 
mental plants, allied to Helianthvs, with yel- 
low Coreopsis-like flower heads; natives of 
this country, sometimes cultivated. 

A'ctinio'pteris. From aktin, a ray, and pteris, 
a Fern ; the fronds are radiately cut into nar- 
row segments. Nat. Ord. FiUees. A small 
genus of neat and distinct Stove Ferns. The 
fronds of A. radiata, grow three to five inches 
high, divided inwards from the margin and is 
a perfect miniature of the Fan Palm, Livis- 
tonai Ohinensia. 

Aculeate. Furnished with prickles, as dis- 
tinguished from spines. 

Acuminate. A term applied to leaves or other 
flat bodies which narrow gradually till they 
form a long termination. If the narrowing 
takes place toward the base, it is so stated, 
as, acuminate at the base ; if toward the point, 
the term is used without qualification. 

Acute. Sharp pointed. 


Nat. Ord. 

A'da. A complimentary name. 

A. aurantiaca, the only species, Is a beauti- 
ful epiphytal Orchid, found in high latitudes in 
New Grenada. It has broad, evergreen foli- 
age, and long terminal nodding racemes of 
orange-scarlet flowers, lasting a long time in 
perfection. It is a free-growing plant, and 
should have a cool, airy situation in the 
Orchid-house. It is increased by division. 
Introduced in 1844. 

Adam and Eve. See Aplectrum. 

Ada'mia. Named in honor of John Adam, some 
time Governor General of India. Nat. Ord. 

A small genus of green-house evergreen 
shrubs, natives of China and the East Indies. 
A. veraieolor, one of the most beautiful of the 
few known species, is a native of China, and 
formn a dwarf smooth-branched shrub, fur- 
nished with large opposite leaves, resembling 
those of Hydrangea japonica. The flowers are 
produced in a pyramidal panicle nearly a foot 
in diameter, whitish while in bud, but grad- 
ually change to purple and violet. Propa- 
gated by cuttings. Introduced in 1844. 

Adam's Apple. The fruit of Muaa paradiaiaca. 

Adam's Needle. See Yucca. 

Adam's Needle and Thread. Yucca JUamentoaa. 

Ad2uiso'nia. Baobab Tree. Named in honor of 
Michel Adamaon, a famous French botanist and 
author, born in 1727. Nat. Ord. Sterculiacece. 
A. digitata (called Monkey Bread) is a native 
of Western Africa, and is also accredited to 
Egypt and Abyssinia. Previous to the dis- 
covery of the Sequoia in California, the Adan- 
sonia, or Baobab, as it is popularly called, was 
considered the largest tree in the world, some 
specimens being found thii-ty feet in diameter. 
At the height of twenty feet, the trunks sepa- 
rate into branches forty to fifty feet long and 
the size of great trees, with their remote 
branches touching the ground. The roots for 
a long distance are exposed, some of them 
measuring more than a hundred feet in length 
on the surface. How much longer they are,- 
unexposed, could not readily be ascertained. 
The fruit is gourd-shaped, and is from nine to 
twelve inches long, and about four in diameter. 
The pulp is farinaceous and fibrous, and when 
ripe has a refreshing, acid taste. Eaten with 
sugar it is both pleasant and wholesome. The 
negroes on the western coast apply the trunks 
of these trees to a very extraordinary purpose. 
The tree is liable to be attacked by a fungus, 
which, vegetating in the woody part, without 
changing the color or appearance, destroys 
life, and renders the part so attacked as soft 
as the pith of trees in general. Such trunks 
are then hollowed into chambers, and within 
these are suspended the dead bodies of those 
to whom are refused the honor of burial. 
There they become mummies, perfectly dry, 
and well preserved, without further prepara- 
tion or embalming, and are known by the name 

Adder's Mouth. The common name of the Mi- 
croatylia, a small bulbous plant, common in 
moist woods southward. 

Adder's Tongue. A name applied to the Ery- 
throniwm Americamwn, and also to the Fern, 
OpMogloaaum vulgatum. 




Adena'ndra. Prom aden, a gland, and aner, the 
stamen or male organ ; referring to the aspect 
of the anthers. Nat. Ord. Rutace(B. 

A somewhat extensive genus of green-house 
evergreen shrubs from the Cape of Good Hope. 
Some of them are cultivated for their large 
terminal corymbs of bright pink flowers, which 
are produced in June. All the species are in- 
creased by cuttings of the young wood. Intro- 
duced in 1812. 

Adenanthe'ra. The name is derived from aden, 
a gland, and anthera, an anther, in allusion to 
a gland on each anther. Nat. Ord. Legumi- 

A small genus of handsome tropical ever- 
green trees. A. pavonia grows to a great size 
in the East Indies, and yields a solid, useful 
timber, called Red Sandal wood. A dye is 
obtained by simply rubbing the wood against 
a wet stone ; and this is used by the Brahmins 
for marking their foreheads after religious 
bathing. The seeds are of a bright scarlet 
color, and are used by the jewellers in the 
East as weights, each seed weighing uniformly 
four grains. 

Adeua'nthos. Prom aden, a gland, and anthos, 
a flower ; referring to the glands on the flow- 
ers. Nat. Ord. Proteacew. 

Ornamental evergreen pilose shrubs with 
red flowers, natives of New Holland. Prop- 
agated by cuttings. Pirst introduced in 

Adenoca'rpus. Prom aden, a gland, and karpos, 
fruit; referring to the glands on the fruit. 
Nat. Ord. Leguminosoe. 

This genus is allied to Cytisvs, and furnishes 
some remarkably handsome plants because of 
their profuse racemes of yellow flowers. A. 
hispamicus is a low, compact, rigid bush, re- 
markable for the number of its short lateral 
branches. It is very common on the hillsides 
of Southern Europe. A. decorticans is a beau- 
tiful evergreen shrub with bright yellow flow- 
ers, having the general appearance of Purze. 
It was introduced from Spain in 1883. 

Adeno'phora. A genus of hardy herbaceous 
perennials, allied to Campanula. The flowers 
are bell-shaped, and produced in branching 
panicles. They are readily increased by seeds, 
but will not bear division, and dislilie being 
removed. Flowers blue. Native of Siberia. 

Ade'smia.- An extensive genus of South Amer- 
ican plants, belonging to the Nat. Ord. Lfigu- 
minosm. They are mostly plants of but little 
interest. A. balsamifera, a Chilian species, 
called Jarilla, is a plant of great beauty when 
in flower. It yields a balsam which has a very 
pleasant odor, perceptible at a great distance. 

Adha'toda. Native name. Nat. Ord. Acan- 

A small genus of green-house shrubs, na- 
tives of India. The few species composing 
this genus were formerly included in Jvstida. 
One of the more common species, A. vasica, 
was formerly called Jvstida Adhatoda. A. 
eydcmicefoUa produces its flowers in panicles 
at the point of every branch. They are of a 
rich purple color, the large lower lip having a 
white stripe in the centre. It is very showy 
when in bloom, and makes an excellent plant 
for training up pillars or rafters. They bear 
a close resemblance to the Juaticias, and re- 
quire the same treatment. 


Adia'ntese. A section of polypodiaceous Perns, 
in which the 'receptacles to which the spore 
cases are attached are -placed on the under 
surface of the indusium itself, so that the 
fructiflcatlon is, as it were, upside down, and 
is hence said to be resupinate. 

Adi'anto'psis. From adiantum and opsis, like ; 
resembling the Maiden-hair. Nat. Ord. Poly- 

A small genus of elegant little Perns from 
South America, the West Indies, and Africa. 
A. radiata, one of the best known species, is 
common in the West Indies. The fronds rise 
about a foot high from a tufted crown, and 
radiate in a regular manner from a common 
center. The species are often seen in cultiva- 
tion, on account of their small size and elegant 
character. Propagated from seed. Some au- 
thorities now place this genus under GheiU 



Adia'ntum. Haiden-hair Fern. Prom adiantos, 
dry ; the smooth foliage repelling rain-drops. 
Nat. Ord. Polypodiacem. 

Of this extensive and much-admired genus 
of Ferns, this country furnishes but one va- 
riety, A. pedatv/m, our common Maiden-hair, 
which grows in moist woods in nearly every 
section. Taken up in early spring and trans- 
planted into shady corners of our gardens, it 
grows readily, and is indispensable in the nat- 
ural arrangement of flowers in vases or bas- 
kets. Some of the exotic species of this genus 
may safely be pronounced the most beautiful 
Perns known, which is a very broad assertion. 
In view of the very many rare and beautiful 
plants to be found in this natural order. All 
doubts, however, of the truth of the assertion 
will be removed when we see a well-grown 
plant of A. Farleyenae in the fern-house. This 
interesting plant is a native of Barbadoes, 
whence it was introduced in 1864. It is the 
most distinct and beautiful of all the Maiden- 
hair Ferns, and the most difficult to grow to 
perfection. It requires a warm, moist atmos- 
phere. A. yracillimum and A. cuneaium are 
magnificent plants, and are grown in large 
numbers, the young plants, as well as the cut 
fronds, being used extensively in floral decora- 
tion. There are many other rare species under 
cultivation. The growing of this genus from 
spores has for a long time been practiced, and 
the several species, with the exception of Far- 
leyense, have been increased at a rapid rate in 
this way. But getting new varieties from 
spores, after hybridizing some of the finer spe- 
cies, is a new and unexpected result that has 
been achieved in a most astonishing and satis- 
factory manner by P. Koenbeck, of Bayonne, 
N. J. , who has not only given us several varie- 
ties, but one, A. Roenbeckii, which bears his 
name, that is, without exception, the most 
useful as well as the most graceful of any yet 
introduced. The fronds are erect, with a me- 
tallic luster, combined with the delicacy and 
grace of the finer species. It is well adapted 
for specimen culture, and is particularly useful 
in the arrangement of cut flowers, and when 
so used looks like a lace veil hung over the 
flowers. This variety was first exhibited in 

Adlu'mia. Mountain Fringe. Dedicated by 
Eaflnesque to Major Adlum, an American au- 
thor. Nat. Ord. Mumariacem. 


S- I, 

V. 1. -W-; ■■•■> - ■-■it. -i J^i/>:JkirJ, 












This beautiful climber is a hardy biennial, 
growing in moist -woods in New Yorlc and the 
Alleghany Mountains of Virginia. It is com- 
monly called Fumitory, AUeghany Vine, and 
various other local names. It grows readily 
from seed, which should be sown in May, near 
a trellis or arbor. The plants will flower 
freely, without further care, the following 
5, season. 

Adnata. Grown to anything by the whole sur- 
face ; when an ovary is united to the side of 
the calyx, it is adnate. 

Ado'nis. Name of classical derivation. Nat. 
Ord. Ranunculacem. 

Herbaceous plants with showy flowers, na- 
tives of Europe, and of easy culture in any 
soil. The most ornamental species are A. ver- 
nalia, the spring-flowering Adonis, a perennial 
with bright yellow flowers, which is quite 
hardy, and is easily increased- by division of 
the root ; and A. aatumnalis, the common an- 
nual Flos Adonis, or Pheasant's Eye, with darii 
crimson flowers. The annual kinds should be 
sown in autumn, as they will stand the winter 
in the open air ; or in February or March, as 
they are a long time in coming up. 

Adventitious. A term used to denote some 
part or organ that is developed in an unusual 
position ; as the leaf-buds that appear on va- 
rious parts of the surface of the stem, instead 
of being confined, as is generally the case, to 
the axils of the leaves. Applied also to roots, 
etc. ; for example, the Ivy throws out adventi- 
tious roots from along the stems, by which it 
clings to walls or trees for support. 

Adverse. Opposite. 

iE'chmea. From aichme, a point ; in reference 
to the rigid points on the oalices, or flower en- 
velopes. Nat. Ord. BromeliacecB. 

A small genus of tropical plants, often epi- 
phytal, growing on the trunks of trees in the 
dense forests. They have strap, or sword- 
shaped, leaves, and i)roduce panicles of bril- 
liant scarlet flowers. Propagated by division 
of the suckers or offsets. First introduced in ' 

2!gi'ceras. From aix, a, goat, and keros, a horn ; 
alluding to the shape of the fruit. Nat. Ord. 

Small trees with obovate entire leaves and 
white fragrant flowers. ^. fragrans is a stout 
green-house evergreen milky shrub, flowering 
in April. Introduced from New Holland in 

^'gilopa. Goat's eye. Supposed to be useful 
for a disease of one corner of the eye ; hence 
the name. Nat. Ord. OraminacecB. 

A genus of grasses allied to I'riticmn, or 
Wheat grass. It occurs wild in the South of 
Europe and parts of Asia. It has been held 
that the seeds of this plant may be changed 
into wheat by cultivation ; and that the ancient 
worship of Ceres, which considered the fields 
of Enna and of Trinacoria as the crailles of 
agriculture, had its origin in this transforma- 
tion of the native grass. Professor Latopie, 
of Bordeaux, affirms that, having cultivated 
the seed of the JEgilops, the plant has changed 
its generic character, and has made approaches 
to that of wheat. Other specific botanists 
have made the same assertion, giving the re- 
sults of their various experiments. It is, how- 


ever, but just to say that but little credit has 
been given to these statements. We prefer to 
believe wheat to have been a special creation, 
rather than to have evolved from an inferior 

X'gle. Bengal Quince. From u^gle one of the 
Hesperides. Nat. Ord. Butaceoe. 

jE, Marmeloa, the only species, is a native 
of the East Indies, where it is highly esteemed 
for the fragrance of its orange-like flowers, 
and for its delicious fruit, which also, possesses 
an aperient quality which is particularly ser- 
viceable in habicual costiveness. Not only the 
fruit, but other portions of the plant are used 
for medicinal purposes; and a yellow dye is 
prepared from the rind of the fruit. 

iCgopo'dium. Gout weed. Bishop-weed. An 
umbelliferous plant with smooth thrice temate 
leaves and white flowers, propagating itself by 
creeping root-stocks, which, like our native 
bind weed are singularly vivacious, so that 
when once it gets established, it is very diffi- 
cult to eradicate. A great pest in British and 
Continental gardens. A very pretty varie- 
gated variety is in cultivation, as a border 

Aeration. The exposure of the soil to the free 
action of the air, as essential to the growth of 

Aerial. Plants or parts of plants which grow 
entirely above the surface of the earth or 

Ae'rides. From aer, tne air ; in reference to the 
power they have of living on air. Nat. Ord. 

A splendid genus of East Indian epiphytal 
Orchids, remarkable for their beautiful white, 
pink, or rose-colored, fragrant flowers, and for 
their rich evergreen foliage. The general ap- 
pearance of these plants, their wonderful tenac- 
ity of life, the remarkable property they pos- 
sess of imbibing the whole of their nutriment 
from the, atmosphere, without the intervention 
of any kind of earth, and the elegance and rich 
perfume of their flowers, combine to make 
them objects of universal admiration. They 
require to be grown in a high temperature and 
a very moist atmosphere. The more popular 
species are of quite recent introduction. 

iEschyna'nthus. From aischwno, to be ashamed, 
and anihoa, a flower. Nat. Ord. <xesneracem. 

A beautiful genus of tropical epiphytal plants. 
The species are chiefly found in tropical Asia 
and the East Indies, and may properly be 
classed with the most gorgeous green-house 
plants. They have mostly pendant stems, op- 
posite fleshy leaves, and scarlet or orange-scar- 
let flowers. One of the finer species, ^. spec- 
iosus is a native of Java. It is of sub-erect 
habit, with fascicles of about twenty erect, 
long-tubed flowers, of rich orange-yellow below 
and passing into scarlet at the top, with yel- 
low and black markings. ^. grcmdiflorus, has 
orange-scarlet flowers with a band of bright 
scarlet round the entrance of the tube. j^. 
longiflorus, with bright crimson and ^. 
Lobbianus, with scarlet flowers, both intro- 
duced from Java, are of the same general 
habit. All the species are admirably adapted 
for hanging baskets, and require to be grown 
in considerable heat and moisture. First in- 
troduced in 1845. 




aS'sculua. Horse Chestnut, Buckeye. From 
esca, nourishment; referring to the ground 
flour from the kernels of some species. Nat. 
Ord. Sapindacem. 

A genus of hardy ornamental deciduous 
trees, too well known to need description. 
^.Hippocastanum, the common Horse Chest- 
nut, is a native of Asia, introduced into our 
nurseries from Europe at an early day. ^. 
glabra (Buckeye) is a large growing tree, com- 
mon South and "West, particularly in Ohio, 
whence the name Buckeye State. ^. fiava, 
the Sweet Buckeye, and j^. pavia, the Red 
Buckeye, are shrubs or small trees, natives of 
Virginia, and West and South. .<®. Califomica 
is a beautiful, large, spreading shrub, the most 
ornamental of the whole genus. Its flowers 
are rose-colored, in racemes, about six inches 
long, and are produced in great abundance 
from June till July. All the species are prop- 
agated by seeds. See Pavia. 

iEstivation. The manner of folding the calyx 
and corolla in the flower bud. 

.Sithione'ma. From aitho, to scorch, and nema, 
a filament ; in reference to some burnt appear- 
ance in the stamens. Nat. Ord. Crudferm. 

This is a beautiful genus of the Arabis family, 
but differs fx'om the greater number of the 
Crucifers in light elegant habit and wiry stems, 
and usually glaucous leaves. They are mostly 
found on sunny mountains near the Mediter- 
ranean, particularly eastward, and are especi- 
ally valuable for gardens, forming stronger 
and more free-flowering tufts in cultivation 
than in a wild state. ^. grandiflorum forms a 
spreading bush about a foot high, from which 
spring numerous racemes of pink and lilac 
flowers. It is a true perennial, growing well 
in the ordinary border, but from its prostrate, 
spreading habit, it is best adapted for the rock- 
garden, when the roots may descend into deep 
earth, and the stems fall gracefully over the 
rocks. The species are easily raised from seed, 
and thrive well in ordinary sandy loam. The 
best known kinds are ^. coridifolium, pul- 
chellum, and grandiflorum. 

iEthu'sa. Fool's Parsley. Tlie name alludes to 
the acridity of the plants, and is derived from 
aithusso, to heat or make hot. Nat. Ord. Um- 

Quite a hardy species of little beauty. The 
stem and leaves of JE. Cynapium, are poison- 
ous and contain a peculiar alkali called 

African Almond. Brabeium Stellaiifolium. 

African Lily. See Agapanthus. 

African Iiotus. Zizyphus Lotus. 

African Marigold. See Tagetea ereda. 

African Oak and Teak. Vitex Doniana, 

Aga'lmyla. From agalma, an ornament, and 
hMte, a forest. Nat. Ord. Oesneraceos. 

A small genus of beautiful green-house or hot- 
house plants from the islands of the Eastern 
Archipelago. A. staminea is a very handsome 
plant, epiphytal in habit, creeping and rooting 
on the trunks of trees. It has very strong 
stems, large, fleshy. Gloxinia-like leaves, and 
axillai-y fascicles of from twelve to fifteen 
flowers each, tubular-shaped, two inches long, 
bright scarlet. Propagated by cuttings. 

Agami'sia. From aganoa, desirable ; in reference 
to the beauty of these neat little plants. Nat. 


Ord. OrchidacecB. A. pulcheUa is a very prettj 
and rare orchid, a native of Demarara. It 
blossofiis at different times of the year and 
lasts two or three weeks in perfection. The 
flowers are white, with a blotch of yellow in 
the centre of the lip. A. cmrulea, introduced 
from Brazil in 1876, has beautiful dark-blue 
flowers, the lip blotched with violet. They 
require a warm, moist temperature, and suc-« 
ceed best when grown on blocks of wood or 

Aganos'ma. From aganoa, mild, and oame, scent 
of flowers. Nat. Ord. Apocynacem. A genus 
of shrubby climbing plants, with opposite 
leaves, and terminal corymbs of large funnel- 
shaped white, yellow, or purple flowers. Na- 
tives of India, they require a warm green- 
house and thrive best in a compost of loam, 
leaf-mould and sand. Propagated by cuttings. 

Agapan'thus. From agape, love, and anthoa, a 
flower. Nat. Ord. LitiacecB. 

■The Blue African Lily, A. wmbellaius, is a 
noble plant, with thick, fleshy roots, and re- 
tains its leaves all the winter. There is a 
variety with striped leaves. A. albidus has 
white flowers, but it does not differ from the 
common kind in any other respect. The Afri- 
can Lilies all require a loamy soil, enriched 
with rotted manure, and they should be fully 
exposed to the light. The plants are always 
large before they flower ; and when the flower- 
stalks appear, the plant should be in a large 
pot, so that the roots may have plenty of 
room. They should be abundantly supplied 
with water, taking care, however, not to let 
any remain in a stagnant state about the 
roots. Thus treated, this plant will frequent- 
ly send up a flower-stalk above three feet high,, 
crowned with twenty or thirty flowers, which 
will open in succession. It flowers in sum- 
mer, and forms a noble ornament to an archi- 
tectural terrace, and is also a fine object on a 

Agape'tes. From agapetoa, beloved, in refer- 
ence to the showy character of the plant. Nat. 
Ord. VacdniacecB. A genus of evergreen 
shrubs with alternate leathery leaves. Na- 
tives of India. Several species are in cultiva- 
tion, one of the best of which A. buxifolia, has- 
beautiful bright red flowers about an inch 
long. It forms an interesting and effective- 
green-house plant. 

Aga'ricus. Mushrooms. Derived from Agaria,. 
the name of a town in Sarmatia. Nat. Ord. 

This, the most extensive genus in the veg- 
etable kingdom, is divided jnto several 
groups. Some of the species are very beauti- 
ful in form and color. Many of them are 
poisonous and some of the species virulently 
so, while others notably A. campestria the 
common field Mushroom is not only edible, 
but is esteemed a great delicacy. See Mush- 

Agathae'a. Blue Daisy. From agathoa, excel- 
lent ; in reference to the beauty of the flowers. 
Nat. Ord. CompositcB. 

A. cmleatis, a native of the Cape of Good 
Hope, is a neat green-house plant, somewhat 
resembling the Gazania in foliage and shape 
of flower. As it blooms profusely, and the 
color is a rare and beautiful shtide of blue, 
which contrasts linely with the golden yellow 




disk, it is rouoh valued as an ingredient in 
winter bouquets. It is a neat plant, and the 
peculiar color (mazarine blue) is very unusual 
in this class of plants. Propagated by cut- 

A'gathophy'Uum. Madagascar Nutmeg. Prom 
agathoa, pleasant, and phyllon, a leaf. Nat. 
Ord. LauracecR. A. aromatiaum is a warm 
green-house evergreen shrub of economic 
value only. The fruit is aromatic, but en- 
closes a kernel of an acrid, caustic taste, 
known as Madagascar Clove Nutmeg. 

Aga've. American Aloe. Century Plant. From 
agauoa, admirable, referring to the stately 
form in which some of them flower. Nat. 
Ord. AmaryllidacecB. 

This genus is described by B. S. Wil- 
liams as follows: "They are noble, mas- 
sive growing plants, and form magnificent 
ornaments in the green-house or conserva- 
tory; whilst, from their slow growth they 
do not rapidly get too large, even for a 
small green-house. Indeed some of the real 
gems of this genus are neat, compact-growing 
plants, seldom exceeding two feet in height. 
Besides being fine ornamental plants for in- 
door decoration, the larger growing kinds are 
unquestionably the finest objects for the em- 
bellishment of terrace walks, or surmounting 
flights of steps in the open air during the sum- 
mer season, and also for plunging in rock- 
work, or about any rustic nooks in the pleas- 
ure grounds, as, in such situations, they are 
quite in keeping, and thrive admirably. As 
Is well known, they attain maturity very 
slowly; but when this condition is reached, 
the plant sends up a flower-spike, and after 
perfecting this, dies." Anumber of the dwarfer 
growing apecies, such as A. applanata, A. 
attenuata, A. Celaiana, A.fiUfera, A. Salmiana. 
A. Victoriw Regina, and many others, are 
much used in sub-tropical gardening, and for 
bedding out on lawns, et-., during summer. 
A. Americana, is a splendid decorative plant, 
a native of South America introduced to cul- 
tivation in 164:0. The varieties with striped 
foliage are considered the most desirable as 
ornamental plants. It was at one time a pre- 
vailing idea that this plant only flowered once in 
a hundred years ; but this is found now to be a 
popular error. If given sufficient heat, it will 
flower when ten or twelve years old. The 
flower stem rises from the center of the plant 
to a height of about thirty feet, bearing an 
immense number of yellowish-green flowers, 
after perfecting which the plant perishes. 
New plants are formed around the base of the 
old one in the form of suckers. It furnishes 
a variety of products ; the plants form impen- 
etrable fences; the leaves furnish fibers of 
various qualities, from that used in the finest 
thread to that in the strongest rope cables; 
the juice, when the watery partis evaporated, 
forms a good soap, and will mix and form a 
lather with salt water as well as fresh ; a very 
intoxicating drink is also made from the juice, 
as well as other preparations of a similar 
nature; the leaves are made into razor- 
strops, and are also used in scouring all sorts 
of culinary utensils. Over one hundred spe- 
cies' have been described, but according to 
Bentham and Hooker, not over fifty are suf- 
ficiently distinct to rank as such. They are 


distributed over South America, Mexico, and 
the Southern States. 
Agera'tum. From a not, and geraa, old; in 
reference to the flowers being always clear. 
Nat. Ord. ComposUm. A. Mexiccmum, the type 
of this genus is a well known occupant of our 
flower borders. It bears a profusion of lilac- 
blue flowers all season, and is very useful for 
cutting. Several very dwarf varieties of it 
have originated under cultivation which are 
very useful in ribbon and carpet bedding. A 
variegated form is also cultivated for its 
pretty foliage. Syn. Codestina. 

Agglomerate. Collected into a heap or head. 

Aglai'a. From Aglaia, one of the Graces. Nat. 
Ord. MeliacecE. 

A genus of evergreen trees or shrubs, hav- 
ing very small flowers, borne in axUlary pani- 
cles. The leaves are showy and finely divided. 
It contains about nineteen species, natives of 
China, and the Malay and Pacific Islands. A. 
odorata has small yellow flowers, very sweet- 
scented, said to be used by the Chinese to 
scent their teas. 

Aglamo'rpha. Prom aglaos, beautiful, and mor- 
pha, a form. Nat. Ord. Polypodiacem. 

A. Meyeniana, the only species, is a beauti- 
ful herbaceous Fern, a native of the Philip- 
pine Islands. It is propagated by division or 
from spores, and requires the same treatment 
as Polypodium, under which genus it is in- 
cluded by some authors. 

Aglaone'ma. Prom aglaos, bright, and nema, a 
thread ; supposed to refer to the shining sta- 
mens. Nat. Ord. AroidecB. 

A genus of stove-house plants, allied' to 
Arum, with entire leaves and white fragrant 

Agnes, St., Flower. See Leuay'um. 

Agno'stus. A synonym of Stenocarpua, which 

Ago'nis. From agon, a gathering, a collection ; 
in allusion to the number of the seeds. Nat. 
Ord. Myrtacece. 

A genus of evergreen shrubs or small trees, 
natives of Western Australia. The flowers 
are white, rather small, in dense globose axil- 
lary, or terminal heads. The species are still 
rare in cultivation, and will undoulitedly prove 
hardy south of Washington. Propagated by 

Agrimo'nia. Agrimony. A corruption of Arge- 
m,one. Nat. Ord. RosacecB. 

A small genus of yellow-flowered, weedy 
plants, common throughout the United States. 
The larger flowered, or common Agrimony, is 
a native of Europe, but has become pretty 
generally naturalized. They are plants of but 
little interest. 

Agroste'mma. Hose Campion. From agros, a 
field-, and strmma, a crown ; referring to the 
beauty of the flower. Nat. Ord. Oaryophyl- 

A. coronaria is a hardy perennial, introduced 
from Russia in 1834. Suitable for border 
plants, their showy white and red flowers con- 
trasting finely with shrubbery. Propagated 
by division of roots or by seeds. A . ccelProaea, 
or Hose of Heaven, is a favorite annual spe- 
cies, with delicate rose, white or purple flow- 
ers. It should be grown in groups. 




Agro'stis. Bent Grass, Red Top. This is the 
Greek name for all grasses, from agroa, a field. 
Nat. Ord. QraminaceoB. 

A well-known genus o£ grasses, including 
A. canina, the Rhode Island Bunt Grass ; A. 
stolonifera, the Creeping Bent Grass, and A. 
vulgaris, the common Red Top. These species 
have all been introduced &om Europe, but are 
now thoroughly naturalized in this country. 
A. pulahella and A. nebulosa are both very del- 
icate, feather-like annual grasses, valuable for 
bouquetrmaking and for winter decorative 

Ague Root. A common name for Aletrisfarinosa. 

Ague Tree. Lauras Sassafras. 

Ague Weed, Indian. Eupatorium perfoliatum. 

Aila'ntus. From ailanto, Tree of Heaven, refer- 
ring to its lofty growth. Nat. Ord. Xantho- 

Deciduous trees of rapid growth, natives of 
China. They were at one time extensively 
planted as street trees, and should not now be 
so generally discarded, as they will thrive well 
in cities and barren soils, making a beautiful 
shade tree, as well as valuable timber. The 
only objection that has ever been made to 
them is the unpleasant odor of their flowers. 
That objection can be easily avoided. This 
tree is dioecious, and is rapidly increased by 
root-cuttings. By taking cuttings from the 
female plant, the flowers of which are inodor- 
ous, they can be increased to any extent. 

Ai'ra. Hair Grass. The Hair Grass is named 
from the Greek, and signifies to destroy ; but 
why it has received this unwelcome name is 
apparently uncertain. Nat. Ord. Graminacem. 
There are several species common to this 
country and Europe. A. ccBspUosa is typical of 
the genus, a very handsome Grass, the flowers 
of which are well adapted for decoration, being 
very graceful. It will flourish in almost any 
situation, but prefers damp fields, where it 
forms large tufts, known as "hassocks," and 
as it is noc eateu by cattle except when nothing 
else can be procured, a field in which it abounds 
has a singularly unsightly, and to farmers un- 
welcome appearance. 

Air Plants. These are plants that grow on 
trees, or other objects, and not in the earth, 
deriving their nutriment from the atmosphere. 
The term was formerly, and Is still to some 
extent, applied to epiphytal Orchids. There 
are, however, many other families of air 
plants. The clariS is to be distinguished from 
the various parasites that have no roots in 
the earth, but derive their nourishment di- 
rectly from the plants on which they grow. 

Aito'nia. In honor of W. Ailon, once Head 
Gardener at Kew. Nat. Ord. MeliacecB. 

A small and interesting evergreen shrub 
from the Cape of Good Hope, bearing pink 
flowers. Introduced in 1777. 

A'jax. A subdivision of the genus Narcissus, 
including the common Daffodil, and other spe- 
cies having a long trumpet-shaped coronet to 
the flowers. 

Aju'ga. Bugle. From a, privative, and zugon, 
a yoke ; in reference to the calyx being one- 
leaved. Nat. Ord. Labiatce. 

A small genus of hardy annual and peren- 
nial herbaceous plants. A. reptams (common 
Bugle) has been Introduced into the garden. 


and given a position in massing and ribbon 
borders of plants for its dark-colored foliage. 
The species were at one time highly esteemed 
for the medicinal properties they were sup- 
posed to possess. "Ruellus writeth that they 
commonly said in France, howe he needeth 
neither physician nor surgeon that hathe Bugle 
and Sanicle, for it not only cureth woundes, 
being inwardly taken, but also applied to them 
outwardly." — Gerarde. They aie propagated" 
readily from seed. 

Akaz'za. The name of an ordeal poison used 
in the Gaboon country, supposed to be the 
product of a species of Strychnos. 

Ake'bia. The name it bears in Japan. Nat. 
Ord. Lardizdbalacem. 

A. quinata was introduced from China, in 
1844, by Robert Fortune. It is a hardy 
climber, of rapid growth, suitable for large 
arbors or trellises, in sunny or shady situa- 
tions. It wUl twine around old trees, com- 
pletely covering the branches, from which it 
will hang in graceful festoons. The color of 
the flower is dark brown, and it is very sweet- 
scented. In a light, rich soil it will grow to 
the height of thirty feet. It is propagated 
readily by layering or cuttings. 

Alatus. Furnished with a thin wing or expan- 

Albi'zzia. Named after an Italian. Nat. Ord. 

A small genus of ornamental green-house 
plants, very like Aca,cias, to which they are 
often referred. The plant so well known as 
Acacia lophantha is placed under this genus. 

Albu'ca. From albus, white, referring to the 
prevalence of wnite flowers in the genus (not 
a very happy allusion, though, because the 
flowers are mostly green). Nat. Ord. JAliacem. 
This is a genus of but little beauty, closely 
allied to the Omiihogalum, introduced from 
the Cape of Good Hope about 1750. They are 
tender bulbous plants, easily cultivated in the 
green-house, grown in pots in light, sandy 
soil. They flower in May and June. 

Albumen. The matter that is interposed be- 
tween the skin of a seed and the embryo. 
It is of a farinaceous, oily or horny con- 
sistency, and surrounds the embryo wholly 
or in part, and affords nourishment to the 
young plant during the earliest stages of 

Alburnum. The white and softer part of wood, 
between the inner bark and heart-wood, com- 
monly known as sap-wood; the young wood 
before it comes to a proper consistence. 

Alohemi'lla. A genus of herbaceous annual or 
perennial plants, belonging to the natui'al or- 
der Rosacece. All the species have lobed leaves 
and inconspicuous yellow or greenish flowers. 
A. vulgaris, the common Lady's Mantle, is fre- 
quent in English woods and wet pastures. 

Alder. See Alnus. 

Alder, Black. The popular name for Prinoa 

Alder, Red. Cunonia Capensis. 

Alder, White. The popular name for Clethra 

Ale-cost. An old English name for Pyrethrum 
Tanacetum, commonly known as Balaamita wd- 
garia, the Costmary of Gardens. 




Ale'tris. Colic-root. Star-grass. From aletron, 
meal; referring to the powdery appearance of 
the -whole plant. Nat. Ord. Hosmodoracea. 

There are but two species included in this 
genus, both natives of the United States, and 
pretty generally distributed. A. farinoaa is 
highly esteemed for its medicinal properties, 
and is a very pretty plant for the border. It 
Is a herbaceous perennial, the leaves growing 
in a close tuft, from which arises a flower-stem 
from one to three feet high, terminating in a 
spiked raceme of small, white, oblong, bell- 
shaped flowers. Propagated by division or by 

Aleuri'tes. Prom the Greek word, signifying 
flour, all the parts of the plant seeming to be 
dusted with It. Nat. Ord. Eaphorbiacem. 

A. triloba is a handsome evergreen tree, with 
small white clustered flowers. It is a native of 
the Moluccas and the Southern Pacific Islands, 
andisloommonly cultivated in tropical countries 
for the sake of its nuts, which, when dried, 
are stuck on a reed and used as candles, and 
as an article of food in New Georgia. It is of 
easy culture, and is propagated freely by out- 

Aleurito'pteris. A genus of Perns, now joined 
with Cheilcmlhes. 

Alfalfa or Lucerne (Medicago ScUiva). Though 
this has been a favorite forage plant in some 
parts of the Old World for hundreds of years, 
it-is not surprising that in a country so wide- 
spread and diversified as the United States, a 
crop that is so valued in some localities is un- 
known in others. 

The great value of Alfalfa is in its enormous 
yield of sweet and nutritious forage, which is 
highly relished by stock either when green or 
cured into hay. It will gr<.)w and yield abun- 
dantly in hot, dry sections, and on poor, light 
and sandy land, where no grasses can 
be grown, for it sends its roots down to 
enormous depths, they having been found in 
sandy soil 13 feet long ; consequently it con- 
sumes food, moisture, and the leach of fer- 
tilizers from depths entirely beyond the action 
of drought or heat, and which have been for 
years beyond the reach of ordinary plants. 

Alfalfa greatly enriches the soil even more 
than ordinary Clovers, as it derives a very 
large portion of nutritive material from the 
atmosphere. It aerates the land to a great 
depth, and a large portion of its great fleshy 
roots, equalling small carrots in size, annually 
decay from the outside and keep growing 
larger from the center, and are constantly 
increasing the fertility of the ground. 

Alfalfa is not considered perfectly hardy in 
our more Northern States, yet experiments 
made by some of our Northern Agricultural 
Experimental Stations prove it of more value 
North than previously supposed. 

The soil best suited for the growth of Alfalfa 
is that which is deep and sandy ; hence the 
soil of Plorida and many other portions of the 
cotton belt is eminently fitted for its culture. 
When Alfalfa is to be grown on a large scale, 
to get at the best results, the ground chosen 
should be high and level, or if not high, such 
as is entirely free from under water. Drainage 
must be as nearly perfect as possible— either 
naturally or artiflcially. This in fact is a 
primary necessity for eeery crop — unless it be 
such as is aquatic or sub-aquatic. 


Deep plowing, thorough harrowing and level- 
ing with that valuable implement, the "smooth- 
ing harrow," to get a smooth and level surface, 
are the next operations. This should be done 
in the Southern States from 1st to 2Uth 
October — or at such season in the fall as 
would be soon enough to ensure a growth 
of four or five inches before the season of 
growth stops. Draw outlines on the prepared 
land twenty inches apart (it for horse culture, 
but it for hand culture fourteen inches), 
and two or three inches deep. These lines 
are best made by what market gardeners call 
a "marker," which is made by nailing six 
tooth-shaped pickets six or eight inches long 
at the required distance apart to a three by 
four inch joist, to which a handle is attached 
— which makes the marker or drag. The first 
tooth is set against a garden line drawn tight 
across the field, the marker is dragged back- 
wards by the workman, each tooth marking a 
line ; thus the six teeth mark six lines, if the 
line is set each time ; but it is best to place 
the end tooth of the marker in a line already 
made, so that in this way only five lines are 
marked at once, but it is quicker to do this 
than move the line. The lines being marked 
out, the seed is sown by hand or by seed-drill, 
at the rate of eight to twelve pounds per acre. 
After sowing— and this rule applies to all seeds 
if sown by hand — the seed must be trodden in 
by walking on the lines, so as to jiress the 
seed down into the drills. After treading in, 
the ground must be levelled by raking with 
a wooden or steel rake along the lines length- 
ways — not across. That done, it would be ad- 
vantageous to use a roller over the land so as 
to smooth the surface and further firm the 
seed, but this is not indispensable. When 
seeds are drilled in by machine, the wheel 
presses down the soil on the seed, so that 
treading in with the feet is not necessary. 
After the aeeds germinate so as to show the 
rows, which will be in from two to four weeks, 
according to the weather, the ground must be 
hoed between, and this is best done by some 
light wheel-hoe, if by hand, such as the, 
"Planet, Jr." On light sandy soil, such as in' 
Plorida, a man could with ease run over two 
or three acres per day. The labor entailed 
in this method of sowing Alfalfa in drills is 
somewhat greater than when sown broadcast 
in the usual way of grasses and clover, but 
there is no question that it is by far the best 
and most profitable plan, for it must be remem- 
bered that the plant is a hardy perennial, and is 
good for a crop for eight to ten years. More- 
over, the sowing in drills admits of the crop 
being easily fertilized, if it is found necessary to 
do BO ; as all that is necessary is to sow bone 
dust, superphosphates, or other concentrated 
fertilizer between the rows, and then stir it into 
the soil by the use of the wheel-hoe. Because 
Alfalfa flourishes on poor and worn out lands, 
it should not be thought unadapted to good 
soils. In the latter, its yield almost exceeds 
belief. At the New Jersey State farm, -seed of 
it sown, April 28th, in drills, and the plants 
cultivated, had grown forty inches tall, 
when cut on July 7th, 70 days from sow- 
ing, yielding (green) 7%, tons per acre ; the 
second cutting made on August 18th, yielded 
(green) 8}^ tons per acre; the third cutting 
was made September 27th, and yielded (green) 
4-«j, tons per acre ; a total of 20 tons of green 




fodder per acre the first year sown, which 
would equal at least five tons of cured hay. If 
sown on light, dry soils during a dry spell, or 
if sown broadcast, not much, if any, crop can 
be expected the first year, as the roots have 
to get a vigorous hold of the soil ; the second 
year it can (if sown under such conditions) be 
cut two or three times, but it is not until the 
third year that it develops into full vigor, and 
after that it yields magnificent crops for ten 
or fifteen years. 

Alfalfa will not flourish on land where water 
stands a short distance below the surface, nor 
in heavy, sticky clays. It attains its highest 
perfection on mellow, well-drained or rolling 
land where water readily passes away. 

A'lgae. A large and important tribe of Crypto- 
gamia, the greater part of which live either in 
salt or fresh water. They are related on the one 
hand to Funguses, and on the other to Lichens 
their distinctive characters being more easily 
derived from their respective habits, than from 
differences of structure. Some of the species, 
as the Dulse and Pepper Dulse, are edible and 
are used in Britain as a condiment, while the 
Carrageen or Irish Moss, besides its value in 
cattle-feeding when boiled and mixed with 
other nutritious matters, forms an excellent 
dessert something like curds when boiled in 

AlgcB, best known as "Sea weed," have long 
been used as manure by the farmers along the 
coasts of Long Island, New England, etc., im- 
mense quantities being thi'own ashore in the 
fall of the year. It is generally composted 
with barn yard manure and is often used as 
a covering for Strawberries and Asparagus for 

Algaro'ba Bean, or Carob. The fruit of Cer- 
atonia Siliqua, which see. . 

Allia'gi. The Arabic name of the plant. Nat. 
Ord. LegwmmoscB. 

A small genus of shrubby plants, with 
simple leaves and spiny fiower-stalks, inhabit- 
ing Southern Asia and Western Africa. A 
manna-like substance is produced from some 
of these plants in Persia and Bokhara, and is 
collected by merely shaking the branches. 
The secretion is supposed by some to be iden- 
tical with the Manna by which the Israelites 
were miraculously fed. 

AU'sma. Water Plantain. A. Plantago va/r. 
Americama, is a native aquatic with small 
white or rose-colored fiowers, arranged in a 
loose, compound, many-flowered panicle. 

Alisma'ceae. A small order of aquatic or marsh 
plants, with three-petaled flowers, on leafless 
scapes, and simple, radical leaves. The genera 
best known are Aliama, Bvtomvs and Sagit- 

A'Ikanet, or Hoary Puooooa. The common 
name of LUhospermv/m canescens ; also, a name 
applied to the roots of Anclmaa tinctoria, ex- 
tensively used as a dye, which is also called 

Allama'nda. Named in honor of Dr. Allamcmd, 
of Leyden. Nat. Ord. Apocynacem. 

This genus consists principally of handsome 
climbing green-house shrubs. A. SchoUii, a 
native of Brazil, produces immense numbers 
of large, funnel-shaped flowers, which are of a 
full yellow, with a deeper yellow throat. A. 


nobilis, A. Chelsomi and other species are all 
most desirable flowering plants for green- 
house decoration. They delight in a warm, 
moist situation, and should have a light, 
fibrous soil. Propagated by cuttings. First 
introduced from Brazil in 1846. 

Allanto'dia. From allantos, a sausage ; in refer- 
ence to the cylindrical form of the indusium. 
A genus of Ferns now reduced to one species, 
A. Brunoniana, which is a very pretty plant, 
with fronds one to two feet in length. It is a 
native of the Himalayas, at an elevation of 
6,000 feet, and is of easy culture in the .green- 
house. Syn. Asplenium JavanicMm. 

Alleghany Vine. See Adlumia. 

All-Heal. Valeriana officinalis. 

AUigator Apple. See Anona palvstris. 

Alligator Pear. See Persea graHssima. 

Alligator 'Wood. The timber of Guarea grandi- 
folia, a West Indian tree. 

A'llium. From the Celtic all, meaning hot or 
burning ; referring to the well-known qualities 
of the genus. Nat. Ord. lAliacem. 

Of the one hundred and fifty species of this 
tribe, but few are considered ornamental ; in- 
deed, the family, probably from prejudice, has 
been much neglected, where many far less 
showy plants have found favor. A. Moly pro- 
duces large trusses of golden yellow flowers 
in June. A. Neapolitanum is a fine species, 
bearing pure white flowers in a large umbel. 
The former is perfectly hardy, and worthy a 
place in the garden. The latter is tender, re- 
quiring the protection of the green-house. 
Propagated readily by offsets. The various 
species of Allium, as Onion, Leek, Oarlie, Chives, 
etc., are described' under their respective 

AUople'ctus. A small genus of interesting 
green-house shrubs, belonging to the order 
Gesneracem, and requiring the same treatment. 

AllOBo'rus. From alios, diverse, and soros, a 
heap ; in allusion to the changing of the sori. 
Nat. Ord. Polypodiacem. 

A small genus of very beautiful dwarf Ferns, 
A. crispiis, a British Fern, sometimes called 
the Mountain Parsley Fern, is a beautiful 
plant for rockeries. Two or three exotic spe- 
cies are favorites in the green-house. They 
are propagated from spores. 

Allspice. Carolina. Calycanthus floridus. 

Allspice-Tree. See Pimenta. 

Almond. See Amygdalua communis. 

Almond, Double-Flowering, Dwarf. Amyg- 
dolus nana, which see. 

Almond, Earth or Chufa. Oyperus esculentus. 

Al'nus. The Alder. From al, near, and lam, the 
bank of a river ; in reference to the situation 
where the Alder delights to grow. Nat. Ord. 

An extensive genus of shrubs or small trees 
common throughout North America and 
Europe. The principal use of the Alder is for 
charcoal, which is highly valued in the manu- 
facture of gunpowder. 

Aloca'sia. A slight alteration of Coiocosia. Nat. 
Ord. AroidecB. 

This name is applied to a section of the 
genus Colocasia; by some considered a distinct 
genus. Natives of India, the Indian Archi- 




pelago, &c. A. metallica is a magniflcent spe- 
cies from Borneo, producing very large oval 
leaves, having a rich bronze-colored surface, 
making it a conspicuous ornament for the hot- 
house. The leaves look like large polished 
metal shields. Many other species, some of 
them of great beauty, with large and hand- 
somely variegated, usually peltate, leaves, are 
highly-prized occupants of bur plant stoves. 

A'loe. Prom alloeh, its Arabic name. Nat. Ord. 

The name Aloe is so frequently applied in 
conversation to the American Aloe, or Agave, 
that many persons are not aware that the true 
Aloe is not only quite a different genus, but 
lielongs to a different natural order, the Amer- 
ican Aloe being one of the Amaryllis tribe, 
while the true Aloe belongs to the Lily tribe. 
The qualities of the two plants are also essen- 
tially different, the American Aloe abounding 
in starchy, nourishing matter, while every 
part of the true Aloe is purgative. The true 
Aloe also flowers every year, and the flowers 
are tube-shaped, and produced on a spike; 
while each plant of the American Aloe flowers 
but once, sending up an enormous flower-stem 
with candelabra-like branches and cuij-shaped 
flowers. The true Aloes are succulent plants, 
natives of the Cape of Good Hope, and grow 
best in this country in green-houses or rooms, 
in a light, sandy soil. To this, when the plants 
are wanted to attain a large size, may be added 
a little leaf-mould. When grown in rooms, a 
poor soil is, however, preferable, as it keeps 
the plants of a smaller and more manageable 
size, and makes them less easily affected by 
changes of tempferature. The colors of the 
flowers will also be richer when the plants are 
grown in poor soil. The drug called aloes is 
made principally from the pulp of the fleshy 
leaf of the A. soeotrma, the flowers of which 
are red, tipped with green ; but it is also made 
from several other species. 

A'loe, Partridge-Breast. Aloe variegata. 

A'loe, Pearl. Aloe margarUifera. 

A'toes-Wood. See 

Alo'na. From nola, a little bell (letters trans- 
posed) ; in allusion to the shape of the-flowers. 
Nat. Ord. NolcmacecB. 

A genus of pretty evergreen shrubs, A. Cosr- 
leatis, has pale-blue, large flowers; an excel- 
lent plant for growing out-of-doors during 
summer. Propagated by cuttings. Intro- 
duced from ChUi in 1845. 

Alonso'a. The Mask Flower. Named after Za- 
nomi Alonso, a Spaniard, by the authors of 
Flora Peruviana. Nat. Ord. ScrophulomacecB. 
The species are low under-shrubs, or herba- 
ceous plants, natives of Peru, and two of them 

* — A. inciaifolia and A. linearis — are very orna- 
mental, either in the green-house or grown as 
annuals in the open border during summer. 
They thrive well in any light, rich soil, and 
are readily increased by seeds or cuttings. 
They are very desirable for flower-gardens, on 
account of the brilliant scarlet of their flow- 
ers ; and where there is no green-house, the 
plants should be raised from seeds sown on a 
hot-bed in February, or struck from cuttings 
early in spring, and brought forward in a frame 
or pit, and turned out into the open air in May. 

Alopecu'rus. The generic name of the Foxtail 


Aloy'sia. Lemon Verbena. Named in honor ol 
Mam,a Lomsa, Queen of Spain. Nat. Ord. Ver- 

The only known species of this genus is A. 
citriodora, introduced from Chili in 1784, and 
formerly called Verbena triphylla, or the Lemon- 
scented Verbena. Under this name it is gen- 
erally sold, and is a universal favorite, readily 
propagated from cuttings, and planted in the 
open border in May. If taken up after a light 
frost and put in a cold frame or cool cellar 
during winter, the plants will keep well ; and, 
planted out in spring again, they make large 
and pleasing shrubs. The leaves, when dried, 
will retain their odor for many years. Syn. 
Uppia citriodora. 

Alphabet-plant. Spilanthes acmella. 

A'lpine. Strictly speaking, this term refers to 
the higher part of the Alps, in contradistinc- 
tion to "mountainous," which designates the 
middle portion of the higher Alps, or tops of 
inferior mountains. Plants found in very high 
elevations are called Alpine Plants. 

Alpine Azalea. The popular name for Loialeu- 
ria procumbena, 

A'lpine Plants. This very interesting class con- 
sists mostly of plants nativesof high elevations, 
and, although they are naturally exposed to 
the full influence of the sun and wind, they 
require in our hot, dry summers shade and 
and shelter more than exposure. Wherever 
a Rock Garden or Rockery is constructed, a 
portion of it should be devoted to the culture 
of Alpines, for as a rule they flourish better 
on a properly-constructed Rockery than in any 
other position, because thorough drainage is 
effected, and the long, fine roots can run down 
in the crevices where the soil is cool and moist. 
It should, however, be so arranged that all. 
aspects are secured, shady and sunny, fully, 
or in a degree only. Many Alpines are 
easily grown in the ordinary border in a 
sheltered, well-drained situation. Excavate 
to the depth of eighteen inches, put in a layer 
of stones or rubble six inches deep, and flU up 
with a mixture of good flbrous loam and leaf- 
mould, adding sand enough to keep it porous. 
When the desired subjects are firmly planted, 
the surface may be covered with small stones 
or rough gravel, which, while allowing the 
rain to penetrate the soil, checks evaporation, 
keeping it moist and cool, as well as giving 
the surface an appearance more in keeping 
with the plants. _ 

Alpi'nia. In memory of Prosper Alpimis, an 
Italian botanist. Nat. Ord. Zingiberacem. 

A genus of tropical herbaceous perennials, 
mostly natives of the East Indies, req\iiring 
to be grown in great heat and moisture. A. 
vittata is an ornamental-leaved species of small 
growth. The plant throws up numerous 
stems from the underground rhizomes, bear- 
ing lance-shaped leaves, pale green in color, 
striped with creamy white. A. alba bears a 
fruit known as Ovoid China Cardamoms ; others, 
as A. nviams, are remarkable for the exceeding 
beauty of their flowers. They are increased 
-by division of their roots. 

Alseuo'smia. From alaoa, a grove, and euoamia, 
a grateful odor ; alluding to the powerful fra- 
grance of the flowers. Nat. Ord. OaprifoMoiCece. 
A small genus of highly-glabrous shrubs, 
with greenish or red flowers, and generally 




alternate leaves. A. Macrophylla, the only 
species yet introduced to cultivation, has 
small, very fragrant, dull-red flowers, some- 
times streaked witli white. It forms a neat 
green-house shrub, and is propagated by ciit- 
tings of the half-ripened wood. Introduced 
from New Zealand in 1884. 

Alsike. See Trifolium hyhridum. 

Also'pliila. From alsos, a grove, and phileo, to 
love ; in reference to the situation best suited 
to the plants. Nat. Ord. PolypodiacecB. 

Tliis genus contains some of our most beau- 
tiful green-house Tree Ferns. A. Auatralis, 
the type, is a native of Australia, and one of 
the most ornamental ot the order. In the or- 
dinary green-house it thrives finely, produc- 
ing its graceful fronds from three to four feet 
long and one and a half wide. There are sev- 
eral species, all tropical, and all worthy a 
place in the fern- house. They are increased 
by division or from spores. Introduced in 

Alstrceme'ria. In honor of Baron Ahtrcemer, a 
Swedish botanist. Nat. Ord. AmaryllidacecB. 

This is a genus of tuberous-rooted plants, 
with beautiful flowers, natives of South Amer- 
ica, and capable of being grown to a high de- 
gree of perfection in the hot-house, green- 
house or open air, according to the species. 
The soil which suits all the Alstroemerias is a 
mixture of sandy loam and leaf-mould, or 
well-rotted manure. Of all the hot-house 
species, A. Ligtu, with white and scarlet flow- 
ers, is the most difficult tc flower ; but by giv- 
ing it abundance ot water during the summer, 
and a strong heat in December, it will flower 
in February; and one plant will scent a 
whole house with fragrance like that of 
Mignonette. A. edulis is another hot-house 
species, which climbs to the height of ten or 
twelve feet, and, like all other climbers, 
thrives best when turned out into the open 
border. Propagation is effected by separation 
o£ the tubers, or by seeds ; the latter is apt to 
produce new varieties, as they are by no 
means constant from seed. 

Alternanthe'ra. Alluding to the anthers being 
alternately fertile and barren. Nat. Ord. 

This useful little green-house perennial for 
ribbon beds and edgings is a native of Buenos 
Ayres, introduced in 1732. Propagated read- 
ily from cuttings. The variegated-leaved 
varieties, of which new and striking sorts are 
constantly be^iig introduced, alone are culti- 
tivated, the flowers being inconspicuous. A 
recent variety, A. paronychioides major, is now 
known as the Eainbow-plant. 

Alternate. Placed on opposite sides of an 
axis, on a different level, as in alternate 

Althae'a. Marsh Mallow. From altheo, to cure ; 
in reference to its medicinal qualities. Nat. 
Ord. MalvacecB. 

There are many annuals In this family, 
some of them of much merit. The Marsh 
Mallows are hardy perennials, and formerly 
much used as border plants. A. rosea, the 
common Hollyhock, is one of our most splen- 
did ornamental biennials. It grows to the 
height of from five to eight feet, and there 
are varieties of almost every color, including 
white, and purple bo deep as to be almost 


black. The seeds of the Hollyhock, should 
be sown in March or April. When the plants 
come up, they should be thinned out, and 
then suffered to remain till September, when 
they should be transplanted to the plaoe where 
they are to flower. Introduced from China in 
1573. The hardy shrub commonly known as 
Althaea, is Sibiseaa Syriacua. 

Alum Root. The common name of Heuchera 
Americana, the roots of which are very as- 

Aly'ssum. Derived from a, privative, and lyssa, 
rage ; from a notion among the ancients that 
the plant possessed the power of allaying an- ' 
ger. Nat. Ord. Cruciferm. 

Dwarf hardy perennials, or sub-shrubby 
plants, with cruciferous flowers. A. aojxialile 
is very suitable for rock-work, or the front 
part of a flower border, and forms a beautiful 
spring-blooming bed in the flower garden. 
Flowers produced in large clusters, of a deep, 
pure yellow. " It is increased by cuttings and 
seeds. The herbaceous species are propa- 
gated by division, the sub-shrubby ones by 
cuttings. Vigorous two-year-old plants are 
the best for flowering ; the others are unim- 
portant. The plant commonly called Sweet 
Alyssum is not of this genus; it is Koniga 
maritima, which see. 

Amarabo'ya. The native name. Nat. Ord. 

A small genus (three species) of evergreen 
shrubs, natives of New Grenada The 
branches are thick, bluntly four-angled, with 
large, prominently nerved leaves, green above 
and reddish-carmine beneath. The white or 
carmine flowers are borne in terminal cymes, 
and are very showy. Introduced in 1887. 

Amarantha'ceab. An extensive order of herbs 
or (rarely) shrubs with inconspicuous apetal- 
ous flowers, almost in all cases of a scarious 
or shrivelled texture. The majority of this 
order are weeds, though many of the species 
of Amaranthus and Gomphrena (Globe Ama- 
ranth) are- beautiful border plants and are 
well known. 

Amaranth G-lobe, See Gomphrena. 

Amara'nthus. Amaranth. Derived from a, not, 
and miaraino, to wither ; in reference to the 
length of time some flowers retain their color. 
Nat. Ord. AmarantliacecB. 

Ornamental foliaged plants, of an extremely 
graceful and interesting character, producing 
a striking effect, whether grown for the deco- 
ration ot the conservatory or the out-door 
flower garden. If the seeds ai-e sown early in 
a warm hot-bed and planted out the last of 
May or in June, in rich soil, they make ex- 
ceedingly handsome specimens for the center 
of beds, or mixed flower or shrubbery bor- 
ders. Most of the varieties are natives of the 
East Indies, and were introduced into Eng- 
land about 1600.' The well-known A. tricolor, or 
"Joseph's Coat," is one of the most beautiful 
of ornamental-leaved plants. A. caudatvs, 
"Love lies Bleeding," is another showy spe- 
cies, and A. aalidfolius, "The Fountain Plant," 
makes a lovely specimen for lawn decoration 
or for the centre of a "foliage bed." 

Amaryllida'ceae. A large Natural Order, con- 
sisting for the most part of bulbous plants, 
but occasionally forming a tall, cylindrical, 
woody stem, as in the genus Agave. They 




differ from Irises in having six introrse sta- 
mens, and from Liliaceous plants in their 
ovary being inferior. A few species of Nar- 
cissus and Galanthiis are found in the north of 
Europe and the same parallels. As we pro- 
ceed south they increase. Pancratium ap- 
pears on the shores of the Mediterranean, 
and on our own Southern coasts; Crinwm 
and Pancratium, in the West and East Indies ; 
HcBmanthus is found for the first time, with 
some of the latter, on the Gold Coast ; Hip- 
peastra show themselves in countless num- 
bers in Brazil and across the whole continent 
of South America ; and, finally, at the Cape of 
Good Hope the maximum ot the order is be- 
held in all the beauty of Haimanthus, Crinum, 
Olivia, Cyrtanthus and Brwnsvigia. A few are 
found in New Holland, the most remarkable 
ot which is Doryanthes. Poisonous properties 
occur in the viscid juice of the bulbs of Bu- 
phane toxicaria and Hippeastrum ; those of 
Leucqjwm vernwm, the Snowdrop, and Daffodil 
and other kinds of Narcissus, are emetic. 
Nevertheless, the Agave, or American Aloe, 
as it is called, has an insipid, sweet juice. 
Others are detergent, and a few yield a kind 
of arrow-root. Between 300 and 400 species' 
are known. 

Amary'Ilis. The name of a nymph celebrated 
by the poet Virgil. Nat. Ord. Amaryllidaceoe. 
Bulbous plants, chiefly natives of the Cape 
of Good Hope and South America, but which 
have been increased in number tenfold by hy- 
brids and varieties raised in England and on 
the Continent. All the kinds are eminently 
ornamental, and they are all of easy culture, 
the great secret being to give them alternately 
a season of excitement and a season of re- 
pose. To do this effectually, the plants 
should be abundantly supplied with water 
and heat, and placed near the glass when 
they are coming into flower, and water should 
be withheld from them by degrees when they 
have done flowering, till they have entirely 
ceased growing, when they should be kept 
quite dry and in a state of rest. When in this 
state they may be placed in any obscure part 
of a green-house where it is dry, and of a tem- 
perature not under forty or fifty degrees. It 
kept in such a situation during winter, some 
kinds may be turned out into a warm border 
in spring, where they will flower; and if the 
season be fine, they will renew their bulbs in 
time to be taken up before the approach of 
frost. The chief value of these plants, how- 
ever, is to produce fiowers in the winter sea- 
son which they readily do if they are kept 
dry and dormant during the latter part of the 
summer and autumn. Indeed, by having a 
large stock of these bulbs, a regular succes- 
sion of flowers may be procured during every 
month in the year. When the dormant bulbs 
are intended to be brought into flower, they 
should be freshly potted in sandy loam and 
leaf-mould, and put in a hot-house or hot- 
bed, the heat beginning at fifty degrees, and 
ascending to sixty or seventy degrees; and 
when the leaves appear, they should be 
abundantly supplied with water. Where 
seeds are wanted the watering must be con- 
tinued, though somewhat less abundantly, 
after the flowers have faded, till the seeds are 
ripe; and when these are gathered, they ought 
to be sown immediately in light, sandy loam. 


and placed in a frame, or near the glass, in a 
moist part of the hot-house. If the young 
plants are potted oft as soon as they are an inch 
or two in height, and shifted frequently in the 
course of the growing season, they will attain 
a flowering size in from fifteen to twenty 
months. The pots in which these and all 
other bulbs are grown ought to be thoroughly 
drained by a handful or more of potsherds 
(broken pots) laid in the bottom of each pot, 
and covered with turfy loam, and the mould 
used should also be turfy, in order the more 
freely to admit the passage of water. Our 
long and warm summers enable us to culti- 
vate many of these beautiful bulbs in the open 
air, merely protecting the roots in the winter 
in the same manner as those of the Dahlia. 
See Hippeastrum. 

A synonym of Spre- 

Amary'llis formosissima. 

kelia, which see. 
Amaso'iiia. Named in honor of Thomas Amor- 
son, an American traveller. Nat. Ord. Ver- 
benacem. A genus of South American shrubs 
found chiefly in Brazil ; closely allied to Cler- 
odendron, from which they differ chiefly in 
habit. A. calycina, better known as A. pwm- 
cea, is particularly striking, in having a series 
of the richest Poinsettia^like, vermilion-crim- 
son, spreading bracts, arranged along the en- 
tire length of the racemes, which are a foot 
long. These bracts are four inches in length, 
and remain in perfection fully two months. 
Syn. Taligalea. 

Ambro'sia. The botanical name of Eagweed, 
Bitterweed, etc. 

Amela'ncbier. June Berry, Shad Berry, Ser- 
vice Berry. From AmeUinchier, the popular 
name of one of the species in Savoy. Nat. 
Ord. Rosacem. 

A. Canadensis (the only American species) 
and its numerous varieties are low trees, com- 
mon in the woods in the Northern States, re- 
markable for their numerous white flowers, 
which appear about the middle of April, com- 
pletely covering the tree before the foliage or 
flowers of the neighboring trees have com- 
menced their growth. The foliage resembles 
that of the Pear, and changes to a bright yel- 
low in autumn. The fruit is a dark-purple 
berry, ripe in July or August, and has- an 
agreeable flavor. 

American Aloe. Agave Americana, which see. 

American Centaury. The popular name for 

American Columbo. See Frasera GaroUnensis. 

American Co-wslip. See Dodecatheon Meadia. 

American Cranberry. See Oxycoccus macro- 

American Cress. Barbarea prcBcox. 

American Frog's Bit. Limnobium spongia. 

American Ivy. Ampelqpsis quinquefolia. 

American Pitcher Plant. See Sarracenia. 

American Wood Lily. See Trillium. 

Amhe'rstia. In honor of the Et. Hon. Countess 
Amherst and her daughter Lady Sarah 
Amherst ; the zealous friends and promoters 
of every branch of natural history, biit espe- 
cially of Botany. Nat. Ord. Leguminosce. 

A. nobilis, the only species is an East Indian 
tree, said to be one of the most magnificent 




blooming trees in existence, bearing in Spring 
large racemes of vermilion-colored flowers 
diversified with three yellow spots. The 
Burmanese name of the plant is Thoca, and 
handfuls of the flowers are offered before the 
images of Buddha. The tree is to be found 
in some of the larger English collections ; but 
requiring so much space it is rarely grown. 
Ami 'cia. This pretty Leguminous green-house 
perennial is valuable on account of its flower- 
ing late in the fall. Flowers yellow splashed 
with purple, branches and petioles pubescent. 
Introduced from Mexico in lti26. 

Ammo'bium. From ammos, sand, and Mo, to 
live ; in reference to tlie sandy soil in which it 
thrives. Nat. Ord. ComposUce. 

Pretty annuals of hardy character from New 
Holland, producing white everlastmg flowers. 
The seed may be sown in the open border, in 
almost any situation, between the middle of 
March and the end of May. 

Aimnobro'ina. Prom ammos, sand, and bromoe, 
food; a name given by Dr. Toirey to a leaf- 
less plant of parasitic habit, native of Northern 
Mexico. Tlie plant has the habit of an Oro- 
banche, the scaly roots being buried in the sand, 
its roots parasitic on the roots of an unknown 
plant. Colonel Grey, the original discoverer 
of this plant met with it in the country of the 
Papigo Indians, a barren, sandy waste, where 
rain scarcely ever falls but "where Nature 
has provided for the sustenance of man, one of 
the most nutritious and palatable of vege- 
tables." The plant is roasted upon hot coals, 
and ground with mesquit beans and resem- 
bles in taste the sweet potato, " but is far 
more delicate." 

Ammo'chaiis. A genus of Amaryllidacem, usu- 
ally included in Brxmavigia. 

Ammo'pliila. Beach Grass. From ammos, sand, 
and phileo, tolove; in allusion to its native 
habitat. Nat. Ord. Graminacece. 

A genus of coarse growing, reed-like grasses 
common on the sea-shores of this country and 
Europe. A. arv/ndinacRa, Syn. Calamagrostis 
Arenaria, is the best known species; as an 
agricultural grass it is of no value, but its 
value as a natural sand-builder cannot be over- 
estimated ; many thousand acres of land on 
various parts of our coast are preserved from 
being overwhelmed with the drifting sand 
solely by its agency. It seems to have been 
provided for this special purpose, having very 
strong rhizomes, or creeping roots, from 30 
to 40 feet long, with many small tubers, about 
the size of peas, which prevent the drifting of 
the sand from the action of the wind and 
waves thus forming a barrier against the en- 
croachments of the ocean. 

In speaking of the importance of this grass 
in protecting our coasts, Flint, in his book on 
grasses says, — "The town of Provincetown, 
once called Cape Cod, where the pilgrims first 
landed, and its harbor, still called the harbor 
of Cape Cod, — one of the best and most im- 
portant in the United States, sufBcii'nt in 
depth for ships of the largest size, and in ex- 
tent to anchor three thousand vessels at once, 
owe their preservation to this grass. To an 
inhabitant of an inland country, it is difficult 
to conceive the extent and the violence with 
which the sands at the extremity of Cape Cod 
are thrown up from the depths of the sea, and 


left on the beach in thousands of tons, by every 
drifting storm. These sand-hills when dried 
by the sun, are hurled by the winds into the 
haibor and upon the town. Beach grass is 
said to have been cultivated here as early as 
1812. Before that time, when the sand 
drifted down upon the dwelling-houses — as it 
did whenever the beach was broken — to save 
them from burial, the only resort was to 
wheeling it off with barrows. Thus tons were 
removed every year from places that are now 
perfectly secure from the drifting of sand. 
Indeed, were it not for the window-glass in 
some of the oldest houses in these localities, 
you would be ready to deny this statement; 
but the sand has blown with such force and 
so long against this glass, as to make it 
perfectly ground." 

Congress appropriated, between the years 
of 1826 and 1839, about twenty-eight thousand 
dollars, which were expended in setting out 
beach-grass near the village of Provincetown, 
for the protection of the harbor. Other ap- 
propriations have since been made, which, to- 
gether with the efforts of the town committee, 
whose duty it is to enter any man's enclosure, 
summer or winter, and set out the grass, if 
the sand is uncovei'ed and movable. By this 
means they are now rid of sand-storms, which 
were once the terror of the place, and the 
coast appears a fertile meadow. 

Amo'mum. From a, not, and momos, impurity ; 
in reference to its supposed quality of counter- 
acting poison. Nat. Ord. Zingiberacece. 

This genus of aromatic herbs furnishes the 
Grains of Paradise and the Cardamom Seeds, 
which are aromatic and stimulant. The plants 
grow readily in the green-house, and are prop- 
agated by division of the root. Introduced' 
in 1820 from the East Indies. 

Amo'rpha. False Indigo. From o, not, and 
morpha, form ; in reference to the irregularity 
of the flowers. Nat. Ord. LeguminoscE. 

A small genus of large, spreading shrubs, 
natives of North America. The leaves are 
compound, resembling the Locust, only the 
leaflets are finer. The flowers are dark-purple 
or violet, spangled with yellow, disposed in long 
panicles on the tops of the branches. A. frvii- 
cosa is a very ornamental shrub for the 1 iwn, 
and is readily propagated from suckers, which 
are produced in abundance. A. canescens is a 
small-growing species, common in the Western 
and Southern States. It has received the local 
name of Lead Plant, on account of the white, 
hairy down with which it is covered. 

Amo'rphopha'llus. From amorphos, disfigured, 
andphallos, a mace ; form of spadix. Nat. Ord, 

These plants were formerly in the genus 
Arum, from which they are distinguished by 
their spreading spathes. They are natives of 
India and other parts of tropical Asia, where 
they are cultivated for the abundance of starch 
that is found in their root-stocks. Most varie- 
ties ai'e ornamental plants for the green-house 
or garden. A. Rivieri, called the Umbrella 
Plant, is particularly so, having large, solitary 
decompound leaves three to five feet in diam- 
eter, on a thick, tall, marbled stem, very orna- 
mental, either as a solitary plant or in groups 
on the lawn. After planting, the first appear- 
ance is the flower stalk, which rises to \h9 







Amahanttttto n.Ti>TiftOTTo 




height of two feet. As it expands, the fetor 
it exhales is overpowering and sickening, and 
so perfectly resembles that of carrion as to in- 
duce flies to cover the club of the spadix with 
their eggs. Propagated by offsets. 

Amorphous. Without definite form. 

Ampelo'psis. Woodbine. 'FTomampelo8,&\ine, 
and opaia, resemblance : in reference to its re- 
semblance to the Grape vine. Nat. Ord. VUa- 

A. quinquefolia is well known by its common 
names of Virginia Creeper and Pive-leaved 
Ivy. Its flowers have no beauty, but it is 
worth cultivating as an ornamental plant, 
from the brilliant scarlet and orange which 
its leaves assume in autumn, and which look 
particularly well at that season, when in- 
termingled with those of the common Ivy, 
from the fine contrast they afford. The plant 
is of very rapid growth in any kind of soil, 
and it is propagated by layers or cuttings. 
The Virginia Creeper is one of our finest indig- 
enous climbers. It grows very rapidly, at- 
taches itself firmly to wood or stone buildings, 
or to the trunks of old trees, and soon covers 
these objects with a fine mantle of rich foliage. 
Nothing can be more admirably adapted than 
this plant for concealing and disguising the 
unsightly stone fences which are so common, 
and so great a deformity in many parts of the 
country. A. tritmspidata (syn. A. Veitchii), with 
its sub- variety A. t. Royalii, is one of the most 
valuable of hardy climbing plants, and is now 
planted in immense quantities. It was first 
extensively used in this country in Boston, 
Mass., where it is now to be seen covering 
some of the finest public and private build- 
ings in the city. It clings with great tenacity 
to wood, as well as brick or stone, and in 
summer the leaves lapping over each other 
resemble a coat of mail, and form a dense 
sheet of rich, glossy, green, changing in au- 
tumn to the most gorgeous shades of crimson, 
scarlet and yellow. It Is also used largely on 
rocky and shaly railroad cuts and embank- 
ments, where its clinging tendency helps 
greatly to keep the rocks from dropping on to 
the track. ]t is perfectly hardy, and is prop- 
agated by cuttings, layers, or most generally 
from seeds. Introduced from Japan in 1868. 

Ampely'gonum. The name is an allusion to the 
grape-like fruit. Nat. Ord. Polygonacece. 

This interesting species from China is one 
from which the finest quality of indigo is ob- 
tained. It is an herbaceous perennial, obtained 
readily from seed. 

Amphicarpse'a. Hog Pea Nut. Prom amphi, 
both, and Karpos, a fruit ; in allusion to the 
two kinds of pods ; those of the upper flowers 
being scimitar-shaped, three to four-seeded; 
those of the lower, pear-shaped, fleshy, usu- 
ally ripening but one seed. These lower pods 
buiy themselves in the ground after fertiliza- 
tion. Nat. Ord. Legwminosm. 

Ornamental annuals, with herbaceous twin- 
ing stems, of easy culture. Allied to Wisteria. 

Amphi'come. Prom amphi, around, and Kome, 
hair ; in allusion to the structure of the seeds. 
Nat. Ord. Bignoniac&z. 

This genus consists of two species of very 
elegant perennial herbs, natives of the temper- 


ate regions of North-western India. A. Emodi 
is a remarkably handsome plant, and well de- 
serves a place in choice collections. It is 
about one foot high, and the flowers, which 
are large for the plant, stand erect when ex- 
panded. The fruits are about the length and 
thickness of a small quill, and their seeds are 
provided with a tuft of hairs at each end, a 
circumstance which gave rise to the name. 

Amplezicaul. Stem-clasping ; as when the base 
of the leaf surrounds the stem, as in Oestrum 
auriculatum, Lonicera, etc. 

Amso'nia. In memory of Charles Amson, a cel- 
ebrated traveler. Nat. Ord. Apocynacece. 

A small genus of herbaceou s perennial plants, 
with beautiful blue flowers' produced in ter- 
minal panicled clusters. The several species 
are natives of the United States. A. TabernoR- 
montana, one of the more beautiful species, is 
common on low grounds in the Southern and 
Western States. 

Amy'gdalus. Almond. Prom amyaso, to lacer- 
ate; in reference to the fissured channels in 
the stone of the fruit ; but some suppose from 
a Hebrew word signifying vigilant, as its early 
flowers announce the return of spring. Nat. 
Ord. Rosacem. 

A. nana is the common Flowering Almond of 
gardens, of which there are several varie- 
ties, the double white and double pink alone 
being desirable. Native of Russia. Intro- 
duced in 1683. Propagated readily by suck- 
ers. A. communis bears the sweet, and JL. aTiw 
arua the bitter Almonds of commerce. They 
are supposed to be natives of Western Asia, 
and are mentioned in sacred history as among 
the best fruits of the land of Canaan. The 
Almond is plentiful in China, in most Eastern 
countries, and also in Barbary. It is exten- 
sively cultivated in Italy, Spain and the South 
of France. The several varieties, such as 
hard, soft or paper shelled, have all originated 
from A. communis. 

Amyrida'cese. With the appearance of Oranges, 
and sometimes with the dotted leaves of that 
order, these plants differ in their fruit, form- 
ing a shell whose husk eventually splits into 
valve-like segments. The tropics of India, 
Africa and America exclusively produce the 
species. Their resinous juice is ot great 
importance, forming an ingredient of frankin- 
cense and other preparations demanding a 
fragrant combustible matter. 

Anacanthous. Spineless. 

Auacardia'oese. When trees or bushes have a 
resinous, milky, often caustic juice, dotless 
leaves, and small, inconspicuous flowers, with 
an ovary containing a single ovule, suspended 
at the end of an erect cord, it is pretty certain 
that they belong to this order, of which more 
than 400 species are described, inhabiting the 
tropics both north and south of the equator, 
but not known to occur in Australia. Pistacia 
and some kinds of Rhus inhabit temperate 
latitudes. Among the products of ttie order 
are the Mango fruit, and that called in the 
West Indies the Hog Plum ; the nuts named 
Pistachios and Cashews, the Black Varnish of 
Burmah and elsewhere. Mastic, Fustic, etc. 
These varnishes are extremely acrid, and pro- 
duce dangerous consequences to persons who 
use them incautiously. 




Anaca'rdlum. From ana, like, and kardia, the 
heart; in reference to the form of the nut. 
Nat. Ord. Anacardiacew. 

Ornamental evergreen trees, natives of the 
East and West Indies, remarlsable for their 
beautiful, fragrant flowers, and for their fruit, 
known as the Cashew-nut. The trees are too 
large for introduction into the green-house. 

Anacy'clus. A genus of Compoaitce comprising 
about ten species of hardy or half-hardy annual 
herbs, natives of Southern Europe and Nortii- 
em Africa. A. radiatus purpwreua, a very 
pretty and free-flowering hardy annual, is the 
only species in general cultivation, and thrives 
well imder ordinary cultivation. 

Anaga'llis. Pimpernel. From anagelao, to 
laugh; fabled to possess a virtue to remove 
sadness. Nat. Ord. Primulacem. 

A genus of pretty dwarf annual and 
biennial plants. The former have given place 
to the many seminal improvements of the 
the latter, insomuch as to be rarely met with. 
They are universal favorites for planting in 
the beds of the flower garden, where their 
numerous blue or red flowers, expanded when- 
ever the sun shines, are verj- effective. They 
are propagated by seeds or cuttings. When 
seed is desired, the branch or plant on ■yvhich 
it is growing should be taken entire, a little 
before the autumn frosts begin, and hung up 
in a dry, sunny place, such as before the 
windows of a shed, allowing the pods to 
remain upon it until wanted in the spring for 
sowing as it requires a, long time to become 
properly ripened; afterwards it vegetates 
freely if sown in a gentle hot-bed. The garden 
varieties are hybrids. The species under 
cultivation were introduced from Southern 
Europe in 1830. A. arvensis, the common 
Pimpernel, is plenty in waste, sandy places in 
the United States, having been introduced 
from Europe and become thoroughly natural- 

Analogy. Resemblance to a thing in form, but 
not in function, or in function, but not in 
form. Corresponding with a thing in many 
points, but differing in more, or in points of 
more importance. Thus the flowers of Potent- 
ilia and Rcmu/nouhis are analogous. 

Anami'rta. A genus of plants inhabiting Ceylon, 
Malabar, and the Eastern Isles of India, and 
belonging to the natural order MenifipermacecB. 
The most important, if not the only plant of 
this genus, is the A. cocculus, the plant which 
produces the seeds known as Cocculus Indicus, 
which were formerly used in the adulteration 
of malt liquors ; it is also used to poison fish. 
It is a climbing plant, with ash-colored corky 
bark ; not in cultivation. 

Anana'ssa Pineapple. From nanaa, the Guiana 
name. Nat. Ord. BromeliacecB. 

A. saliva, the common Pineapple, is 
universally acknowledged to be one of the 
most delicious fruits in existence. More than 
three hundred years ago it was described by 
Jean de Lery, a Huguenot priest, as being of 
such excellence, that the gods might 
luxuriate upon it, and that it should only be 
gathered by the hand of Venus. It is a 
native of Brazil, and was first introduced into 
Europe in 1555, having been sent there by 
Andr6 Thevet, a monk, from Peru. The 
plant is perennial, not unlike the Aloe, but the 


leaves are much thinner, and of a hard fibrous 
texture, with numerous short, sharp spines 
on the edges ; the variegated form is highly 
prized as one of the most valuable plants for 
decorative purposes_. The fruit varies like 
most other species," there now being nearly 
fifty varieties in cultivation. 

Anasta'tica. From anastatis, resurrection, in 
reference to its hygromelrical property. Nat. - 
Ord. Cruciferce. 

An annual plant, indigenous to the Egyptian 
deserts, and called the Kose of Jericho. When 
full grown it contracts its rigid branches into 
a round ball, and is then tossed about by the 
wind. When it alights in water, or damp 
ground, the branches relax and open out, as if 
its life were renewed; hence its name of 
Resurrection Plant. Among the superstitious 
tales told of it is, that "it first bloomed on 
Christmas Eve, to salute the birth of the 
Kedeemer, and paid homage to His resurrec- 
tion by remaining expanded until Easter." This 
curious annual can readily be grown from seed, 
but will not stand the severity of our winters ; 
they can, however, be taken up and kept dry 
in a house. When wanted to expand, put 
them in a saucer of water. 

Anceps. Two edged, as the stem of an Iris. 

Ancho'manes. A remarkable and beautiful stove 
aroid allied to Amorphophallua. A. Hookeri, has 
a pale purple spathe appearing before the leaf 
which when fully developed is much divided 
and toothed. Introduced from Fernando, Po., 
in 1832. 

A'nohovy Pear. See Grids. 

Auchu'sa From anchousa, a cosmetic paint 
made from one of the species ; used for stain- 
ing the skin. Nat. Ord. Boraginacece. 

Hardy herbaceous plants, suitable for deep 
shrubbery borders or any unfrequented place. 
Most of the species have purple flowers. 

Ancylo'gyne. From ankylos, curved, and gyne, a 
female; the pistil is curved. Nat. Ord. 

A small genus of tropical under-shrubs, 
with terminal spikes or racemes of showy 
fiowers. Ai longijlora. from Guayaquil, is a 
valuable species for the green-house. It 
produces, large, drooping panicles of rich 
purple, tubulose flowers, two inches long, and 
of a most attractive character. Propagated 
by cuttings. Introduced in 1866. 

Andre'w's (St.) Cross. Ascyrum Crux Andrem. 

Andro'gynous. Producing male and female 
flowers on the same plant, or on the same spike 
or head. 

Andro'meda Kill Calf. A classical name, after 
the daughter of Cepheus and Cassiope, king 
and queen of .Ethiopia. Nat. Ord. Ericacece. 

A. Mariana, Stagger-bush, so common on the 
plains of Long Island, is a beautiful represen- 
tative of this genus, one much sought alter in 
Europe, where it is considered one of the 
finest American plants. They are beautiful 
shrubs, growing about two feet high, with 
leaves similar to those of the privet ; flowers 
white, in spikes or racemes three to eight 
inches long, i produced in June. They are 
conspicuous throughout the season on account 
of their form and foliage. The foliage is said 
to poison lambs and calves. 




Andropo'gon. Beard grass. A genus of grasses 
of but little value, either for agricultural 
puiposes, or as objects of interest in the 
garden. They have the ■widest geographical 
range ; several of the ..species are common on 
our coasts, growing in dry sandy soils. 

Andro'sace. From aner, a man, and aakoa, a 
buckler, in reference to the resemblance of 
the anther to an ancient buckler. Nat. Ord. 

• PfimulacecB. 

The species forming this genus (which is 
nearly allied to the Primula) are elegant little 
' plants from the Alps. They consist of annuals, 
biennials, and perennials, all perfectly hardy, 
and vrell adapted for rook-work on partially 
exposed spots. Propagated by cuttings, or 
from seeds. 

Aneile'ma. A genus of green-house perennials 
belonging to the Nat. Ord. CommelynacecB. 

They are generally of a trailing or creeping 
habit and are useful for hanging baskets, etc. 
Natives of New Holland and China. Flowers 

Ane'mia. Frdm ameimon, nated; in reference 
to the naked inflorescence. Nat. Ord. Poly- 

An extensive genus of tropical Ferns. There 
are numerous species in the West Indies and 
South America, some of which are of an 
ornamental character, and are much prized in 
collections. A. adiantifolia is one of the most 
beautiful. The genus is more interesting to 
the botanist than the florist. Propagated by 
spores or division, 

Anemidi'ctyon. Included now with the genus 

Auemo'ne. Wind Flower. From anemos, the 
wind; inhabiting exposed places. Nat. Ord. 

The species are showy flowering plants, 
valued for their hardy nature, and also because 
they will flower at any required season, accord- 
ing to the time the roots are kept out of the 
ground. The roots of A. coronaria are solid, 
flattened masses, closely resembling ginger. 
They should be planted in the garden as early 
in the spring as possible, in very rich soil and 
in partial shade. When the tops are dead, 
take up and store in a dry, airy place, or 
in boxes of dry sand until the planting 
season. For indoor cultivation they can be 
planted at any time in very rich soil in 
pots or boxes. The prevailing colors are 
red, white and blue ; flowers double or 
semi-double. A. Japorvica Is one of the most 
beautiful of garden flowers giving a profusion 
of bloom from August till November, and even 
later if protected. The flowers of A. Japonica 
alba are two to three inches across, pure white, 
with'a centre of deep lemon-colored stamens, 
and are invaluable for cutting. Introduced 
from Japan in 1844. One of the earliest spring 
flowers is A. jiemoroaa, the white Wind Flower 
of our woods. A. Pulsatilla and its varieties, 
with whitish, violet and purple flowers, are 
known in English gardens as Paaqve Flowers. 

Ane'thum. See JDill. 

Angels' Eyes. Veronica Chamcedrys. 

Angels' Trumpets. A popular name for the 
flowers of Brugmamsia auaveolena. 

Ange'lica. The name was given in reference to 


the supposed angelic medicinal virtues of some 
species. Nat. Ord. UmhellifercB. 

One of the species, A. Curtisii, is common in 
moist places, from Pennsylvania southward. 
The "intrinsic virtues" that it was once 
supposed to possess are entirely lost, its great 
virtue now consisting in its eflicacy as a trap 
for earwigs. If the stem be cut in short pieces 
and thrown among plants, those pests will 
creep into the hollow stems, and their de- 
struction is simple and easy. 
Ange'lica-tree. See Aralia apinosa. 
Angelo'nia. From angelon, its local name in 
South America. Nat. Ord. SerophulariaceoB. 

A genus of very handsome herbaceous 
perennials, growing from one to three feet 
high, and producing dense terniinal racemes 
of deep violet colored and blue flowers. 
Natives of South America ; propagated by cut- 
tings of the young shoots. Introduced in 1846. 
Angio'pteris. From aggeion, a vessel, and pteris, 
a wing. Nat. Ord. Polypodiacem. 

A small genus of noble tropical ferns, com- 
mon in Ceylon, India and the islands of the 
Eastern Archipelago. It is a remarkably hand- 
some genus, but the plants are too large to be 
of use in the green-house. 
Angrae'cum. From amgurek, the Malayan name 
for air plants. Nat. Ord. OrchidacecB. 

An extensive genus of tropical Orchids, 
embracing a number of classes that are mere 
weeds and a few very rare and beautiful spe- 
cies. Among the latter is A. sesquipedale, a 
magnificent plant, a native of Madagascar, 
where it grows in great profusion, covering 
trees from top to bottom. The stems are 
three to four feet high, the foliage about a 
foot long, dark, shining green; flowers six 
inches in diameter, ivory white, with a tail 
from ten to eighteen inches long. Unlike 
many of this order, the plants flower when 
quite small. The flowers have a powerful fra- 
grance, particularly at night. There are about 
forty species, nearly all natives of tropical or 
South Africa and the Mascarene Islands. 
Angulo'a. In honor of Angulo, a Spanish natur- 
alist. Nat. Ord. OrchidacecB. 

A small genus of very remarkable terrestrial 
Orchids, inhabiting the forests of tropical 
America. They have broad, ribbed leaves, 
short, leafy scapes, bearing a single large, 
fleshy flower, white, yellow, or spotted with 
crimson, on a pale yellow ground. There are 
several of the species under cultivation. They 
are increased by division. Introduced in 1845. 
' Angu'ria. One of the Greek names for the 
Cucumber. Nat. Ord. Oucvirhitacem. 

A genus of climbing plants allied to Momor- 
dica. They have a somewhat four-angled 
fruit, and some of the species are well worth 
cultivating. Natives of South America. 
Auigoza'nthus. From anoigo, to expand, and 
anthoa, a flower ; in reference to the branching 
expansion of the flower-stalks. 

A curious and handsome genus of Haemodo- 
racece from the Swan Elver district of Austra- 
lia, including some very distinct and pecuUar 
species. They are perennial tufted-growing 
plants, with erect stems, clothed with short, 
thick, persistent, velvety down, which, as it 
contrasts with the rather large, yellow or dark 
purple flowers, makes them desirable plants 
for green-house decoration. 




Animated Oats. See Avena. 

Anise. Pimpinella aniaum. 

Aniseed Tree. See lUieiim. 

Annuals. These include all plants ■which spring 
from the seed, flower and die within the course 
of a year. Many, however, which are not 
strictly of annual duration, but which are 
sown every year, In preference to housing the 
roots over winter, are generally classed under 
the head of Annuals. To produce the best 
results where such seeds are to be sown in the 
open border, the soil should be enriched with 
stable manure or other fertilizer, just as for a 
crop of vegetables or fruits ; thoroughly dug, 
and raked level and smooth. The location for 
nearly all kinds of Annual flowers should be 
free from shade, though many sorts will suc- 
ceed well where they get sunlight for half the 
day only. Hardy Annuals are those which 
require ,no artificial aid to enable them to 
develop, but grow and flower freely in the 
open air. All such may be sown in the open 
ground as soon as the soil is dry enough in 
spring to work. Tender Annuals are generally 
of tropical origin, and should not be sown in 
the vicinity of New York until the first week 
in May. Indeed, the best rule for all sections 
of the country, from Maine to Florida, is not 
to sow the tender kinds until such time as the 
farmers begin to plant Com, Melons and 
Cucumbers. Many seeds of Annuals may be 
sown thickly and transplanted, thinning them 
out sufficiently to allow the plants to develop 
and exhibit their true character. Successive 
sowings of many of the showy species will be 
found to prolong their flowering season. They 
are usually sown in rows from six to twenty- 
four inches apart, or In circular patches of 
from one to two feet in diameter, each circle 
being from one to two feet apart, accordmg to 
the growth of the variety. But whether sown 
in rows or in circular patches, the soil should 
be first loosened, so that the seed may be cov- 
ered from one quarter of an inch to one inch 
in depth. After the seed is sown, shake over 
it fine soil, sufficient to cover the seeds, lighter 
or heavier according to their size. It is a 
good plan to place a label in the centre of each 
circular patch or at the end of each row, so as 
to mark where the seed has been sown, for in 
nearly all soils there are the seeds of weeds, 
which spring up often quicker than the flower 
seeds do ; therefore it is necessary to know 
exactly where the seeds have been sown, so 
that the weeds can be pulled out or hoed up, 
and not crowd and smother the young seed- 
lings. Some of the more tender Annuals 
require to be started in the green-house or 
hot-bed, and, after being potted off into small 
pots, and gradually hardened off, planted out 
where they are to remain. 

Annular. Having a rlng-Uke form. 

Ance'ctochi'lus. From anoiktoa, open, and c/tei- 
lo8, a lip; the apex spreading. Nat. Ord. 

These admired littleplants have small, white, 
rather inconspicuous flowers, but the want of 
beauty here is fully compensated for, in the 
rich and lovely markings of the leaves, which 
are covered with a gold network on a choco- 
late-colored or olive-green velvet like ground. 
They should be potted in a mixture of leaf- 
• mould, sphagnum and silver sand, and a bell- 


glass kept continually over them, in the 
warmest part of the hot-house, in order to 
assimilate their present condition with their 
native one in the hot, humid jungles of the 
East, whence they have been derived. First 
introduced from Java In 1836. 

Anomalous. Irregular, unusual, contrary to 
rule ; as where a plant is very unlike the great 
majority of those to which it is most nearly 

Auomathe'oa. From anomoa, singular, and 
theca, a capsule or seed pod. Nat. Ord. Irid- 

Interesting little bulbous-rooted plants from 
the Cape of Good Hope. A. eruenta is useful 
for planting in masses, as ii; produces its 
blood-colored flowers in great profusion. They 
may be increased to almost any extent from 
seed, and the young plants will bloom the 
same season if sown in a gentle heat about 
the early part of March, and afterward 
removed to the open air. 

Ano'na. Custard Apple. From Menona, its 
Banda name. Nat. Ord. Anonacece. 

A South American and West Indian genus of 
shrubs and trees, where several of the species 
are cultivated for the sake of their fruits. A. 
muricata, the rough Custard Apple, is a middle- 
sized tree, growing abundantly on the savan- 
nahs in Jamaica, and bearing a large, oval 
fruit of a greenish yellow color, covered with 
small knobs on the outside, and containing a 
white pulp, having a flavor compounded of 
sweet and acid, and very cooling and agree- 
able. It is, however, too common to be much 
esteemed by the wealthier people, though it is 
much sought after and relished by the negroes. 
The odor and taste of the whole plant is simi- 
lar to that of the black currant. This fruit is 
called by the natives Sour-sop. A. aquamoaa 
is a low-growing tree or shrub, common in 
both the East and West Indies. The fruit is 
nearly the size of the head of an artichoke, 
scaly, and of a greenish yellow color. The 
rind is strong and thick ; but the pulp is deli- 
cious, having the odor of rose-water, and tast- 
ing like clotted cream mixed with sugar. It 
is, like many other fruits, said to have a much 
finer flavor In the Indian Archipelago than in 
the West Indies. The local name for this fruit 
is Sweet-sop. A. cherimolia, a South American 
species, is known as the Cherimoyer in Peru, 
where it is accounted one of their best fruits. 
The tree which produces this fruit has a trunk 
about ten feet high ; the leaves are oval, and 
pointed at both ends ; the flowers are solitary, 
very fragrant, and of a greenish color; the 
fruit is large, heart-shaped, rough on the out- 
side, and greyish-brown, or nearly black, when 
ripe. The flesh, in which the seeds are con- 
tained, is soft, sweet and pleasant, and highly 
esteemed both by natives and foreigners. A. 
paluatria yields the Alligator Apple, which fruit 
is shining and smooth in appearance, sweet 
and not unpleasant to the taste ; but it is a 
strong narcotic, and therefore not generally 
eaten. The wood of the Alligator Apple tree 
is so soft and compressible, that the people 
of Jamaica call it cork-wood, and employ it for 

Ano'ptenis. From cmo, upward, and pteron, a 
wing; in reference to the seeds, which are 
winged at the apex. Nat. Ord. 8<xxifragace<B. 




A. glandulosa, the only species introduced 
into our green-houses, is a very beautiful 
shrub, remarkable for its large, handsome 
leaves, and axillary panicles or spikes of large 
■white and pink flowers. Introduced from Van 
Diemen's Land in 1846. Propagated by eut- 

Anse'lUa. In honor of Mr. Ansell, the botanical 
collector ■who accompanied the ill-fated Niger 
expedition. Nat. Ord. OrchidacecB. 

A small genus of epiphytal Orchids. A. Afri- 
cana is a very beautiful plant, found growing 
on oil-palm trees in the island of Fernando 
Po. It has a tall stem resembling the sugar 
cane ; broad, strap-shaped leaves, and large, 
drooping panicles of greenish flo^wers, blotched 
■with purple. The plant flowers in January, 
and keeps in perfection for several months. 
Propagated by division. Introduced in 1844. 

Antenna'ria. Prom antennm, feelers; in refer- 
ence to the downy heads of the seeds. Nat. 
Ord. ComposUm. 

A genus of herbaceous perennials, widely 
disseminated throughout this country and 
Europe. Some of the species are used as bed- 
ding plants. A. Margaritacea, a native spe- 
cies, popularly known as Pearly Everlasting, 
is a favorite garden plant in Europe 

Anterior. Placed in front, or outwards. 

A'nth.einis. Chamomile. From anthemon, a 
flower ; in reference to the great number of 
flowers produced. Nat. Ord. Composite^. 

The genus of plants to which the Chamomile 
belongs, the flowers of which are much valued 
as a tonic, and for other medicinal properties. 
A. tinctoria furnishes a yellow dye.. A. Pyre- 
thrum,, the Pellitory of Spain, is a pretty little 
perennial, with large white flowers, stained 
with lilac on the back. Miller raised this 
plant in a rather curious way in 1732, finding 
its seeds among some Malaga raisins to which 
they had adhered. 

Anthe'ricum. From anthoa, a flower, and herkos, 
a hedge ; in reference to the tall flower stems. 
Nat. Ord. Liliacem. 

A. lAliastrum, avery pretty hardy herbaceous 
plant, has broadish grassy leaves, and a flower 
stalk one and a half to two feet high, bearing 
many "large, pure white, sweet-scented flow- 
ers, marked on each segment with a green dot. 
This is commonly called St. Bruno's Lily. A. 
vittatum variegatum, a species of recent intro- 
duction, from the Cape of Good Hope, has 
foliage of a bright grassy green color, beauti- 
fully striped and margined with creamy white. 
In variegation and habit it closely resembles 
Pandanus Veitchii, but is of more rapid growth 
and easy of cultivation. It has a hardy con- 
stitution, not as against cold, but as against 
the dry atmosphere and gases of the drawing- 
room, which makes it a valuable plant for the 
conservatory or for filling in baskets, jardin. 
ieres, or rustic designs. The method of prop- 
agating this species is both interesting and 
peculiar. Buds or short shoots are formed on 
the flower stems, which, put in as cuttings in 
the ordinary way, root rapidly. It is also 
propagated by seeds or division of roots. In- 
troduced from the Cape of Good Hope in 1824. 

Antherl'dia. The reproductive organs in crypto- 
gamio plants, analogous to anthers in flower- 
ing plants. 


Antholy'za. From amthos, a flower, and lyasa, 
rage ; in reference to the opening of the flower 
like the mouth of an enraged animal. Nat. 
Ord. IridacecB. 

A pretty genus of Cape bulbs, like the Ano- 
inatheca, but of stronger habit. They should 
be grown in light, rich earth, and have the 
protection of a frame, or some other cover- 
ing, in winter, to exclude frost. Scarlet and 
orange are the prevailing colors of the flowers. 
Introduced from the Cape of Good Hope in 
1759. Propagated by offsets. 

Anthospe'rmuiu. Amber Tree. From anthoa, 
a flower, and aperma, a seed. Nat. Ord. Rvbi- 

An ornamental evergreen shrub, from the 
Cape ofGoodHope. A. ^thopicum is an inter- 
esting plant, with verticillate spikes of green 
and white flowers, thriving best in peat, loam 
and sand. Increased by cuttings. 

Anthoxa'nthum. Sweet-scented Vernal Grass. 
From anthoa, a flower, and xomthua, yellow. 
Nat. Ord. Oraminacem. 

A small genus of grasses found in nearly all 
the temperate portions of the globe. A. odor- 
atwm, the best known species, is a native of 
Europe, but has become thoroughly natural- 
ized in this country, so much so that it is gen- 
erally supposed indigenous. This is one of 
the earliest spring grasses, as well as one of 
the latest in autumn, and is almost the only 
grass that is fragrant. It possesses a property 
said to be peculiar to this species, known as 
coumarin, which not only gives it its aromatic 
odor, but imparts it to other grasses with 
which it is cured. Professor Johnstone says 
the fragrant resinous principle which occurs 
in this grass is the same which gives fragrance 
to the Tonka Bean, to the Faham Tea of the 
Mauritius, and to the Melilotus Alba. The 
vapor of coumarin is stated to act powerfully 
on the brain, and it is supposed by many that 
hay fever, to which many persons are liable, 
may be owing to the presence of this substance 
in unusual quantities during the period of 
hay-making. This grass possesses but little 
value of itself, as its nutritive properties are 
slight; nor is it much relished by stock of 
any kind. A slight mixture of it with other 
grasses is sometimes used because of its early 

Authri'scus. Chervil. Derivation of name 
uncertain, but said to have been given by 
Pliny. Nat. Ord. Umbelliferm. 

A small genus of mostly uninteresting 
plants, common throughout Europe. There 
are but two species under cultivation. A. 
cerefoliwrn, the common Chervil, an annual 
plant indigenous to various parts of Europe, is 
sometimes naturalized in and around old gar- 
dens. It rises to nearly two feet in height, 
the leaves are of a very delicate texture, three 
times divided, and the flowers, which are of 
a whitish color, appear in June. The tender 
leaves are much used in soups and salads, and 
those of a curled variety in garnishing. It is 
easily grown from seed, which should be sown 
early in May. A. bulbo8-a8.(syn. Chcmrophyllvmi 
tulbosum), the tuberous-rooted Chervil, is a 
native of France, where it is cultivated to 
some extent as a vegetable. In size and shape 
the root attains the size of a small carrot. It 
is outwardly of a grey color, but when cut the 
flesh is white, mealy, and by no means 




unpleasant to the taste. Wlien boiled the 
flavor is intermediate between that of the 
chestnut and potato, in consequence of which 
it has been recommended by English horti- 
culturists for cultivation as a substitute for 
the latter root. 
Anthu'rium. Prom anthoa, a flower, and oura, 
a tail ; referring to the inflorescence. Nat. Ord. 

This very large genus of stove and green- 
house plants, natives of Central and Tropical 
America, for the most part growing upon trees 
or in their forks, is remarkable both for the 
peculiar inflorescence, and often noble and 
beautifully veined and colored leaves, and is 
distinguished in structure from all the Europe- 
an members of the family in the flowers being 
hermaphrodite. Of those species most admired 
for their flowers, A. Andreanum and A. 
Scherzeirianum, are the most noticeable. The 
singular form and intense coloring of the 
flowers, together with the gracefully-curved 
foliage, and long duration of the flowers, render 
them most valuable plants for the decoration 
of the warm green-house. A. Splendidvm, A. 
Regale, A. Cryatallinwm, and many other 
beautiful species are grown for their magnif- 
icent foliage and are indispensable in a 
collection of stove plants. 

Anthy'IUs. From anthos, a flower, and ioulos, 
down ; literally downy flower. Nat. Ord. 

A genus of trailing herbs or shrubs, annuals 
and perennials. About twenty species are 
known, chiefly from the countries bordering on 
the Mediterranean Sea, most of which are 
uninteresting plants. A. vulneraria, is a 
native of Great Britain, and is frequently met 
in dry pastures near the sea. The leaves are 
large, of a bluish tinge and downy. The 
flowers are yellow, and grow in crowded 
heads, mostly in pairs. Its popular name is 
Kidney Vetch, or Lady's Fingers. A. Barba- 
Jovis, is an evergreen shrub, a native of 
the South of Europe. It has pinnate leaves, 
and yellow flowers, and the whole plant has a 
silvery appearance, from which it has derived 
its name of Jupiter's Beard and the Silver- 
bush. This is a very handsome shrub, but not 
hardy north of the Carolinas. 

Antia'ris. Upas Tree. From antja, its Java name. 
Nat. Ord. Artocarpacem. 

A. toxicaria ia the fabled Upas Tree of Java, 
which furnishes a deadly poison in the form of 
a milky juice that exudes when slightly bruised 
or cut. The exaggerated accounts, that no 
other plants, or animals, or birds could live 
near the tree; that the death penalty was 
satisfied if the criminal would cut from the 
tree a branch or collect some of its juices, 
were effectually dispelled by Mr. Davidson, 
author of TvaMe and Travel in the Par East, 
who, with anumberof friends, climbed up into 
the tree, took lunth, smoked their cigars, and 
enjoyed a few hours socially in its branches. 
The Upas has undoubtedly derived its evil 
reputation chiefly from its having been found 
growing in the celebrated valley of Java, 
where, through volcanic agency, there is a 
constant evolution of carbonic acid gas, fatal 
to air-breathing animals, and where both 
man and beast frequently fall victims to this 
invisible danger. "As if to prove the saying 
that reality is more strange than Action, at 


least in botany, the very nearest plant in 
aflanity, to this deadly poisonous tree, is the 
.Cow Tree of South America, whose milky juice 
is as wholesome as that of an ' Alderney,' and 
that the Bread Fruit Tree is also closely allied 
to the Upas." 

Antigo'non. From anti, against or opposite, 
and gonia, an angle. A splendid genus of 
green-house climbing plants, belonging to the 
Nat. Ord. Polygonacece. 

A. leptopus, a native of Nicaragua, is a 
magnificent climber for the stove-house, rival- 
ling the Bougainvillea in the color and abund- 
ance of its flowers. The chief attraction of 
the flowers is afforded by the sepals, which are 
half an inch long, of a bright rose color. As> 
the flowers are produced in such great pro- 
fusion, the plant in its season of flowering 
presents a brilliant and extremely showy 
appearance. Its discoverer. Dr. Seeman, writes 
respecting it : "I am well acquainted with the 
contents of our gardens and the vegetation of 
most parts of the world, but I have no hesita- 
tion in giving it as my deliberate opinion that 
there is no more graceful or beautiful climber 
than Antigonon leplopua." 

Antigra'nune. From anti, like, and gramma, 
writing. Alluding to the arrangement of the 
sori. Nat. Ord. Polypodiacem. 

This genus is composed of two species of 
tender ferns, natives of Brazil. A. Braailiensis, 
is a simple-fronded Fern, with something of 
the habit of the Bird's-nest Pern, AspUnium 
Nidus, but, in a mature state of a glaucous 
opaque green-color, and remarkable in the 
young plants, for having a broad band of 
silvei-y-gray on each side of the central midrib 
of the frond, giving it a variegated appearance. 
Propagated by seeds. Introduced in 1780. 

This genus is now included under Scolopen- 
driv/m, by some authors. 

Antirrbi'num. Snapdragon. Derived from 
anti, similar, and rhin, nose. The flowers of 
most of the species resemble the snout of 
some animal. Nat. Ord. Scrophulariacem. 

Annual and perennial plants, natives of the 
middle and south of Europe, and of which one 
species, A. majus, the common Snapdragon, 
is in every garden. - There are many varieties 
of this species, the finest of which, A. m. cary- 
ophylloides, has the flowers striped like those 
of a flaked Carnation. All the species of Snap- 
dragon grow in any soil that is tolerably dry, 
and they are readily increased by cuttings; 
for though they produce abundance of seeds, 
yet the varieties can only be perpetuated 
with certainty by the former modfe of pi-opa- 
gation. The beautiful carnation-like variety 
will, indeed, vei-y seldom produce striped flow- 
ers two years in succession from the same 
root ; and thus a person who has purchased a 
plant with beautifully-striped flowers will gen- 
erally have the mortification, the second year, 
of finding it produce nothing but flowers of 
the common Snap-dragon, unless cuttings have 
been made from the young shoots of the plant, 
and the old root thrown away. As this plant, 
in its wild state, is very commonly found 
growing on the tops of old walls, it may be 
considered as one of the most ornamental 
plants for placing in such a situation. 

Ants. See Insects. 




Ao'tU3. Prom a, not, and ovs, ear ; the ear-like 
appendages to the calyx are wanting. Nat. 
Ord. LeguminosoR. 

A somewhat extensive genus of small ever- 
green shrubs from New Holland, They are 
slender plants, with heath-like leaves, 
arranged in whorls a,round the stem. The 
flowers are pea-shaped, bright yellow, on short 
stalks. A. gracillima, a native of West Aus- 
tralia, is a favorite species for the green-house. 
It is a slender shrub, with copious yellow 
flowers, which are so thickly set on the stems 
as to hide the leaves from view. Botanists 
report several very beautiful species not yet 
in cultivation. Propagated by seeds or cut- 
tings. Introduced in 1844. 

Apetalous. Without petals. 

Aphela'ndra. Prom apheles, simple, and aner, 
a male; the anthers being one-celled. Nat. 
Ord. AcanthacecB. 

A small genus of dwarf shrubs from tropical 
America, allied to the Jvstida. A. cristata is 
a remarkably handsome hot-house plant, pro- 
ducing large spikes of orange-scarlet flowers. 
A. aurantiaca has no less handsome flowers of 
light orange color, and grows freely in the 
green-house. A. MargaritcB has bright orange 
or apricot-colored flowers, growing in short, 
terminal spikes. The leaves are barred with 
svhite on each side of the midrib ; underneath 
they are of a clear, rose color ; a very showy 
species, introduced from Central America in 
1884. They are increased by cuttings. 

Aphele'zis. Prom apheles, simple, and exia, 
habit. Nat. Ord. Compositw. 

Green-house evergreen shrubs, from the 
Cape of Good Hope, having much resemblance 
to that class of everlasting flowers known as 
Helichrysum. The genus is composed of five 
species, aU of them having very small leaves, 
which are closely pressed to the stem like 
those of club-moss. The flowers are solitary, 
of a pink or yellow color, in small clusters of 
two or three. A. hwmilis and its varieties 
are most showy and valuable green-house 
plants. When in bloom they remain in per- 
fection for six or seven weeks. Propagated 
by cuttings, or from seeds. Introduced in 

Aphides. See Insects. 

Aphylla'nthes. Its stems are like a rush, and 
bear on their summits a little tuft of flowers ; 
hence the name, from aphyllos, leafless, and 
anthos, a flower. Nat. Ord. LiliacecB. 

A small genus of hardy, herbaceous, rush- 
like perennials, common in Southern Europe. 
The flower scape is very slender and grass- 
like and bears a cluster of small blue flowers, 
that are of but short duration. This plant is 
of considerable interest to the botanist, but 
not of the slightest use to the florist or gar- 

Aphy'Uon. Naked Broom Ilape. A genus of 
Orohanchaeea, comprising two species, both 
natives of this country. They are character- 
ized by their solitary braotless flowers, regu- 
larly five-cleft calyx, and almost regular 
corolla. The flowers are perfect, purplish, on 

< long, naked scapes or peduncles. The plants 
are brownish or yellowish. 

Aphy'llous. Destitute of leaves. It sometimes 
signifies their partial or imperfect produc- 


Api'ora. A division of succulents allied to the 
Aloe, and comprising along with Haworthia a 
group of species of very different aspect from 
the great cylindrical or tubular-flowered Aloes 
more commonly associated with the name. 
The present are dwarf or stemless plants, with 
very crowded leaves and slender flower scapes, 
bearing erect greenish-white flowers. 

Apiculate. Terminated in a little point. 

A'pios. Prom apion, a pear , in reference to the 
form of the roots. Nat. Ord. Leguminosm. 

A. tuberosa, the only species, is found in the 
woods and hedges from Massachusetts to the 
Carolinas. It is an elegant climbing plant, 
allied to the Wistaria. It bears large clusters 
of brownish-purple, sweet-scented flowers in 
July. Eeadily propagated by division of 
tubers, which are edible. Commonly known 
as Ground-nut, and erroneously as Tuberous 

A'pium. Prom apon, Celtic for water ; in refer- 
ence to the habitat of the genus. Nat. Ord. 

Though this genus contains but a few spe- 
cies, two of our best known vegetables belong 
to it, viz.: The "Celery," A. graveolens, and 
"Parsley," A. petroselirmm, for culture of 
which, see under their respective names. 

Aple'ctrum. Putty Boot. Adam and Eve. 
Prom a, not, and plekt/ron, a spur ; the flower 
without spurs. Nat. Ord. Orchidacem. 

A, hyemale, the only species, is a hardy 
bulbous Orchid. The flowers are produced in 
summer in a raceme a foot or more high, apd 
are of a dingy color, more curious than bean- 
tiful. The plant is occasionally found in the 
Northern and Eastern States. 

Aplopa'ppus. A synonym of Haplopappus, 
a genus of Compositm, of but little interest. 

Apocyna'ceas. A large natural order of trees, 
shrubs and herbs, with simple, opposite, some- 
times alternate or whorled leaves. Most of 
the species inhabit tropical countries ; the 
northern forms are the Vinca or Periwinkle, 
Nerium or 01eander,'and a few more. In gen- 
eral the species form a poisonous, acrid, milky 
secretion, which renders them dangerous ; but 
others are mild enough in their action to be 
useful ill medicine, and in a few cases the milk 
is bland enough to form a palatable beverage. 
Well-known genera belonging to this order 
are Alla/manda, Nerium, Tabernmmontcma, and 
Vinca. About 600 species are known, distri- 
buted through about 100 genera. 

Apo'oynum. Indian Hemp. Prom apo, from, 
and kyon, a dog; poisonous to dogs. Nat. 
Ord. ApocynacecB. 

A genus of hardy herbaceous perennials. In- 
digenous throughout the United States. ' A. 
cannahinvmi is commonly called Indian Hemp, 
from the fact of the Indians using the fibrous 
bark as a substitute for hemp in making their 
fishing-nets, mats, clothing, and various other 
articles for which the true Hemp is generally 
used. A. androscmdfolium is termed by Eng- 
lish botanists the "Ply Trap of North Amer- 
ica," and is cultivated as-an objectof curiosity. 
They do not class it as insectiverous further 
than that its flowers catch and kill the flies, 
but do not feed upon them. None of the spe- 
cies possesses sufficient beauty to warrant its 
introduction into the garden. 




Aponoge'ton, Water Hawthorn. The name is 
derived from the Celtic apon, water, and the 
Greeli word geiton, near ; the species growing 
in water. Nat. Ord. Naiadacem. 

A genus of interesting aquatics, inhabiting 
the waters of the Cape of Good Hope, the 
East Indies and Australia. A. diatachyon is a 
handsome aquatic plant, remarkable for its 
floating branched spikes of small fragrant 
white flowers. This species is a native of the 
Cape of Good Hope, but will flourish in a lake 
or stream if planted at a depth of about two 
feet of water. In appearance it resembles a 
Pondweed {Potamogeton), except that it is of a 
clear green color, without any tinge of brown. 
The leaves float on the surface of the water, 
are oblong, about 18 iaches long when full 
grown, flat, and have three distinct veins run- 
ning parallel with the main rib. A charming 
variety, with rose-tinted flowers, is also in cuU 
tlvation, having been introduced in 1885, 

Appendiculate. Having appendages. 

Applanate. Flattened out. 

Apple. Pyrus Malita. The history of the Apple 
shares obscurity with all the fruits, vegetables, 
and flowers that were in cultivation before any 
records were kept ; consequently speculation 
must take the place of facts in connection with 
the early histoiy of this valuable fruit. The 
general opinion is that the origin of the culti- 
vated Apple is the wild Crab, which is found 
indigenous in nearly all parts of Europe, as 
well as in most parts of the United States. 

The Apple can only be grown in small 
gardens as a dwarf, either kept in a bush form 
or trained as a pyramid or other shape. Two 
sorts of dwarfing stocks are used by nursery- 
men, the Doucin and the Paradise. Trees 
upon the Doucin will ultimately grow quite 
large ; and as the Paradise is the only stock 
which makes really dwarf trees, the amateur 
who wishes to grow dwarf apple-trees should 
make sure that they are worked on Paradise 
stocks. Of course, trees of this kind are not 
advised as a source of profit ; but there can 
scarcely be a handsomer object in the garden 
than a bush six feet high, and about the same 
through, loaded with enormous apples. The 
following sorts are recommended for garden 
culture. (For descriptions, see nursery cata- 
logues.) Baldwin, Gravenstein, Khode Island 
Greening, King of Tompkins County, Maiden's 
Blush, Bsopus Spitzenberg, Early Harvest, 
Northern Spy, Porter, Pall Pippin, Stump, 
Hubbardston Nonsuch and Jonathan, etc. 

Apple, Adam's. Citrus Idmetta. 
Alligator. Anona palvstris. 
Balsam. Momordica Balaamma. 
Beef. Sapota rugosa. 
Bitter. CviCwmia (Citrulhis) Colocynthia. 
Cherry. Pyrus baccata. 
Chinese. Pyrus {Malus) Spectahilis. 
Dead Sea or of Sodom. The fruit of Solamium 
Sodomevm, also applied to the galls of 
Qiiercus infectoria. 
Devil's, Mcmdiragora officinalis. 
Elephant's. Feromia elephantv/m. 
Golden. .Mgle marmelos, and Spamdms hUea. 
Kangaroo. Solamwm ladmatmn. 
Love. Lycopersioum esculentwm, or Tomato. 
May. Passiflora incarnaia, also Podophyllum, 

Mamme. Mcm/mea Americana. 
Monkey. Clusia flava. 


Apple. N. American Crab. Pyrus Coronaria. 
Oak. A gall produced by insects on the leaves 

and twigs of the Oak. 
Of Jerusalem. Momordica Balsa/mma. 
Of Paradise. CUrus medica. A fruit used by 

the Jews at the feast of Tabernacles. 
Of Scripture. Probably the 'Apricot, Pnmas 
Armeniaca, or the Quince, Cydonia vulgaris. 
Of the Earth. An old name lor Aristolochia 

rotunda and Cyclamen. 
Oregon Crab. Pyrus rimilaris. 
Paradise. Pyrus malus prcecox, much used for 

grafting and budding superior sorts upon. 
Eose. The various species of Eugemia. 
Sugar. Anona squamosa. 
Thorn. Datura Stramonium. 
Wild Balsam. Echimocystis lobata. 
Wild Star. Chrysophyllwm olivwforme. 
Apple-Berry. Australian. The genus Bittar- 

diera, which see. 
Apple-Mint. Mentha rotvindifolia. 
Apple-Scented Geranium. Pelargonium odor- 

Apple-Tree of Australia. Ehusalyptus Stuartiama. 

Apple-Tree of New South Wales. Angophora 

Apple-Tree of Victoria. An^gophora lanceolata. 

Apple-Wood. Feronia elephamtum. 

Apricot. Prumus Armemaca. The Apricot is a 
native of Central Asia, China, Japan, Armenia, 
and Arabia. In all these countries it is 
found in its native state, and is also exten- 
sively cultivated. The difference in the 
quality of this fruit in its wild and cultivated 
states is not so great as in most other fruits, 
nature having left less work for man to do in 
order to enjoy it in its highest condition. 
The fruit or pulp of the wild Apricot, however, 
does not compare with many of the cultivated 
varieties that have resulted from selections, 
yet it is a fair and wholesome fruit. The 
Apricot is extensively grown in China and 
Japan, and the natives employ It variously In 
the arts. The Persians also grow this fruit 
extensively ; so highly do they esteem it that 
they call it the "Seed of the Sun." The Apricot 
was introduced into England in 1524 by Wooll, 
the gardener to Henry VIII. Parkinson (1629) 
mentions eight varieties. Since then many 
varieties have been added to the list which is by 
no means so extensive as that of other kinds of 
fruit. The ravages of the Curcullo prevent the 
cultivation of this excellent fruit in some 
parts of this country; but for that pest it 
could be produced in the greatest abundance 
at a very low price. 

Apterous. Without wings. 

Aqua'tic Plants. The culturb of Aquatic Plants 
is most interesting, and is yearly becoming 
better understood. Many of the more tender 
sorts can be protected during winter, and 
give quantities of flowers during the summer 
and autumn months (see Nymphwa). A 
number of species of the following genera are 
well worthy of attention. Aponogeton, Butomus, 
Cyperaa, Bamasondum, Calla, Uottonia, Limn 
nocharis, Memyamthes, Nehmbium, Nvphar, 
Nymphim, Omirandra, Pistia, Pontederia, 
Polygonum, Sagittaria, Salvinia, ThaUa, Trapa, 
Typha, Villarsia, Victoria, etc. 

Aqua'ticus. Living in water. 

Aquatilis. Living under water. 









Aquifo'Ua'ceae. The common Holly Tree Bex 
Aquilfolium, is the type of this small natural 
order of shrubs and trees. The species may be 
said to possess in general, emetic qualities, 
variously modified in various instances. Bird- 
lime is obtained from the bark of the common 
Holly, and the beautiful white wood is much 
esteemed by cabinet-makers for inlaying. 
A decoction of Ilex vomitoria, called Black 
Brink, was used by the Creek Indians at the 
opening of their Councils, and it acts as a 
mild emetic. But the most celebrated pro- 
duct of the order is Mat6, or Paraguay Tea, the 
dried leaves of Ilex Paraguariensis, which see. 
There are about 150 species, and the follow- 
ing genera Byronda, Ilex, and Nemopamthes. 
The order is sometimes known as IllicmecB. 

A.quila'ria. Eagle Wood. From aquila, an eagle ; 
locally called Eagle-wood in Malacca, where it 
abounds. Nat. Ord. Aquilmriacem. 

A small genus of tropical evergreen shrubs 
and trees. A. Agallocha, a large tree inhabit- 
ing Silket, and provided with alternate lanceo- 
late leaves, furnishes an odoriferous wood 
called Aloes-wood, or Eagle-wood. The wood 
contains an abundance of resin, and. an 
essential oil, which is separated and highly 
esteemed as a perfume. The Orientals burn 
it in their temples for the sake of its slight 
fragrance, on which account it was used in the 
palace of Napoleon the First. 

Aquile'gia. Columbine. Prom aquila, an eagle ; 
alluding to the form of the petal. Nat. Ord. 

Perennial herbaceous plants growing from 
one to three feet high, ofwhich several species 
are very ornamental, especially, A. vulgaris, 
and its varieties. A. Canadensis is the wild 
Columbine of the United States. A. chry- 
scmtha, from the Eocky Mountains, has 
canary-colored flowers, contrasting finely with 
the blue A. alpina and A. coerulea. There are 
also many beautiful hybrids, as well as species 
In cultivation. They are of easy cultivation 
and are propagated by seeds, or by division of 
the root. 

A'rabis. Bock Cress. From Arabia ; probably 
in reference to the dry situations where many 
of the species grow. Nat. Ord. Gruciferm. 

An extensive genus of annual or perennial 
herbaceous plants, bearing white or, rarely, 
purple flowers. A. alpina has white flowers, 
which, in its native country, appear in March ; 
and A. albida flowers the greater part of the 
year, commencing in mild winters in January, 
and producing its large tufts of white blossoms 
till October. Some of the species and vari- 
eties, such BsA. verna, A. alpina nana, and A. 
bellidifoUa, do not grow above three inches 
high, and are admirable plants for rook-work. 

Ara'ceae or Aro'idese. An extensive genus of 
herbaceous plants with numerous unisexual 
or hermaphrodite flowers, closely packed 
upon a spadix, shielded when young by the 
hooded leaf called a spathe, as is seen in the 
common Indian Turnip, Ariscmna triphyllum. 
They are common in tropical countries, but 
rare in those with a cold or temperate climate. 
Most of them have tuberous rhizomes, but 
some acquire the stature of small trees, the 
most interesting of which is the Dumb Cane a 
species of Di^enbachia, others as Philo- 
chndron and Monstera haVe scrambling stems 


by which they attach themselves to the trunks 
of trees. The tuberous species all contain 
starch in such abundance that it may be 
separated in the form of arrow-root, and used 
as food, only however, atter very careful 
washing to remove the acrid juices; and the 
Ooloeaslas are grown as an article of food 
in hot countries as common field crops. 
Scarcely more than 200 species are known, 
Caladivm,, Richa/rdia, Arwm, Amorphophalhis, 
etc., are examples of this order. 

A'rachis. Peanut. From a, privative, and 
rachia, a branch ; a branchless plant. Nat. 
Ord. Legwmmosoe,. 

A. hypogcea (underground), the only species, 
is the Peanut of our shops. It is a native of 
the West Indies and West.?m Africa, but has 
become generally cultivated in all warm 
climates as an article of food, to be eaten like 
other nuts, or as food for swine. It is also 
largely cultivated in the East Indies and 
Cochin China for the oil obtained from the 
seeds, which is thin and of a straw color, 
resembling the finer kinds of olive oil. It is 
said to be of a superior quality, and for table 
use preferable to the best olive oil. It is free 
from stearine, and is used by watchmakers and 
others for delicate machinery. The plant is an 
annual, of a trailing habit, with yellow, pea^ 
shaped flowers, produced from the axils of the 
leaves in bunches of five or seven, close to or 
even under the ground. They should be 
grown in a light, sandy soil, and the stems 
covered lightly with earth when in flower, as 
the seeds are only ripened under ground. JThe 
peanut is profitably grown in nearly all of the 
Southern States. 

A'rachnis. Name from the Greek : a spider. 
Nat. Ord. Orchidacece. 

A small genus of very curious and interest- 
ing epiphytal orchids from Java; deriving 
their name from their extraordinary resem- 
blance to a spider. A. mosohifera, the best 
known species, is a very peculiar plant, some- 
what like a Renanthera in habit. The flowers 
are large, creamy white, or -lemon-color, with 
purple spots ; they are delicately scented with 
musk, and continue in perfection a long time. 

Arachnpid. Eesembling a cob-web in appear- 

Ara'lia. A name of unknown meaning. Nat. 
Ord. AraliaccB. 

This genus consists of trees, herbs and 
shrubs, mostly of an ornamental character, 
but of no value as flowering plants. The 
roots, oiA.rmdicoMlis, one of our native species 
is largely sold for sarsaparilla. A. racemosa, 
is our beautiful Spikenard, much esteemed for 
its medicinal properties. A. spinosa, one of 
our native shrubs or low trees, is common in 
cultivation, and is known as the Angelica Tree 
and Hercules Club. A. papyrifera, which 
assumes a tree form, grows in great quantities 
in the deep, swampy forests of the island of 
Formosa. The stems of this species are filled 
with pith of a very fine texture, from which is 
manufactured the celebrated rice paper of the 
Chinese, which is chiefly used in making artifi- 
cial flowers. A. Sieboldi (Syn. Fatsiajaponica) 
has large leathery, deep green leaves and is 
much used in sub-tropical and window gar- 
dening; a very beautiful variegated variety 
of this species is in cultivation. The vari- 
ous species with much divided leaves in- 




troduoed from the South Sea Islands, such 
as A. Veitchii, A. reticulata, A. gradllima, 
etc., are extremely beautiful and admirably 
suited for the warm green-house and for table 
Ara'lia'ceae. These form a small natural order 
closely approaching Umbellifers, from which 
they in reality differ in little, except in their 
fruit. They are also more generally arbores- 
cent, many of them being trees or large shrubs, 
and very few herbs. Several are conspicuous 
for their broad, noble foliage. The species are 
found in the tropical and sub-tropical regions 
of the world, and in some of the coldest, as in 
Canada, the northwest coast of America, and 
Japan. Aralia' polaris even occurs in Lord 
Auckland's Islands, In BOJ^" south latitude. 
Hedera, Panax and Aralia, are examples of 
this order. 
Arauca'ria. Prom arav/xmos, its name among 
the people in whose country the Arauearia 
imbrieata grows in Chili. Nat. Ord. Coniferm. 
The genus consists of lofty evergreen trees, 
none of which will bear the open air of the 
climate of the Northern States. The most 
beautiful of the species is A. excelsa, from 
Norfolk Island, where it is known as Norfolk 
Island Pine. It grows to the height of 200 
feet. Its symmetrical growth and deep green, 
finely-cut foliage give It a fern-like appear- 
ance. All the species are fine ornaments for the 
lawn during summer, but require the protec- 
tion of the green-house during winter. 
Propagation can be effected by cuttings, 
though a slow and uncertain process. They 
grow readUy from seed. 
Arauja, is given by Bentham and Hooker as 

the correct name of the genus Physianthue. 
Arborescent. Having a tendency to become a 

Arboretum. A collection of hardy trees formed 
for pleasure or instruction, and which, when 
well managed, is a source of much interesting 
study. They afford shelter, improve the 
local climate, renovate bad soils, etc., and also 
by concealing or hiding disagreeable objects, 
heighten the effect of agreeable ones, create 
beauty, and add value. A properly arranged 
Arboretum should be constructed with a view 
to picturesque beauty and not systematically, 
as is usually the case in Botanic Gardens, 
although scientific purposes are best served 
by a systematic arrangement. 
Arbor Vitae. A common name for TUvga. 
A'rbutus. Strawberry-tree. From arhoiae, a 
Celtic word for rough fruit. Nat. Ord. 

A genus of evergreen shrubs or low growmg 
trees, numbering about twenty species, 
natives of southern Europe, the Canary 
Islands, Chili, and in some parts of this 
country. A. itmedo is called the strawberry-tree 
from its fruit resembling a strawberry at a 
distance. It is a small tree from ten to twenty 
feet high. Flowers numerous, white, appearing 
in September or October. Fruit scarlet, ripen- 
ing the second year. This fine evergreen is 
common in southern Europe, and is also met 
about the lakes of Killarney, in Ireland. The 
fruit of this species, when eaten in quantites is 
said to be narcotic. A wine is made from it in 
Corsica, but it has the same property as the 
fruit. In Spain both a sugar and a spirit are 


obtained from it. The bark and leaves of 
the same plant are used as astringents ; in 
some parts of Greece they are employed in 
tanning leather. It is cultivated, where the 
climate will permit, as an ornamental shrub, 
and as it ripens its fruit the second year, it la 
particularly beautiful in October and Novem- 
ber, being covered at the same time with 
blossoms and ripe fruit. 
Archange'lioa. From arche, chief, and angelica, 
from its supposed virtues. Nat. Ord. Umbelli- 

A genus of mostly useless biennial plants; a 
few of the species are natives of this country. 
A. officinalis, is the Angelica, formerly much 
used in domestic medicine. 
Archego'nium. The female organ in ferns, etc. 
Analogous with the ovary in flowering plants. 
Archill or Orchill. A coloring matter obtained 
from various species of Lichens, especially 
Rocella tinctoria. 
A'rctium. A name that is now employed by 
some botanists for the genusLappa, Burdock. 
Arctosta'phylos. Bearberry. From arktos, a 
bear, and staphyle, a berr^ ; the Greek of the 
popular name. Nat. Ord. JEricaceoe.. 

A small genus of fruit-bearing shmbs, com- 
mon in our Northern and Eastern States. 
The whole plant of A. Uva-ursi is astringent, 
and has been used for tanning leather. The 
berries of the several species are a favorite 
food of game birds. 
Arctb'tis. Derived from arktos, a bear, and otig, 
an ear ; shaggy fruit. Nat. Ord. CompositcE. 

This genus consists of .annuals, biennials, 
and green-house perennials. The annuals 
should be started in the hot-bed early, as they 
require a long season to develop their showy 
flowers, which are sulphur and orange. They 
grow freely in ordinary soil, and keep in 
bloom until killed by frost. Introduced from 
the Cape of Good Hope in 1774. 
Arcuate. Curved or bent like a bow ; forming 

an arch. 
Ardi'sia. From ardis, a spear head ; in refer- 
ence to the sharp-pointed divisions of tlie 
flower. Nat. Ord. Myrsinacem. 

Handsome green-house plants from the East 
Indies, producing either red or white flowers. 
A. crenulata is admired alike for its white 
powers and vermUion berries, being constantly 
covered with either one or the other, or both. 
Propagated by seeds in the green-house. 
Plants usually fruit when one year old, and are 
invaluable plants for winter decoration. 
There is also a pretty white-fruited variety. 
Ardtii'na. A genus of Apocynacem, consisting 
of shrubs with a milky juice. Natives of 
Asia, Africa and tropical Australia. A. hispin- 
osa is a pretty, close-growing green-house 
shrub, with small, box-like leaves and white, 
sweet-scented flowers.' A. grandiflora is a 
native of Natal, where the fruits are much 
valued, and known as the Natal Plum. They 
have an agreeable sub-acid flavor, and are 
used to make au excellent preserve. 
Are'ca. Called areec in Malabar, when an old 
tree. Nat. Ord. Palmacew. 

An extensive genus of lofty, magnificent 
Palms, natives of the East and West Indies 
and South America. The most prominent of 
the species is A: oleraoea, the Cabbage Palm. 




This Is one of the most beautiful and stately 
of the Palm tribe, and is called in some of the 
tropical islands the Royal Palmetto. The stem 
of a full-sized tree at the base is seven feet in 
circumference, and it rises to the enormous 
height of one hundred and thirty feet. A 
noted traveler, in his description of this tree, 
says : " Near the base, the trunk is of a brown 
color, hard, -woody, and jointed, with a pith 
inside like the elder. The upper part of the 
trunk, from whence the foliage springs, 
resembles a well-tumed, flnely-polished bal- 
uster, of a lively green color, gently swelling 
from its pedestal, and diminishing gradually 
to the top, where it expands into branches, 
waving like plumes of ostrich feathers. These 
are decorated with numerous leaflets, some of 
which are about three feet long, and an inch 
and a half broad, tapering into a sharp point. 
The leaflets gradually decrease in size as they 
approach the extremities of the branches. 
This lofty, regular group of foliage, impelled 
by the most gentle gale, and constantly wav- 
ing in feathery elegance, is an object of beauty 
which cannot be imagined by an inhabitant of 
temperate climes, unused to the magnificent 
vegetation of a tropical sun. Within the 
leaves, which constitute the summit of the 
trunk, the portion called the cabbage lies con- 
cealed. This substance is white, about two 
feet long, of cylindrical form, and the thick- 
ness of a man's arm. It is composed of longi- 
tudinal flakes like ribbons, and so compact as 
to form a solid, crisp body. When eaten raw, 
it tastes somewhat like the almond, but more 
tender and delicious. When cut into slices 
and boiled, it is served up with meat as a 
vegetable. To obtain this great delicacy — 
growing on the very summit of such a stately 
trunk — the noble tree must be felled to the 
ground . In the place where the cabbage grew, 
a species of beetle generally deposits Its eggs, 
from which, in due time, grubs are hatched, 
that have received the name of Palm-tree 
Worms. They are about the size of a man's 
thumb, very fat and esteemed a great lux- 
ury. They are fried with a little butter and 
salt, and their flavor partakes of all the spices 
of India." A. catechu, is a handsome tree cul- 
tivated in all the warmer parts of Asia for its 
fruits, known as Areca or Betel nuts. These 
nuts are cut into narrow pieces, which are 
rolled up with a little lime in the leaves of the 
Betel pepper. The pellet is then chewed, and 
is hot and acrid, but possesses aromatic and 
astringent properties, aid is considered bene- 
ficial rather than otherwise. The natives are 
so addicted to the practice that they would 
rather go without food than their favorite 
Areca nuts. ^ 

Arena'ria. Sandwort. Prom arena, sand; in 
reference to the sandy soil in which the plants 
grow. Nat. Ord. OaryophyllacecB. 

A large genus of diminutive weeds, usually 
found growing on sandy soils. 

Are'nga. Name not explained. Nat. Ord. PaU 

A. saccharifera, is a very useful and inter- 
esting Palm, a native of the Asiatic islands. 
In its native country the fibres attached to 
the petioles are twisted into ropes, the me- 
dulla of the tnmk is used as sago, and the 
saccharine juice forms excellent sugar. It is 
eaid that this species alon^ will supply all the 


actual needs of the native: food, clothing, and 
a simple hut made from the leaves, are aU 
supplied from this species, and are all that a 
native's necessities require. Known also as 
Sagwems saccharifer. 

Areolate. Divided off into distinct spaces, usu- 
ally more or less angular. The skin of a plant 
is areolate. 

Arethu'sa, A classical name, after one of 
Diana's nymphs. Nat. Ord. Orchidacece. 

A. bulbosa is a beautiful species found 
growing in damp places and bogs, Virginia to 
Maine, and northward. The flowers are a 
bright rose-purple, from one to two inches 
long. One of the prettiest of our native 

Arga'nia. Prom argam, its aboriginal "name. 
Nat. Ord. Sapotacece. 

A. Sideroieylon, the Argal tree ; or Iron 
Wood, is a remarkable evergreen tree, a native 
of Morocco. It has a spiny trunk of con- 
siderable size, but of low stature. It gives off 
branches at a few feet from the ground, which 
incline downwards until they rest upon the 
earth; at length, at a considerable distance 
from the trunk, they ascend, and again reach 
out to a long distance. A tree mentioned in 
the Jownal of Botany, measured sixteen feet 
only in height, while its circumference was 
220 feet. The wood is very hard, and so heavy 
as to sink in water. 

Argemo'ne. Prickly Poppy. From argema, a 
cataract of the eye ; in reference to its medi- 
cinal qualities. Nat. Ord. Papaveracece. 

Highly ornamental hardy annuals and peren- 
nials from Mexico, with large flowers like 
those of the Poppy, and of the easiest culture. 
The plants, spreading widely, require a good 
deal of room to look handsome. The seed of 
A. Meaiicana is the- Fico del Inferno (Infernal 
Fig) of the Spaniards ; a purgative and power- 
ful narcotic, especially if smoked with tobacco. 

Argenteus. Silvery, a pale color resembling 

Argyre'ia. Named in reference to the white, 
silvery texture of the leaves, from argyreios, 
silvery. Nat. Ord. Convolvulacem. 

A fine genus of strong-growing climbers 
from the East Indies. They are only adapted 
for the green-house, and require a long time, 
with liberal pot room, to bring them into 
flower. A. cnmeata is a dwarf-growing, free- 
flowering species, colors .white and purple, 
resembling the Ipomoea. Propagated by out-, 
tings. Introduced in 1822. 

Aril, Arillns. A fleshy growth which rises up 
from the placenta and encompasses the seed, 
like the Mace surrounding^the Nutmeg, and 
the red sac the Euonymus. 

Arlsae'iua. Indian Turnip. Dragon Arum. 
Prom aron. Arum, and Sana, a standard; in 
reference to the close afflnity to Arum. Nat. 
Ord. AroidecB. 

A genus of hardy tuberous-rooted peren- 
nials. Two of the species, A. triphylmn, the 
Indian Turnip, and A. DracanUum, the Green 
Dragon or Dragon Boot, are common in moist 
woods and along streams in most parts of the 
United States. They bear cultivation well, 
and make beautiful plants for a shady border. 
The flowers are popularly known as Jack-in- 
the-Pulpit. These are succeeded by a cluster 
of scarlet berries, that make a showy appear- 




anoe until winter. Thie biting, acrid properties 
of this genus are such that the smallest por- 
tion chewed, either of leaves or root, produces 
a feeling as if the tongue were pierced with 

Aristate. Having a beard or awn, as the glumes 
of barley. 

Ari'stea. From arista, a point or beard; in 
reference to the rigid points of the leaves. 
Nat. Ord. Iridacem. 

A genus of tender herbaceous perennials 
from the Cape of Good Hope, embracing about 
fifteen species. They vary in height from 
three inches to three feet and produce their 
interesting blue flowers all summer. Easily 
propagated by division or seeds. 

Aristi''da. From arista, a beard or awn. Nat. 
Ord. OraminaceoB. 

A genus of harsh perennial grasses, com- 
mon on dry, barren soils throughout the United 
States. A. dichotoma is commonly known as 
Poverty Grass, as it is a sure indication of 
poor and barren soil. A. stricta is the Southern 

Ari'stolo'chia. Birthwort. From aristos, best, 
and locheia, parturition, its supposed medi- 
cinal character. Nat. Ord. AristolochiacecB. 

A genus of climbing plants natives princi- 
pally of South America, a few species being 
found in North America, Europe and India. 
Most of them extend their branches a long 
distance, though some are to be found that are 
neat and compact in their growth. The flowers 
of all ai'e extremely curious, generally of some 
lurid color, and bearing a resemblance to the 
expanded mouth of a horn. The larger ones 
have, not inaptly, been compared to the ear 
of an elephant, while others are distinguished 
by a long, pendant pouch. The tender species 
require either the hot-house or green-house, 
and a few are sufficiently robust to bear ex- 
posure to our winters. They grow freely in 
rich loam and leaf mould. A. aipho (Dutch- 
man's Pipe) is a native of the Southern States, 
and one of the best climbers for covering 
walls or trellises; under favorable circum- 
stances it will grow twenty feet in a season. 
The foliage is large, of a deep, rich green ; 
it is propagated by seed, layers, or cuttings, 
and Is perfectly hardy. A. serpentaria, the 
Virginian Snake Boot, is well known for its 
aromatic-stimulant root, and Is used in medi- 

Ari'stolochia'ceae. In the tropical parts of both 
hemisplieres, and occasionally beyond those 
limits, occurs a race of plants with singularly 
inflated, irregular flowers, consisting of a 
calyx only, of a dull, dingy color, varying from 
yellow to shades of chocolate, purple, or 
brown, and often emitting an offensive odor. 
A hot summer appears to be one condition of 
their existence, with a few exceptions, the 
most striking of which are the Asarwma, little 
stemless plants, natives of Europe and North 

Aristote'lia. A genus of evergreen shrubs of 
the Nat. Ord. Tiliaotce. 

A. Macqui is esteemed for its handsome 
foliage. The berries are purple, becoming 
black with age and are edible. The wood is 
used in Chili for making musical instruments, 
its tough bark forming the strings. The varie- 
gated form is a very ornamental plant. 


Arme'maoa. The Apricot. Prwma Armeniaoa. 

Arme'ria. Thrift. The Latin name for the 
Sweet William. Nat. Ord. PlvmbaginaeeuB. 

A genus of highly ornamental, hardy herba- 
ceous plants, of dwarf habit, with flowers of 
various shades between pink and purple, pro- 
duced on the majority of the species in great 
profusion. The common Thrift, A. vulgaris, 
is a well-known substitute for Box as an edging 
to flower borders. They grow with freedom 
in almost any soil, and without regard to situ- 
ation, except that the drip of trees is injurious 
to most of them. Propagated by division. 
Exceedingly common on the rocky sea coasts 
of Britain. Several pretty varieties have been 
introduced into cultivation, especially a gar- 
den variety called Crimson Gem, with large 
heads of bright crimson-pink flowers, and 
tufted habit. 

Arne'bia. Handsome, hardy herbaceous per- 
ennials of the Nat. Ord. Boraginacece; allied to 

A. echioides is one of the showiest hardy 
plants for the herbaceous border or rook- 
garden. Flowers bright primrose yellow, with 
a purplish spot, borne in large terminal spikes. 

A'rnica. From amakis, a lamb's skin ; in ref- 
erence to the texture of the leaves. Nat. Ord. 

A small genus of hardy, dwarf herbaceous 
plants. Some of the species are common In 
this country, though not of special interest. 
A. montana is a native of the mountainous dis- 
tricts of Northern and Middle Europe. The 
tincture of Arnica is prepared from this 
species ; was first introduced by the homov 
opathists, and soon after came into general 
use, and is considered invaluable for wounds 
or bruises. 

Arno'tto, or Ana'tto. See Bixa Orellano. 

Aromatic 'Wlntergreen. See OauUheria. 

Aroni'cum. From amikis, a lamb's skin ; in ref- 
ence to the softness of the flower-heads. Nat. 
Ord. Compoaiim. 

A small genus of pretty herbaceous peren- 
nials, inhabiting Central Europe and Asia. 
They have flower stalks varying from three 
inches to two feet high, with terminal 
heads of bright, yellow flowers. A. Cluaii, 
a pretty little Alpine species growing from 
three to five inches high, is well adapted 
for a border plant or for rock-work. They are 
increased by division, or from seed. Syn. 
Doronicwm Clmtii., From arpe, a scimitar, and 
phyllon, a leaf ; the leaf is sword-shaped. 

Aipopby'Ilum. Nat. Ord. Orchidacem. 

A small genus of handsome Orchids from 
Mexico and New Grenada. They are of grace- 
ful habit, easy of culture, and the flowers last 
long in perfection. They are increased by 
division, and should be grown rapidly to pro- 
duce large bu-lbs, as small ones do not 

Arrhena'therum. Oat-grass. From arrhen, a 
male, and amther, a point ; on account of awns 
on the male spikes. Nat. Ord. QraminoAxoi. 

A small genus of strong growing grasses, 
occasionally cultivated in this country as a 
pasture grass and for hay ; it is not supposed 
to be very rich in nutritive matter, but is 
considered valuable in mixture with other 
grasses for moist meadows, as it produces a 




plentiful supply of early foliage, which is 

eaten with avidity by cattle. It is a trouble- 
some grass with other crops. 
ArroTW Cane. Gynerium saggitatum. 
Arrow Grass. Triglochin palvstre. 
Arrow-head. Chinese. Sagittaria Chinenais. 

Common. Sagittaria sagittoefolia. 
Arrow Pdison. Gaboon or Trop. Africa. Stro- 
phanthus hiapidvs. 

Guiana, Curari or Ourali. Strychnoa toxifera. 

Javanese. Strychnos Tiente. 

Malay. Antia/ris toxicaria. 
Arrow-root. A pure kind of starch employed 
for dietary and other purposes, obtained 
from various sources, the principal of which 
are the following : 

American. Zea mays. 

Bermuda. Maranta arwndinacea. 

Brazilian or Tapioca. Manihot utilisaima 

Chinese. Nehimbium apedoawm. 

E. Indian. Cwrauma angusiifolia, and other 

English. Solanwm tuheroavmi. 

Mexican. JHon edule. 

Portland. Arum maeulatum. 

Arrow-wood. American. Viburnum dentatmn. 
Calif ornian. Viburnumi elliptieum. 
British Columbian. Spircea Dcrwglaaai, 8. 

Artane'ma. An interesting genus of plants 
belonging to the Nat. Ord. Scrophukwiacece. 
A. fmbriMtwm, (closely allied to Torenia) 
is a handsome evergreen shrub with large 
funnel-shaped, fringed, blue flowers, bloom- 
ing from June to November. It was intro- 
duced from Moreton Bay, New Holland, in 
1830, and is readily increased by cuttings or 

Art'anthe. Derivation of name not given. Nat. 
Ord. Piperacem. 

A small genus belonging to the Pepper 
family. They are woody plants, with jointed 
stems, rough leaves, and spikes of flowers 
opposite the leaves. A. elongata furnishes 
one of the articles known by the Peruvians as 
Matico, and which is used by them for the 
same purpose as Cubebs, the produce of a 
nearly-allied plant ; but its chief value is the 
power it has of staunching blood. The un- 
der-surface of the leaf is rough, traversed 
by a network of projecting veins, and covered 
with hairs ; hence its effect in stopping hem- 
orrhage is probably mechanical, like that of 
lint, cobweb, and other commonly used ap- 
pliances. Tlie species are not esteemed valu- 
able as flowering plants. Placed by some 
authors under Piper. 

Artemi'sia. Wormwood. From Artemis, one of 
the names of Diana. Nat. Ord. Compoaitce. 

Shrubby or herbaceous plants with their 
leaves usually muchdivided and frequently of 
a grey color. The genus is widely distributed 
over the temperate regions of the globe and 
most of them are remarkable for their 
strong odor and bitter taste. In certain 
parts of the West, as Utah, Texas, New 
Mexico, etc., there are large tracts almost 
entirely destitute of other vegetation than 
that afforded by various kinds of Artemisia 
which cover vast plains, and give them 
an universal greyish green hue. They 
are unfortunately of no value for forage.. 


This genus contains amongst others the well 
known Southern wood or Old Man, A. Abro- 
tarmm, the finely divided leaves of which have 
a fragrant aromatic odor. A. Absinthium,th.e 
common Wormwood, possesses aromatic, 
bitter, and tonic properties and was formerly 
much used as a vermifuge ; it is also in con- 
nection with several species growing in Switz- 
erland and used in the manufacture of the 
bitter aromatic tonic " Extrait d' Absinthe." 
The Tarragon, A. DraewnouMia, differs from the 
majority of its fellows, in that its leaves are 
undivided, they are narrow, of a bright green 
color and possess a peculiar aromatic flavor 
much valued in Salads, etc. Native of Siberia. 
The Chinese Chrysanthemums are fre- 
quently miscalled Artemisias. 

Arthropo'dium. From arthron, a joint, and 
pous, a foot; the foot-stalks of the flowers 
being jointed. A genus of Australian and New 
Zealand lAliacem allied to Antherioam, with 
grass-like leaves, and purplish or white flow- 
ers in loose racemes. 

Arthroste'mma. From arthron, a joint, and 
atemon, a stamen, in reference to the stamens 
being jointed. Stove or green-house, ever- 
green shrubs, from Central America, belong- 
ing to the Nat. Ord. Melaatomacem. 

Some of the species are very handsome, 
with rose or lilac flowers, resembling the 
Ehexias. Propagated by cuttings. 

A'rtichoke. The Cynara aooh/mus, the Globe 
Artichoke of gardens, is a hardy perennial, 
growing from three to four feet in height, 
with numerous branches. The leaves meas- 
ure from three to four feet in length, pinnati- 
fld, or cut in deep, horizontal, convex seg- 
ments, which are covered with an ash-colored 
down, the whole plant resembling a large 
Thistle. The portion eaten is the under side 
of the head, before the flower opens. The 
whole head is removed and boiled, the leaves 
laid aside, and the bottom eaten, dipped in 
butter, with a little pepper and salt. The 
Artichoke is a supposed native of the south of 
Europe. The first account of its cultivation 
was in Italy, in 1473, and from that period, 
when it was said to be very scarce, it has 
steadily grown in favor, and its cultivation 
extended. The artichoke thrives best in a 
light, very rich, moist soil. One containing a 
large proportion of saline properties suits it 
best. Propagated by seeds or by suckers 
from established plants. The Jeruaakm Arti- 
choke is in no sense a true Artichoke, but the 
tuberous root of a species of Sunflower, Heli- 
anthua tuberoaua, a native of the north-western 
States, the north-western British Possessions 
and Canada. Its nativity has generally been 
credited to Brazil, without any good author- 
ity ; on the contrary, there is abundant proof 
that it abounds in a wild state in the localities 
above-named. Its cultivation is now strongly 
recommended on dry soils, liable to excessive 
droughts. It is said that 1,500 bushels per 
acre can be produced, upon which, swine will 
thrive finely, the tubers furnishing sufficient 
water to aUay thirst. They also furnish excel- 
lent food for sheep. Some agriculturists 
claim that the tops, cut and properly cured, 
form an excellent hay, with a yield of five or 
six tons to the acre. 

Articulated. Jointed, having joints. 




Artillery Plant. See PUea aerpUUfolia and 
P. hemiaricBfoUa. 

Artocarpa'ceae. A group of apetalous trees, 
not unlike the Plane-trees of Europe ; but for 
the most part inhabiting the tropics. They 
abound in a milky juice, and have, for the most 
part, their female flowers collected into fleshy 
masses or heads. Moreover, they have great 
sheathing, convolute stipules, like those of a 
Fig-tree. This natural order presents strange 
anomalies : the invaluable Bread-fruit tree of 
the tropics, the useful Cow-tree of Oaraccas, 
and the virulent poison of the Upas-tree of 
Java, side by sid-e. The more important 
genera are Artocarpus and Antiaria. 

Artoca'rpus. Bread Fruit. From artos, bread, 
and carpoa, fruit; the fruit baked resembles 
bread. Nat. Ord. ArtocarpacecB. 

A. indsa, the Bread-fruit, originally found 
in the southeastern parts of Asia and the 
Islands of the Pacific, though now intro- 
duced into the West Indies and South Amer- 
ica, is one of the most interesting as well as 
singular productions of the vegetable king- 
dom. The Bread-fruit is a beautiful as well 
as a useful tree. The trunk rises to the 
height of about forty feet, and, in a fuU-grown 
tree, is from twelve to fifteen inches in diam- 
eter ; the branches come out in a horizontal 
manner, the lower ones about ten feet from 
the ground, and they become shorter and 
shorter until they reach the top, giving the 
tree an appearance of perfect symmetry. The 
leaves are of a lively green, divided into seven 
or nine lobes, from eighteen inches to two feet 
long. The fruit is about nine inches long, 
heart-shaped, of a greenish color, and marked 
with hexagonal warts in clusters. The pulp 
is white, partly farinaceous and partly fibrous; 
but when quite ripe it becomes yellow and 
juicy. The Bread-fruit furnishes the chief 
sustenance of the inhabitants of the Society 
and South Sea Islands, and is used to a con- 
siderable extent in th'e West Indies. It is 
usually cut into pieces, and roasted or baked 
in ovens on the ground heated by hot stones. 
Arum. From a/ron; supposed to be an ancient 
Egyptian word. Nat. Ord. Aroidew. 

There are several interesting species con- 
tained in this genus which may be accounted 
pretty additions to the collections of the hot- 
house and green-house, though the flowers 
possess a disagreeable odor. In contrast with 
-the other species is A. Palestinum, that has 
flowers of deep crimson, with a delicious fra- 
grance not unlike the Violet. In shape it 
resembles the Calla Lily, Richardia .^hUipica; 
in fact, when it was introduced, in 1876, into 
the United States, it was tinder the name of 
"Crimson Calla." Numerous offsets are 
annually produced, by which the species are 
extended. A. Sanctvm, the Bla«k Calla, a late 
introduction (1887) from the Holy Land, is 
described as " producing large, sweet-scented 
flowers, rising above the leaves on a slender 
bvit vigorous stalk, of a brown-red color at the 
lower part and green at the upper end. The 
spathe is from fourteen to eighteen inches 
long and four inches wide, of a brilliant dark 
purple color and green underneath. The 
spadix Is about ten inches long, velvet-like, 
and quite black. The whole plant is most 
stately and elegant in appearance." A. Dra- 
eunmlMa, the Dragon Arum, deserves a place 


in the flower garden forits large, very remark- 
able flowers. This species requires the same 
treatment as the Gladiolus. The roots of all 
this natural order, when green, contain a 
milky fluid, which is exceedingly acrid, 
exciting a painful sensation of burning heat 
in the tongue and mouth. When cut in slices 
and applied to the skin, it will very quickly 
produce a blister. This same active principle 
is not confined to the roots of the various 
genera and species, but is found in the leaves 
as well. A piece of the Calla leaf, not larger 
than a pin's head, if taken into the mouth, will 
produce violent and painful burnings. Some 
of the species yield an excellent quality of 

Arum Lily. Richardia ^thiopica. 
Spotted Leaved. Richardia macalata. 
Yellow. Richardia hastata. 

Arundina'iia. An alteration of the word Arundo, 
to which this genus maybe compared in refer- 
ence to its large size. Nat. Ord. OraminacecE. 
A genus of grasses of a shrubby or arbo- 
rescent nature, with strong-jointed stems, 
resembling those of the Bamboo cane. They 
are mostly from the warmer parts of the globe, 
and in some instances attain a great size. A. 
falcata is one of the hardiest kinds, and is 
very ornamental in the sub-tropical garden. 
This species will endure the winter without 
protection, from Washington, southward. A. 
Schomburgkii, a native of Guiana, is an import- 
ant species. The canes grow sixteen feet high, 
with a diameter at the base of from twelve to 
eighteen inches. It is this plant that chiefly 
furnishes the native Indians with the tubes 
from which they blow their poisonous arrows, 
which act with such fatal effect on their vic- 
tims. A. gigantea and A. tecta, two species 
found in the Southern and Western States, 
from Florida to Indiana, form canes from ten 
to twenty feet high and are now much used 
by florists for plant stakes, the toughest 
and best of which come from Indiana. 

Aru'ndo. Reed. A word of doubtful deriva- 
tion, perhaps from the Latin word arimdo, a 
reed. Nat. Ord. Graminacem. 

A. DoTMx is a splendid Bamboo-looking reed, 
rather tender in severe winters, but which, if 
the season be favorable, will grow, in rich soil 
kept moist, to the height of ten or twelve feet 
in one year, producing a fine oriental appear- 
ance when standing singly on a lawn or near 
water. This variety is a native of Southern 
Europe, introduced in 1648, and for many 
years has been an inmate of our flower gar- 
dens. A. Donax variegata, a variety with 
leaves beautifully striped in different colors, 
similar to those of the common Ribbon-grass 
of our gardens, is one of the most beautiful 
plants for the sub-tropical garden. It re- 
quires, however, the protection of the green- 
house during winter in our Northern States. 
It is propagated by division of the roots, and 
will succeed in ordinary garden soil. 

AsafCe'tida plant. Narthex aaafcztida. 

Asafce'tida plant, Persian. Ferula Peraica. 

Asaraba'cca. A common name for Asarwm 

A'sarum. Wild Ginger. From a, private, and 
aaron, feminine ; the application of the term 
unexplained. Nat. Ord. Ariatolochiacecs. 




A genus of rather curious hardy herbaceous 
perennials, common in most parts of the 
United States, usually in rich, moist woods. 
They are highly esteemed for their medicinal 
properties. A. Ca«aden«e is the Canada Snake- 
root or Wild Ginger. It is recognized by its 
single pair of broad, kidney-shaped leaves, 
and a single large, brownish-purple flower on 
a short peduncle, sometimes nearly buried. 
The roots are pungent and aromatic. 

Ascending. Directed upwards; as the stem, 
which is the ascending axis. 

Ascle'piada'ceae. The very large natural order 
which bears this name is known by its pollen 
being collected in the form of waxy masses or 
bags, derived from the separable inner lining 
of the anther cells, and by the fruit consisting 
most commonly of a pair of divaricating in- 
flated seed-pods. Fully 1,000 species are 
known, for the most part inhabiting the 
tropics of the Old and New Worlds. They 
vary extremely in appearance, many being 
leafless succulents, like Sta/pelia; others 
(and they are more numerous) consisting of 
twiners like Hoya; while another portion 
consists of upright herbaceous plants, such 
as Aaclepias and Vincetoxicwm ; a, few are 
tropical trees. As a general rule the species 
are poisonous ; an acrid milk which pervades 
all their parts being eminently emetic and 
purgative. The genera Stapelia, Hoya, Ascle- 
piaa, Vincetoancwm, Ceropegia and Periploca, 
are good examples of the order. 

Ascle'pias. Milkweed. The Greek name of the 
^sculapius of the Latins. Nat. Ord. Aacle- 

An extensive genus of tall-growing plants, 
mostly of a hardy herbaceous character, 
remarkable for their curious flowers and the 
siiky substance which fills the seed-pod. The 
most orna,mental native species is A. tuheroaa, 
which has fine orange-colored flowers but is 
somewhat difiSoult to cultivate. A. Mexicama, 
white, and A. Curassavica, orange-scarlet, 
both tender species, are excellent plants for 
the mixed border in summer; the former is 
especially valuable for cut flowers. They are 
all easily raised from seeds. 

A'scyrum. Prom a, without, and akyroa, hard ; 
that is to say, a plant that is soft to the touch. 
Nat. Ord. Hypericacem. 

A genus of elegant little herbs and sub- 
shrubs numbering five species, all of them 
American with a distribution from the North- 
ern States to New Grenada. A. Cfntx And/rem, 
is called St. Andrew's Cross from the circum- 
ference of the four pale yellow petals approach- 
ing each other in pairs, they appear like a 
cross with equal arms. Collectively they are 
called St. John's-worts. 

Ash. American Black or Water. Fraxmua 
Black Mountain. Bhicalyptua Leucoxylon. 
Blue. Fraxinua cpiadrangulata. 
Cape. Ekebergia Capensis. 
Carolina Water. Fraxirms platycarpa. 
Chinese. Fraxinua Chinensis. 
Common. Fraxirms excelaior. 
Flowering. Fraamus Omvs. 
Gray. Fraxinus Americana var. oinerea. 
Ground. JEgopodiwm podograria, und Angelica 

Hoop. Celtis erasaifolia. 


Ash. Jerusalem. Jaatia tinctoria, or Reseda 
Manna. Fraximta Omvs var. rotwndifolia. 
Mountain or Wild. English. Pynia emeuparia. 
Mountain. N. American. Pyrua Americana. 
Northern Prickly. Xanthoxyhim Americajnum. 
Oregon. Fraxinua Oregana. 
Poison. Rhus Venenata. 
Prickly. XaMhoxyhrnifraxinewm,. 
Ked American. Fraxirma pubeacems. 
Southern Prickly. Xanthoxylvm, Cairoliniamu/m. 
Wafer. Ptelea trifoliata. 
Water. Fraxinua aamJmcifoUa. 
White. Fraxinua Americama var. alba. 

Ash-keys, or Ash Candles. The fruit of Fraxir 
nus excelsior. 

Ash-leaved Maple. Acer Negundo. 

Asiatic Poison Bulb. Crinmn Asiaticwm. 

Asi'mina. Papaw. Named from Aaiminier of 
the French colonists. Nat. Ord. Anonaceee. 

A. triloba, the only species, is a low-grow- 
ing tree or shrub, common in the Western 
and Southern States, where It is popularly 
known as Papaw. The fruit is from three to 
four inches long, yellowish, and when fully 
ripe is by many highly esteemed. 

Aspa'ragus. Prom a, intensive, and apar- 
asao, to tear; in reference to the strong 
prickles of some species. Nat. Ord. lAUacew.^ 
Of this extensive genus of hardy herbaceous 
and green-house plants, the common garden 
Asparagus, A. officinalia. Is the best known 
species. There are, however, several green- 
house climbing species, natives of Southern 
Africa, that have of late years been cultivated 
for decorative purposes, and well deserve a 
place in every collection, however small. Of 
these A. termiasimua is the most largely cul- 
tivated as it is easily increased by cuttings, 
and its foliage is remarkable for its extreme 
slenderness, and delicate appearance. A. plu- 
moavs, and its variety A. p. namvs, are most 
elegant plants, with smooth stems, and grace- 
fully arching, fine fllmy foliage, rivalling the 
-delicate beauty of the finest Maiden-hair Ferns, 
while their cut sprays have the advantage of 
much greater persistency than any fern, re- 
taining their freshness in water from three to 
four weeks. They also form excellent plants 
for the green-house, when trained in pots, 
and are invaluable for cutting. They are un- 
fortunately slow of propagation being in- 
creased only by seeds, or by division. They 
were introduced to cultivation in 1876. 

The Garden Asparagus, A. officinalia, is a 
native of Great Britain, Kussla, and Poland. 
In many other parts of Europe it is found 
growing wild, but is probably an escape In 
many localities, and is perfectly naturalized, as 
it is sparingly on our own coasts. The Aspar- 
agus is one of the oldest as well as one of the 
most delicious of our garden vegetables. It 
was cultivated in the time of Cato the Elder, 
200 years B. C. ; and Pliny mentions a sort that 
grew in his time near Ravenna, of which 
three heads would weigh a pound. Prom 
these accounts it would appear that there is 
nothing new under the sun in the line of 
Asparagus. Many of our best gardeners con- 
tend that adaptation of soil, together with 
thorough cultivation, alone explains the 
difference in this vegetables as offered in our 
markets, but we feel satisfied that there are 




varieties in Asparagus, as well 'as in other 
vegetables, and such selections as Conover's 
Colossal, and the Palmetto, are undoubted 
improvements on the original sort. Its value 
and importance as a Vegetable can hardly be 
over-estimated, it is extensively grown and 
when properly managed produces a lucrative 

The preparation of the Asparagus bed 
should be made with more care than for most 
vegetables, from the fact that it is a perma- 
nent crop, which ought to yield as well at the 
end of twenty-five as of five years, if the 
soil has been well prepared. The Asparagus 
bed, to start with, should be on ground thor- 
oughly drained, either naturally or artificially, 
and if choice can be had, on a rather light, 
sandy loam. This should be trenched and 
mixed with sufScient manure to form a coat- 
ing at least six inches thicli over the bed. 
This manure should be worked into the soil 
by trenching to the depth of two feet, as the 
roots of the plant will reach quite that depth 
in a few years. In setting, the crowns of the 
plants should be placed at least three inches 
below the surface. Asparagus maybe planted 
either in the spring or the fall. If in the 
spring, it should be done as early as the 
ground is dry enough to work ; and if in the 
tall, just as soon as the plants can be had, 
which is usually in the early part of October. 
We prefer fall planting on light, well-drained 
soils, for the reason that, if it is done then, 
young roots are formed which are ready to 
grow on the approach of spring ; but if the 
planting is done in March, April, or May, this 
formation of new roots has to take place then, 
and causes a corresponding delay in growth. 
Plants are sold by market gardeners and seeds- 
men ; and as it will save a year or two to pur- 
chase them, it is not worth while to raise 
them from seed in a private garden. 

The edible portion is the undeveloped stems, 
which, if cut away as soon as they appear, are 
followed by others, which start from the 
crown of the plant. The cutting, if continued 
too long, would finally exhaust the root; 
hence it is customary to stop cutting as soon 
as early peas become plenty, and allow the 
remaining shoots to grow during the rest of 
the season, and thus accumulate sufBcient 
strength in the plant to allow it to produce 
another crop of shoots the next season. 

The surface of the Asparagus bed should 
hav« a top dressing of three or four inches of 
rough stable manure eveiy fall (November), 
which should be lightly forked into the bed 
in the spring. The variety mostly grown is 
the Colossal, although the new French variety, 
known as the Palmetto, is likely to supersede 
It, its merit being that the shoots grow more 
uniformly large than the Colossal. 

In some localities Asparagus is attacked by 
an insect called the Asparagus Beetle. The 
best method of getting rid of this pest, that 
we have found, is to coop up a hen, and let 
the chickens eat the insects and their eggs. 

Asparagus can also be forced to advantage 
If brought into market before March. By 
that time Florida begins to supply our mar- 
kets in quantity, and the price depreciates. 
Strong, healthy young plants, three to four 
years old, are best suited for this purpose, 
and should be sown yearly and grown on in 
succession, on the surface plan ; that is, not 


planted deep in the ground as for permanent 
beds. The general management for forcing is 
similar to that required for Ehubarb. See 
article on "Forcing Vegetables." 

Aspa'ragus, Bath or Prussian, consists of the 
spikes when about eight inches long, of 
Omithogalwm Pyrenaicwm which grows abund- 
antly enough in hedges and pastures in that 
locality (Bath, England), to be worth gather- 
ing for sale. 

Aspa'ra^s of the Cossacks. Typha latifoUa. 

Aspa'sia. From aspasomm, 1 embrace; the 
column eanbraced by the labellum. Nat. Ord. 

A small genus of epiphytal Orchids from 
Central and South America. One of the more 
important species, A. epidendroides, has yellow 
and brown sepals, the petals light purple, the 
lip white, with purple in the centre. The 
species should be grown in baskets, or on 
blocks of wood or cork, with plenty of moss. 
They do not require a high temperature, but 
need plenty of air. Increased by division. 
Introduced in 1833. 

A'spen. See Populus tremula. 

A'spera. Eough, with hairs or points. 

Aspe'rula. The diminutive of asper, rough ; in 
reference to the rough leaves. Nat. Ord. 

Pretty, dwarf, hardy plants, chiefly natives 
of the European Continent, well adapted for 
shaded situations among trees. A. odorata, 
the common Woodruff, is esteemed for its 
delightful scent. This pretty little plant, 
when wilted, has the odor of new-mown hay, 
and when kept among clothes, it not only 
imparts an agreeable perfume to them, but 
preserves them from insects. 

Asphalt. Artificial Asphalt is used very gen- 
erally for foot-paths in gardens, etc. One of 
the best methods is the following: Lime 
rubbish, two parts ; coal ashes, one part, (both 
must be very dry and sifted very fine) ; mix 
them and leave a hole in the middle of the 
heap, wherein pour boiling hot coal-tar; mix 
well together. When as stiff as mortar, lay it 
down three inches thick, on a dry and previ- 
ously well-leveled surface, sprinkle with dry 
sifted sand and roll thoroughly with a heavy 
roller. Only just enough tar to last about ten 
minutes must be taken from the furnace at 
one time, as, if it be not boiling, the walks 
will become soft under the action of very hot 
sun. This may be repeated every three years. 
It is imperative that the surface, lime, coal 
ashes, and sand, be perfectly dry, and that 
the days selected for the operation be very 
fine, the hotter the better. 

Aspho'delus. Asphodel. From a, privative, 
and aphallo, to supplant ; the stately flowers 
not easily surpassed. Nat. Ord. LiliacecB. 

Showy plants suitable for the open border, 
with white or yellow flowers. They may be 
grown in any soil, and are readily increased 
by separation of the roots. Most varieties are 
from the south of Europe, have long been in 
cultivation in our gardens, arid are perfectly 

Aspi'dieae. A section of polypodineous Ferns, 
in which the sori are punctiform or dot-like, 
and covered either by reniform or peltate 













Aspidi'stra. From aspidiseon, a little round 
shield; the form of the flower. Nat. Ord. 

A small genus found in China and Japan, 
remarkable for producing their flowers under 
the surface of the earth. They are useful 
house plants, and are propagated by suckers. 
The foliage of A. elatiur variegata (green with 
broad stripes of white) contrasts flnelj' with 
ornamental-foliaged plants. For the produc- 
tion of well-marked plants, the pots in which 
they are grown should be small, and the soil 
liberally mixed with sand. Introduced in 

Aspi'dium. Shield Fern, "Wood Fern. From 
oapidMm, a little buckler; the shape of the 
indusium. Nat. Ord. Polypodiacem. 

An extensive genus of hardy and green- 
house Ferns. Many of the species are com- 
mon in moist, shady places throughout the 
United States. The green-house varieties are 
mostly from the West Indies. All the species 
are of easy cidture. Many of them are 
deservedly popular in the fern-house or shady 

Asple'uiese. A section of polypodineous Ferns, 
in which the simple linear or oblong sori are 
parallel with the veins, and oblique to the 
midrib, produced on one side of the veins, 
and covered by indusia of the same form. 

Asple'nium. Spleenwort. From a, privative, 
and aplen, spleen ; referring to its supposed 
medicinal properties. Nat.-Ord. Polypodiacem. 
This genus, as established by Linneeus, was 
a very extensive one, and the species exceed- 
ingly varied. So much confusion existed in 
regard to it, that modern botanists have 
divided and sub-divided it ; yet it contains a 
large number of hardy and tropical species, 
•many of which are exceedingly beautiful and 
interesting, and are commonly found in our 
green-houses. Some of the species have the 
very singular property of bearing little buds on 
their surface, from which young plants are 
formed. It is not an uncommon thing to see 
fifteen or twenty of these young plants, all 
perfectly developed, from one to two inches 
high, on a single frond. They are popularly 
known as bulb-bearing Ferns. Several of the 
species are indigenous throughout the United 
States, and there is scarcely a country in 
which some of the species may not be found. 

Aste'lma. Strawberry Everlasting. From a, 
not, and stel/ma, a crown ; in reference to the 
construction of the fruit. Green-house ever- 
green shrubs from the Cape of Good Hope. 
The bracts of the flowers of A. eximium are of 
a rich rosy tint, and are incurved so as to 
form close heads,' bearing some resemblance 
to Strawberries. Ithas been long introduced 
but is comparatively rare in cultivation. 

A'ster. Star-wort. Michaelmas Daisy. From 
osier, a star. Nat. Ord. ComposUm. 

There are upward of one hundred and fifty 
species included in this genus, chiefly hardy 
herbaceous plants, useful for ornamenting the 
flower borders in the autumn ; generally at- 
taining a height of from two to four feet, and 
producing white, purple or blue flowers. They 
are easUy increased by separating the old 
stools. The well-known German and China 
Asters are now classed under Calliatephua. 


The sweet, musk-scented plant known as 
Aster Argophyllus is now placed under Euryhia, 
which see. 
Asti'lbe. From a, privative, and stilbe, bright- 
ness; flowers not very striking. Nat. Ord. 

A. Japonica, sometimes called SpirceaJaponi- 
ca, Hoteia Japonicaand A. ha/rhata, is a native of 
Japan, and a perfectly hardy herbaceous plant. 
The dark green cut leaves form a handsome 
tuft, from which arise numerous crowded 
panicles of feathery white flowers. Excellent 
for forcing in pots, and fine for cutting. There 
is a variety with variegated foliage, green and 
yellow, not so vigorous in habit, but in all 
other respects similar. Propagated by divi- 
sion. See Spircea. 
Astra'galus. Milk Vetch. The ancient Greek 
' name for some leguminous plant. Nat. Ord. 

An extensive genus of hardy annuals, per- 
ennials, and deciduous trees and shrubs. 
Many of the species are beautiful plants 
for the flower garden. They are vigorous 
growers, and succeed in a well-drained, sandy 
soil. The genus is widely distributed, there 
being scarcely a country where it is not indig- 
enous. The flowers are pea-shaped, and 
mostly yellow or purple. Several of our na- 
tive species j^roduce a fruit resembling green 
plums, that are edible. On the prairies they 
are called Ground Plums. A. mollissimua, 
popularly known as "Loco," or "Crazy 
Weed," is the notorious cattle-poisoning 
weed of Colorado and California. Cattle and 
horses eating it show many of the symptoms 
of drunkenness, and under certain circum- 
stances the results are fatal. The gum-like 
substance called Tragacanth is the produce 
of several species growing in Persia, Asia 
Minor, and Kurdistan. The gum exudes 
naturally from the bark in the same way that 
gum exudes from the bark of Cherry or Plum 
trees. While many of the species are useful 
or ornamental, by far the larger number are 
troublesome weeds. 

Astra'ntia. A genus of UmbellifercB. Native of 
Europe and Western Asia, containing ten or 
twelve species. They are hardy herbaceous 
perennials, with black aromatic roots, and 
generally white or pink flowers. A. Camiola 
and A. Major are the most distinct and orna- 
mental species, easily increased by root divi- 

Astroca'ryum. From astron, a star, and 
karyon, a nut; referring to the distribution 
of the fruit. Nat. Ord. PalmacecE. 

A small genus of Palms allied to Cocos, 
chiefly natives of the Upper Amazon. They 
have large pinnate leaves, and are armed with 
spines, sometimes a foot long, and exceedingly 
sharp. The fruit of some of the species fur- 
nishes food for cattle and swine. The young 
leaves of A. vulgare yield a fine thread, from 
which the best hammocks are woven. 

Ata'ccia. Malay name. Nat. Ord. TaecaceoB. 
There are few more remarkable-looking 
plants than A. cristata, sometimes met in the 
gardens under the incorrect name of Tacca 
integrifolia. It has a short, conical, under- 
ground caudex, or rhizome, and produces 
from this caudex three or four large, oblong, 
acuminate, purplish-green stalked leaves. 




The scape is about as long as the leaves, erect, 
stout, angled, dark purple, terminated by a 
large four-leaved involucre, of which the two 
outer leaflets are dark purple, and the two 
inner much larger, placed side by side, green 
with a deep purple base and stalk. The 
species are remarkable for their curious struc- 
ture, but are of no value as flowering plants, 
or for economic purposes. 

Atama'sco Lily. See Zephyranthes. 

Athana'sia. Ornamental green-house ever- 
green shrubs, belonging to the Nat. Ord. 
Compositm. They have yellow flowers, lasting 
a long time in perfection. Natives of the 
Cape of Good Hope. 

Atberospe'rma. Plume Nutmeg. From ather, 
an awn, and sperma, a seed ; the seed awned. 
Nat. Ord. Monimiacem. 

A beautiful green-house evergreen tree, 
with the aspect of a stately conifer. Flowers 
white, in panicles, the leaves being strongly 
musk-scented. A native of New Holland, 
readily pronagated by cuttings. Introduced 
in 1824. 

Athy'rium. A small genus of ferns, until re- 
cently included in Asphnium. A. Ooringicmimi 
picbimt is a beautiful half-hardy deciduous va^ 
riety from Japan. 

Atlee Gall. A gall nut produced abundantly 
by Tamarix orientalis, which is called Atle by 
the Egyptians. It is filled with a deep scarlet 

Atra'gene. A genus of ornamental, hardy, 
climbing, deciduous shrubs, closely allied to 
Clematis, and belonging to Nat. Ord. Bamwnr- 

They occur in the temperate regions of the 
Old and New Continent. A. Americama (Syn. 
Cle,matis vertioilla/ris) is found in Western New 
England, Virginia and Wisconsin. A. aVpiina, 
blue, and Its white variety, are not uncommon 
in cultivation. 

Atrapha'xis. A genus of Polygonacece. Natives 
of Asia and the Cape of Good Hope, consist- 
ing of low shrubs with rigid, much branched, 
often spiny stems. A few species are culti- 
vated as green-house plants, but the most in- 
teresting, A. Spinosa, is perfectly hardy and 
forms a dense shrub, which when covered 
with flowers is very showy. It is an excellent 
plant for the rock-garden, growing well in any 
situation. Syn. Tragopyron. 

A'triplex. Orache, Mountain Spinach. From 
ater, blafik, and pleayus, woven together ; on 
account of the dark color and habit of some 
of the species. Nat. Ord. Chenopodicuxce. 

A. hortensia, the only species of interest, is 
a tall-growing, hardy plant, annual, known in 
our gardens as Orache. It is but little grown 
in this country, but very popular in France. 
It Is a native of Tartary, introduced into 
France in 1548. It grows freely with ordinary 
garden culture . Seeds are sown in both spring 
and fall to secure a succession. 

A'tropa. Deadly Nightshade. Named after 
Atropos, one of the Three Fates. Nat. Ord. 

A small genus of hardy herbaceous perennials 
and evergreen shrubs, remarkable fortheirpoi- 
sonous properties. A. Belladonna, one of the 
best known species, is a hardy herbaceous 
plant, indigenous to shady grounds and waste 


places in.Southern Europe and Western Asia, 
also in Great Britain. The root is thick, 
whitish and perennial, sending forth annually 
a strong, branched, purple-colored stem, from 
three to five feet high. The leaves are of un- 
equal size, and are entire, oval-pointed, stand- 
ing in pairs on very short footstalks. The 
flowers are large, bell-shaped, pendant, and 
of a brown purple hue ; appearing in June or 
July, and are succeeded by round, purple ber- 
ries, which ripen in September. All parts of 
the plant are poisonous. It is supposed to 
have been the plant which produced such re- 
markable and fatal effects on the Romans dur- 
ing their retreat from the Parthians, under 
Mark Antony, as recorded in Plutarch's 
Life of Antony. Buchanan relates the de- 
struction of the army of Sweno the Dane, 
when it invaded Scotland, by the berries of 
this plant. They were mixed with the drink 
which the Scots, according to the terms of 
the truce, were to supply to the Danes, 
which so intoxicated them that the Scots 
killed a greater part of Sweno's army while 
asleep. The extract of Belladonna is exten- 
sively used in the Homoeopathic practice of 
medicine, in cases of fever, and also as a diur- 
etic. Dr. Milno remarks, that nature has 
been more parsimonious in her warnings in 
respect to this plant, than to others of the 
same natural family. Neither the smell nor 
the taste is offensive, and if the color of the 
flowers proves in some degree a repellant, 
that of the fruit, on the other hand, is in an 
equal degree, at least, attractive and inviting. 
Attale'a. From attalus, magniflcent ; in reference 
to the beauty of these Palms. Nat. Ord. Pal- 

A genus of very beautiful Palms allied to 
Cocos. With one or two exceptions, they are 
natives of Brazil. A. funifera yields a black 
fiber resembling whalebone, an article of con- 
siderable commercial value as a material for 
making brooms and brushes. It is popularly 
known as Piassaba Palm. The nuts of this 
species are very hard, about four inches long, 
finely mottled, dark and light brown, and are 
highly esteemed for turning into knobs, um- 
brella handles, and various other purposes. 
A. Cohune furnishes Cohoun nuts, from which 
is extracted Cohoun oil, used for burning, for 
which purpose it is superior to cocoanut oil. 
The species are too large for green-house 

Attenuated. Tapering gradually to a point. 

Aubergine, Egg Plant. Solanum melongena 
var. ovigerum. 

Aubrie'tia. Named after M. Aubriet, a French 
botanical draughtsman. Nat. Ord. CrucifercB. 
A genus of pretty little plants, generalfy 
about three inches high, admirably adapted 
for pots or miniature rock-work ; the fiowers 
are purple, and appear in March. They are 
readily propagated -by division. Natives of 
the South of Europe, introduced in 1710. 

Au'cuba. The name of the shrub in Japan. 
Nat. Ord. Cornacece. 

A genus of hardy evergreen shrubs from 
Japan, useful, and highly prized for their 
vigorous habit, rapid growth, and capability 
of enduring, and even thriving in, the atmos- 
phere of cities. The flowers are inconspicu- 
ous, but since the introduction of the male 




or pollen-bearing plant, by Robert Fortune, 
to England in 1861, we have been enabled to 
secure the beautiful coral-red berries, which 
are borne in profusion, and render the bushes 
exceedingly ornamental. The conspicuously 
marked foliage of A. Japonica vartegata, which 
is green and yellow, admirably adapts it for 
the shrubbery border, or as a single plant upon 
the lawn. This variety is not usually hardy 
north of Washington. Propagated by cut- 
tings, which root freely in sand. Introduced 
in 1783. 

Aurantia'ceae. The Orange, Lemon, and simi- 
lar fruits are produced by .trees belonging to 
this natural order. They are all bushy or 
woody plants, having the leaves filled with 
transparent oil cysts, giving them a dotted 
appearance, and a fruit more or less pulpy. 
Less than 100 species are known. The genera 
are almost exclusiiKly found in the East In- 
dies, whence they have, in some cases, spread 
over the rest of the tropics. 

Aureus. Of a bright golden color, composed of 
yellow with a small portion of red. 

Auricle. An ear. 

Auricomus. A head or tuft, like hair, of a 
golden color. 

Auricula. See Primula awneula. 

Auriculate. Auricled. Having ear-like ap- 
pendages, as in the case of many leaves, as in 
Jasmimi/m awrkulatwm. 

Auriculately-sagittate. Eared at the base, so 
as to give the leaf the appearance of the 
head of an arrow. 

Austra'lis (Southern). This term is frequent- 
ly applied to plants which grow in warm 
climates, without regard to their being 
strictly confined to the southern hemisphere. 

Autumn Bell Flovyer. Oentiana Pnewmoiir 

Ave'na. Oat. A name of obscure origin. Nat. 
Ord. OraminacecB. 

A genus of grasses of which the common 
Oat, A. sativa, is the best known, and 
which is invaluable in agricultural econ- 
omy. There are several species of Oats, 
and a vast number of varieties. The nativity 
of the Oat is accredited to Mesopotamia; this 
is, however, a matter of conjecture. The 
quality and appearance of the Oat vary 
greatly when grown' on different soils and in 
different climates. The justly celebrated 
Norway Oat loses its distinctive character 
when grown in the warm, dry climate of the 
Middle New England States, and seed has 
consequently to be imported every season, 
in order to keep the crop up to the high 
standard claimed for it. The Naked or 
Hull-less Oat is A. nuda, found growing wild in 
many parts of Europe, and considered merely 
a degeneration of the common Oat. A very 
fine variety of this species has been introduced 
from China, but its merits as a farm crop have 
not been fully tested. A. aterilis, a native of 
the South of Europe, is the Animated Oat of 
the gardens. The "animation" is produced 
by the contraction and expansion of the awns, 
which cause the seed to crawl a short dis- 
tance. Moisture from dews is sufficient to 
produce this slight motion. 

Avens. Geum urbanum. 


Avenues in Landscape Gardening. In 

forming an avenue, a gradual winding 
line should above all be obtained, which 
must in no way interfere with the view 
from the house. An old authority on thia 
subject says that " there never should be any 
deviation tro:n a straight line unless for some 
real or apparent cause," so in a winding or 
curved line a tree, rock or building must be 
placed at the bends as a reason for going 
around such obstacles. Twelve to fifteen 
feet is the width usually allowed for the road, 
but this depends upon individual taste ; this 
remark also applies to planting in double 
rows, the trees forming a series of triangles ; 
or in single rows. The distance across the 
road from one row of trees to those opposite 
should be at least twenty-five feet. The Lime 
or Linden tree is extensively used for avenues, 
on account of its regular growth and the 
shade it affords. The American and English 
Elms are also valuable trees for this purpose. 
The Horse Ohesnut in sheltered spots, is very 
ornamental, and the various species of Maples 
and Planes, are unsurpassed for this purpose. 
The Spruce and other Firs are also much used 
and are eminently suited for avenue planting. 
Groups of shrubs and herbaceous plants may 
be introduced between the trees, and so re- 
move any bareness that may occur. 

Avocado Pear. Peraea gratiasima. 

AtwI Tree. Morinda dtrifolia. 

Awl-wort. Suhularia aquatica. 

Axil, Axilla. The angle formed by the union 
of the leaf and stem or other organs ; the point 
on the stem from which a leaf proceeds. 

Aza'lea. From azaleoa, dry ; in reference to the 
habitation of the plant. Nat. Ord. Ericaceee. 

Beautiful flowering plants, natives of North 
America, Turkey, and China. The American 
or Hardy Azaleas, A. calendidacea, A. nudiflora 
and A. viacoaa, with hosts of garden varieties 
bred from them, are inhabitants of all our 
best shrubberies, and have been so wonder- 
fully improved by seedling culture as to 
throw into the shade the original species; 
there can now be selected twenty or ihirty 
varieties better than the very best of the 
original species. Every year, too, adds to the 
diversity of sorts and to the size of the 
flowers which is one of the characteristics of 
the improved kinds. In many places they 
thrive in the common soil of the garden, but, 
in general, they require leaf mould to be dug 
in with the natural soil ; and where there is to 
be any quantity grown, or a nursery of them 
made, beds of leaf mould, or composts of 
the greatest part of this, must be made up. 
They are raised from seed sown in beds in the 
open air, but from its extreme diminutive- 
ness, many prefer sowing in pans and wide- 
mouthed pots. When they are large enough, 
they should be planted out in beds six inches 
apart. The second year every alternate plant 
may be taken out and planted elsewhere, to 
make room ; and as they increase in size they 
should have more room. They are propar 
gated chiefly by grafting and by layers, but cut- 
tings of the last year's wood will root readily 
in sand. A. Pontica is a native of Turkey. 
A. Indica (the Chinese Azalea) and its varieties 
are those we meet with in the green-house. 
The florists' catalogues abound with rare 




sorts, the results of careful and skillful 
cross-fertilization. We are largely indebted 
for our finer sorts to the nurserymen at 
Ghent, Belgium. They are increased easily 
In spring by cuttings of the half-ripened 
young shoots. 
Aza'ra. Named after J. N. Azara, a Spanish 
promoter of botany. Nat. Ord. Flacourtiacece. 
A genus of evergreen shrubs, natives of 
Chili. A. Oilliesii, is the most desirable 
species. Its leaves are evergreen, somewhat 
resembling the Holly; flovfers yellow, pro- 


duced in axillary clusters. Propagated by 
cuttings. Introduced in 1844. 
Azo'lla. A very curious genus of aquatic cryp- 
togamous plants found floating upon the 
water, forming green or reddish patches, 
throwing down rootlets on the under side, 
amongst which are situated, principally in 
the axils of the leaves, the organs of fructifi- 
cation. The species occur in Australia, and 
New Zealand. The only native species. A, 
Ca/roliniana, is found in still water, from New 
Yorli to Wisconsin, and southward. 


Babia'aa. From iabianer, the Dutch for 
baboon; in reference to the bulbs being 
eaten by baboons. Nat. Ord. Iridacem. 

A genus of Cape plants, with solid bulbs or 
corms, which are eaten by the Hottentots, and 
which, when roasted, are said to resemble 
chestnuts. All the species have showy flow- 
ers, of various colors, blue predominating. 
Some of' the varieties are finely variegated. 
They succeed In very sandy loam, and may be 
grown either in pots for ornamenting the 
green-house, or planted in a cold frame, where, 
Q protected from frost in winter, they may bo 
allowed to remain altogether. They Increase 
rapidly by offsets. Introduced from the Cape 
of Good Hope In 1757. 

Babingto'nia. Named In compliment to Charles 
Babington, of Cambridge, England, a distin- 
guished botanist. Nat. Ord. MyrtacecB. 

B. camphoroemce, the only species of import- 
ance In this genua, is a graceful green-house 
shrub from New Holland. It is of easy culti- 
vation, and produces flowers freely during the 
summer months, in terminal clusters, color 
white or pinliish. The branches have a droop- 
ing habit, giving the plant a graceful outline. 
Propagated by cuttings. Introduced In 1842. 

Baby's Breath. See Muscari; also a local 
name for Oypaophila paniculata. 

Baccate. Having a pulpy or succulent texture ; 
berried, fleshy. 

Bac'charis. Groundsel-tree. From Bacchus, 
the god of wine ; referring to the spicy odor of 
the roots. The ancients sometimes boiled 
down their wines and mixed them with such 
spices. Nat. Ord. ComposUm. 

This genus consists of upward of 200 spe- 
cies, all South American except three, two of 
which are found from Massachusetts south- 
ward, and the third in California. They are 
tall-growing shrubs, and distinguished from 
their allies by having the male flowers on one 
plant and the females on' another. The fertile 
plant of the native JS. haUmifoUa is very con- 
spicuous In the autumn by Its very long and 
white pappus. There is a singular and remark- 
able fact in relation to one of the. species, B. 
D&uglasai, which is found in California and in 
Chill, without being found in any intervening 
place. The medicinal properties of some of the 
South American species are highly esteemed 
for fevers and rheumatism. 

Bachelor's Buttons. A garden name given to 
the flowers of Centawrca Cyomua, Globe Ama- 
ranthvs, and to the double-flowering buttercup, 
Ranunculus aaria, fl. pi. 

Ba'ctris. From haktron, a cane ; the young 
stems being used for walking sticks. Nat. 
Ord. Palmacem. 

A genus comprising several species of 
slender-growing palms, inhabiting the West 
Indies, Central and South America. They do 
not rank with the handsomest of palms, 
although when young they are of an orna^ 
mental character. B. iniegrifoUa, a native of 
Eio Negro, is an elegant species, with a 
slender reed-like stem, producing a small 
crown of dark-green leaves,densely armed with 
long, flat, black spines. It can be used with 
beautiful effect for table decoration. B. Ma/r- 
aja, the Marajah Palm of Brazil.'grows upon 
the banks of the Amazon and other rivers. It 
is the largest species of the genus, its trunk 
attaining the height of fifty feet. It is thickly 
armed with spines, and has a succulent, 
rather acid but agreeably-tasted fruit, from 
which a vinous beverage is prepared. B. 
minor, has a stem from twelve to fifteen feet 
iigh, and seldom more than an inch in 
diameter. Its stems are very smooth, and are 
used for walking-sticks. 

Bce'ria. In honor of Professor Baer of the 
University of Dorpat. Nat Ord. Compositor. 

A genus of bright yellow Oalifornian annu- 
als, with solitary terminal flowers about one 
Inch across. They are pretty and desirable, 
B. ehrysostoma being of dwarf, slender, erect 
habit, and very showy. Propagated by seeds 
sown in spring. 

Bahi'a. Name probably from the port of Bahia 
in South America. Nat. Ord. CompositcB. 

B. lanata, the only described species, is an 
ornamental, hardy herbaceous perennial, 
much branched from the base of the stem, 
and having a greyish appearance. It produces 
its large yellow flower heads In great pro- 
fusion, and Is readily increased by seeds or 

Bala'ntium. A name proposed for a genus of 
Ferns, now considered synonymous with Dick- 

Bald Cypress, See Taxodiwm distichvm. 

Balloon Vine. See Cardioapermum. 




Ballo'ta. Fetid Hor«hound. From ballo, to 
reject ; In allusion to its offensive odor. Nat. 
Ord. Labiaim. 

A small genus of mere weeds, occasionally 
met with in the Eastern States, having found 
their way from Europe, where they are 

Ball Thistle. Another name for Globe Thistle. 

Balm. Melissa officinalis. A perennial herb 
often used in the manufacture of a drink for 
sick persons, and sometimes employed for 
culinary purposes. 

Bee. Monarda didyma. 

Field. Calamintha nepeta. 

Indian. Trillium penduhmi. 

Of Gilead. Cedronella triphylla. 

Of Gilead Tree. Balsamodendron Gileadense, 
and Populus balsamifera var. candicans. 

Of Heaven. Oreodaphne Californica. 

Balmony. One of the popular names of Chelone 

Balsam. Ladies' Slipper. Impatiens Balstmnina. 
A well-known, tender annual, a native of 
India. It is one of the showiest and most 
popular of summer flowers, blooming as it 
does till the advent of frost. Numerous hand- 
some varieties are grown, the prevailing colors 
of which are red and white, the former extend- 
ing to every shade of purple, crimson, scarlet, 
rose, lilac, and carnation or flesh-color; but 
some of the most superb sorts are elegantly 
spotted with white. The spotted varieties 
form a class by themselves, and are justly 
regarded as among the most brilliant orna- 
ments of the garden ; there are the crimson, 
scarlet, rose, purple, and violet-spotted. 
Another class is striped, after the manner of 
Carnations, with purple, crimson, rose. Scarlet 
on pure white grounds, some with one color, 
others with two or more colors, and some are 
curiously mottled and striped. The most 
improved varieties are very double, and styled 
Camellia-flowered by the French. Some of 
the flowers are almost as perfect and as double 
as those of the Camellia, and nearly as regular 
in shape. The Germans call them Eose- 
flowered, as many of them approach the per- 
fection of that flower in shape and fullness. 
There is a class of Dwarf Balsams that do not 
grow over a foot high, but very full and bushy 
in habit. They do not produce flowers so 
double as the Camellia or Kose-flowered 
varieties, but are desirable for the garden. 
They should not be planted with the tall 
varieties, which attain the height of two or 
three feet, when properly cultivated. The 
only way to propagate the Balsam is from 
seeds, which do not always produce kinds 
exactly the same as the parent, but approach 
very near, when great care has been taken to 
keep the different varieties by themselves, as 
is now practiced by those who make a busi- 
ness of raising the seed. Careful growers of 
Balsams, who wish to raise prize flowers, never 
use seed less than three years old ; and they 
are particular in saving it from the most 
double and handsomest flowers, the best being 
those which have their colors distinctly 
marked, like a Carnation. Introduced from 
the East Indies in 1596. 

Balsam. A name given to various gum-resinous 
or oleo-resinous substances. Bayee Balsam, 
a product of Balsamodendron pubeacens. 


Canadian Balsam, a product of Abies balsamea. 
Carpathian Balsam, a product of Pinus Cem^ 
bra. Copalm Balsam, a product of Liqvidam- 
bar styraeiflua. Hungarian Balsam, an oleo- 
resinous product of Pinus Pumilio. Balsam of 
Acouchi, a product of Idea Aracouchini. 
Balsam of Copaiva, an acrid production of 
various species of Copaifera. Balsam of 
Maria, a product of Vertidllaria acuminata. 
Balsam of Peru, a product of Myrospermum 
Peruiferum. Balsam of Qulnquino, a product 
of Myrospermum, pubescens, sold as White 
Balsam. Balsam of Tolu, a product of 
Myrospermum toluiferum. Balsam of XJmiri, 
a product of Humiriwm floribundum. Tam- 
acoari Balsam, a product of a Brazilian species 
of Caraipa. White Balsam, the same as the 
Balsam of Quinquino above. 

Balsam Apple and Balsam Fear. See 

Balsam Fir. See Abies. 

Balsami'nese. A tribe of plants belonging to 
the order OeraniacecB, sepals and petals all 
colored, consisting of six segments one of 
them ending below in a conical spur. The 
best known genus is Impatiens. 

Balsa'mita. A genus of Com/posilm, of but little 
interest, only that it contains the well known 
Costmary, or Alecost, B. vulgaris, a native 
of Italy ; although common in every village 
garden in Britain and on the continent it is 
almost entirely discarded for culinary pur- 
poses, and even in France it is only used 
occasionally to mix in salads. This plant is 
the Pyrethrum tamaceiym of Linnaeus. 

Balsa'mode'ndron. From balsamon, an old 
Greek name for balm or balsam, and dendron, 
a tree. Nat. Ord. Bwseraeece. 

A genus of balsam-bearing trees with small 
green, often uni-sexual flowers. B. myrrha ia 
supposed to yield some of the gum resin 
known as myrrh, others produce Balm of 
Gilead, or Balm of Mecca; a gum resin 
obtained by incision into the bark, and con- 
sidered by the ancients as a panacea for 
almost all the ills that flesh is heir to. 

Balsam Tree. A common name for Balsam- 
odendron, and Clusia. 
Canada. Abies balsamea and Pvnvs Fraseri. 
Copalm. Liquidambar StyradJlMa. 
Florida. Amyris Floridana. 
Hungarian. Pinus Pumilio. 
Jamaica. Clusiaflava. 

Balsam. Weed. . A popular name for Onaphal- 
ium polycephalv/m, a native plant used in the 
manufacture of paper. 

Bamboo. Australian. Poa rarniigera. 
Blow-pipe. Arwndinaria Schombwrgkii, 
Common. Bambusa aru/ndinacea. 
Fortune's. Bambusa Fortumei. 
Metake. Bambusa Japonica. 
Sacred. Nandina domestiea. 

Bambu'sa. Bamboo Cane. From bambu, its 
Indian name. Nat. Ord. Graminacece. 

A genus of gigantic reeds, common through- 
out Southern China and Japan. B. arunM- 
naeea is the species of greatest importance. 
When growing it has the appearance of an 
immense sheaf of wheat standing on end. It 
grows in large tufts or clumps, some of them 
upwards of sixty feet in height, and the 
quantity of canes which they yield is simply 




enormous. The cane is porous in the center 
and partly hollow. Externally the epidermis 
is composed of a hard wood, into which silex 
enters so largely that it will strike fire with a 
steel like a piece of flint. Although this plant 
grows spontaneously and most profusely in 
nearly all the immense southern districts of 
the Chinese Empire, yet the Chinese give the 
cultivation of this reed great care and atten- 
tion. They have treatises and whole volumes 
solely on this subject, laying down rules 
derived from experience, and showing the 
proper soils, the best kinds of water, and the 
seasons for planting and transplanting 
the useful production. The variety of pur- 
poses to which the Bamboo is applied is 
almost endless. The Chinese use it, in one 
way or other, for nearly everything they 
require. The sails of their ships, as well as 
the masts and rigging, consist chiefly of 
Bamboo, manufactured in different ways. 
Almost every article of furniture in their 
houses, including mats, screens, chairs, tables, 
bedsteads, and bedding, are made of the same 
material; and in some sections entire dwell- 
ings are constructed of Bamboo. Fine paper 
is made from the fiber of this plant. In short, 
scarcely anything is to be found in China either 
upon land or water, into the composition of 
■which Bamboo does not enter. The same 
extensive use is also made of this reed in 
Japan, Java, Sumatra, Siam, and other East- 
ern countries. 

Bana'na or Plantain Tree. Musa Sapientvm. 
Abyssinian. Musa Ensele. 
Dwarf Chinese. Miiaa CavendisMi. 

Banded Rush. See Scirpvs. 

Bane-berry. See Adcea spicaia. 

Bane-wort. Atropa belladonna. 

Baniste'ria. A name applied to a genus of 
the natural family, Malphighiacem, consisting 
of trees or shrubs, frequently climbing. They 
are natives of Brazil and the West Indies. 
Several are in cultivation for the sake of their 
pretty, yellow fiowers and in some instances, 
fine foliage. Propagated by cuttings. 

Ba'nksia. A genus of ProteacecB, established by 
the younger Linneeus in honor of Sir Joseph 
Banks. Green-house evergreens principally 
grown for the beauty of their foliagCj which 
is remarkable for its harsh, rigid coriaceous 
character. The leaves are generally dark green 
on the upper surface and clothed with a white 
or rufous down beneath, their margins being 
either deeply serrated or spinous, rarely 
entire. This genus is peculiar to Australia 
and contains upwards of fifty species. 

Banner Plant. The genus Anthv/rium. 

Banyan Tree. See Ficus indica. 

Baobab Tree. See Ada/nsonia digitata. 

Ba'phia. Camwood. Barwood. From baphe, a 
dye, referring to the use of the wood in dyeing. 
Nat. Ord. Legvrnimosm. 

B. nitida, the only species, produces the 
Camwood or Barwood of commerce. It 
is an evergreen tree, growing to the 
height of fifty feet, with shining green 
leaves, composed of two pairs of leaflets 
and an odd one. Its flowers are yellow, 
and bear some resemblance to the common 
laburnum. It is a native of Sierra Leone, 
and forms an important article of commerce. 


The native women on the west coast of Africa 
use the pounded wood for painting their 
bodies ; amulets are also made of it, and it is 
used in their Fetish ceremonies. Introduced 
in 1793. 

Bapti'sia. From bapto, to dye; some of the 
species possessing dyeing properties. Nat. 
Ord. LeguminoscB. 

This genus of native plants (commonly 
called False Indigo) are rather pretty for the 
border. Flowers are white, blue or yellow. 
They grow in any good garden soil, and are 
increased by division. 

Barbace'nia. Named after M. Barba^ena, a 
Governor of Minas Geraes. Nat. Ord. 

Very pretty and singular herbaceous 
perennials. B. purpurea, has flowers of 
moderate size, of the richest velvety purple 
imaginable, leaves narrow, long, and droop- 
ing in the way of Pandanus gr'aminifolius. 
"Lindley" says that they are capable of 
existing in a dry, hot air, without contact 
with the earth, on which account they are 
favorites in South American gardens, where, 
with Orchids and Bromeliads, they are sus- 
pended in the dwelling houses, or hung to the 
balustrades of the balconies, in which situa- 
tion, they flower abundantly, filling the air 
with their fragrance. 

Barbadoes Cherry. Malpighia glabra. 

Barbadoes Gooseberry. See Pereakia. 

Barbadoes LUy. Hippeastrum equestris. 

Barbadoes Pride. Adenanthera Pavonina. 

Barbare'a. Winter Cress. So named on ac- 
count of its having been formerly called the 
Herb of St. Barbara. Nat. Ord. Crucifera. 

B. vulgaris is a hardy herbaceous plant, in 
early days esteemed as a salad. It closely 
resembles the common Water Cress, but 
grows on dry soils. Its use is now discarded. 
It is a native of Europe, and has become 
naturalized in some parts of this country. 

Barbate. Having long, soft hairs in one or 
more tufts. 

Barberry. See Berberis. 

Barbs. Hooked hairs. 

Barcla'ya. A singular genus of East Indian 
aquatics, belonging to the Nat. Ord. Nymphce- 

They bear but little resemblance to the 
ordinary water-lilies,thouglibotanically allied. 
As botanical specimens they are very interest- 
ing ; as flowering plants they are not likely to 
occupy a very prominent place in the list of 
ornamental plants. 

Bark. All the outer integuments of a plant 
beyond, the wood, and formed of tissue 
parallel with it. It is also. the officinal name 
given to the cortical layers of various plants, 
used chiefly for medicinal and tanning pur- 
poses. The name is, par excellence, applied to 
the Peruvian or Cinchona barks, the source 
of Quinine. Of these there are many varie- 
ties, namely : Calisaya Bark, Eoyal Yellow, 
Cinchona Calisaya ; Light Calisaya, C. Bolivi- 
ana, C. scrobiculata; Peruvian Calisaya, C. 
serobieulata (Delondriana) ; Carabaya Asii, 
J.aen, C. ovala; Dark Jaen, C. viUosa; Hard 
Carthagena, C. cordifolia, Woody Carthagena, 
C. Condaminea ; Spongy Carthagena, Coquetta, 
Bogota, C. lancifolia, {Condaminea); Crown, 




C Caliaaya; Select Crown, C chahuanguera ; 
Ashy Crown, C maerocalyx, O. rotvmdifolia ; 
Fine Crown, G. arispa; Loxa Crown, C. Con- 
daminea; Wiry Crown, G. hirsuta; Cinnamon, 
G. coceinea; Cusoo, Ariza, G. pubescens; Bed 
Cusoo, St. Ann's, C. scrobiculata ; Huanuco, 
Gray, G. micrantha, G. glemdulifera, G. nitida; 
Original Loja, G. uriiusinga; Negrilla, G. 
heterophyUa; Red, G. conglomerata; Genuine 
Red, G. suiccirubra ; Spurious Red, C. magni- 
folia. Tlie principal sorts are sometimes 
classed thus : Gray Barks : Crown or Loxa, G. 
condaminea, G. scrobiculata, G. maerocalyx; 
Lima, Huanuco, Silver, C. micrantha, G. Ian- 
ceolata, G. glandulifera, and probably G. pur- 
purea. Red Barks : G. nitida. Yellow Barks : 
G. Galisaya, G. micrantha, G. Gondammea, 
G. laneifoUa. Rusty Barks: G. hirsuta, G. 
micrantha, G. ovilafolia, and probably G. pur- 
purea. White Barks : C. ovata, G. pubescens, 
G. cordifolia. For a complete account of the 
medicinal Cinchona Barks, see Mr. Howard's 
splendid volume, entitled, " The Nueva 
Quinologia of Pavon." 

The following Barks are also employed offi- 
cinally or economically : Alcomoco or Aloor- 
noque, the astringent bark of several species 
of Byrsonima, or, according to some authori- 
ties, of Bowdichia virgillioides. Angostura 
Bark, the febrifugal bark of Oalipea Guapmia 
or £?. officinalis. Babul Bark, the astringent 
bark of Acacia Arabica. Bastard Cabbage 
Bark, the bark of Andira inermis; the same 
as Worm Bark. Bastard Jesuit's Bark, the 
bark of Ivafrutescens. Bonace Bark, the bark 
of Daphne iinifolia. Canella Bark, the stimu- 
lant aromatic bark of Canellaalba. Caribeean 
Bark, the astringent bark of Exostemma cari- 
6(Eitm. Cascarilla or Sweet Wood Bark, the 
aromatic bark of Groton GascarUla and G. 
pseudo-China. China Bark, the febrifugal 
bark of Buena hexand/ra. Cones^ Bark, the 
astringent bark of Wrightia antidysenterica. 
Culilawan Bark, the aromatic stimulant bark 
of Ginnamomum GuWawan. Eleuthera Bark, 
the aromatic barl^of Groton Gaftca/rilla. False 
Angostura Bark, the bark of Strychnos mix- 
vomica. French Guiana Bark, the febrifugal 
bark of Portlandia hexandra. Hemlock Bark, 
the astringent bark of Tsuga Canadensis, used 
for tanning leather. Jesuit's Bark, the same 
as Peruvian Bark. Juribali Bark, an astrin- 
gent bark of Demerara, supposed to be the 
produce of some Oedrelaceous plant. Me- 
lambo Bark, the aromatic febrifugal bark of 
some species of Oalipea, or one of its allies. 
Mesereum Bark, the acrid, irritant bark of 
Daphne Mezereum. Monesia Bark, the bark of 
some South American SapotacecB. Muruxi 
Bark, the astringent bark of Byrsonimaspicata, 
used by the Brazilian tanners. Niepa Bark, the 
febrifugal bark of Samadera Indica. Ordeal, 
Sassy, or Saucy Bark, is the poisonous bark 
of Erythrophlcmm guineense, of Sierra Leone. 
Panococco Bark, the sudorific bai;k of Swartsia 
tom^ntosa. Quercitron Bark, the yellow dye 
bark of Quercus tinctoria. Quillai Bark, the 
bark of Quillaia saponaria, used as a substi- 
tute for soap. Sassafras Bark, is the aromatic 
bark of Atherosperma moschata. Stringy Bark 
of Tasmania, Eucalyptus gigamtea. Sweet Wood 
Bark, the same as Cascarilla Bark. Nine 
Bark, an American name for Spirma opuhfolia. 
White Wood Bark, the same as Canella Bark. 
Winter's Bark, the tonic aromatic bark of 


Drymis Winteri. Worm Bark, the bark of 
Andira inermis, formerly used as an anthel- 
mintic. There are other barks, but these are 
the principal ones having a commercial or 
medicinal value. 

Barke'ria. After the late Mr. Barker, of Bir- 
mingham, Eng., an ardent cultivator of 
Orchids. Nat. Ord. Orchidacem. 

A small genus of very beautiful epiphytal 
Orchids, natives of Mexico and Central 
America. They closely resemble the well- 
known genus Epidendrum. B. speclabiUs, 
called in Guatemala, Flor de Isabel, is the 
finest species. It is one of the votive offer- 
ings of the Catholics in that country. The 
plants should be grown in baskets of moss 
in a warm house. They are increased by 
division. Introduced in 1843. 

Barle'iia. After the Rev. J. Barrelier, of Paris. 
Nat. Ord. Acanthacece. 

A large genus of herbs and shrubs, natives 
of the tropical regions of both the Old and 
the New Worlds. The flowers are purple, 
yellow, orange, or white, produced in axillary 
or terminal spikes or heads. But few of the 
species have been introduced into the garden 
or green-house. B. cristata, a native of the 
East Indies, is a pretty little hot-house ever- 
green plant, bearing its purplish-lilac flowers 
in great profusion in summer, making it a 
desirable border plant. It is propagated by 
cuttings. Introduced in 1796. 

Barley. The common name for Hordewm vul- 
ga/re, which see. 

Barna'rdia. Name in honor of E. Barnard, 
F. L. 8. Nat. Ord. lAliacece. 

A small genus of half-hardy bulbs from 
China and Japan. The flowers are pale blue, 
similar to the Scilla, and from the resemblance 
the finest species has beencalled B. sdllioides. 
They require to be grown in a frame. Pro- 
pagatedby offsets. Introduced in 1819. 

Barnyard Grass. The common name for Pamir 
cum ( 

Baro'sma. From barys, heavy, and osTjie, odor ; 
referring to the powerful scent of the leaves. 
Nat. Ord. Rutacem. 

A genus of evergreen, green-house shrubs, 
natives of the Cape of Good Hope, where the 
leaves are used by the Hottentots to perfume 
themselves with. The Bucku leaves of com- 
merce, which are much used in medicine as a 
stimulant and tonic, are produced from sev- 
eral of the species. 

Barren Flowers. The staminate, or male 
flowers of many plants, are popularly known 
as Barren flowers, and are generally produced, 
as in the case of cucumbers, melons, etc., by 
monoecious plants, that is, those having male 
and female organs in different flowers, but on 
the same plant. A good example of Barren 
flowers is seen in the ray-florets of many com- 
posite plants, such as the Thistle or Aster, 
which are frequently really neuter, having 
neither male nor female organs. 

Barringto'nia. Named after the Hon. Dainea 
Ba/rrimgton. Nat. Ord. Myrtacem. 

This genus consists of tropical evergreen 
trees, some of which are of large dimensions. 
They are found in many parts of India, but in 
the greatest numbers in the Malayan penin- 
sula and the islands of the India Ocean ; two 
species are found in N. Australia, and one on 




the banks of the Zambesi Biver, in East 
Africa. Without exception they are beautiful 
objects when in flower. 

B. speciosa, a native of the Moluccas, and 
one of the handsomest of the genus, attains a 
height of fifty feet, with a circumference of 
from ten to fifteen feet ; it is generally found 
near the sea. From its seeds a lamp-oil is 
expressed ; mixed with bait they are used to 
inebriate fish in order to facilitate their cap- 
ture. The roots, bark, and seeds of the sev- 
eral species are much used in medicine by the 
native practitioners. Syn. Stravadium. 

Barringto'nia'oeae. A small order, now placed 
as a tribe of MyriaceoB. 

Barto'nia. Named after Dr. Barton, one of our 
distinguished botanists. Nat. Ord. LoasacecE. 
B. awrea, a native of California, is a splendid 
annual, with golden yellow flowers, which 
have quite a metallic luster when the sun 
shines upon them. The seed-pod is curiously 
twisted. Like all the California annuals, it 
is very apt to die off i£ the roots become at all 
withered by drought, or if the collar of the 
plant be exposed to the full heat of the sun ; 
and thus it does best when grown in masses, 
so that the ground may be quite covered 
with its leaves. It succeeds best in a moist 
situation. Introduced in 1834. 

Barwood. Baphia nitida. 

Basal. Situated at the base of anything, or at- 
tached to the base of any organ or part. 

Base'lla. Malabar Nightshade. Its Malabar 
name. Nat. Ord. ChenopodAaeem. 

A genus of climbing plants, mostly biennial. 
B aJfiaand B. eordifolia are grown in the East 
Indies as pot-herbs, and are used as a sub- 
stitute for Spinach. Some of them are also 
grown in France, to furnish the Paris market 
with summer Spinach, and they are grown for 
the same purpose in China. jB. rubra, a va- 
riety of B. eordifolia, yields a rich purple dye. 
Some of the species have tuberous roots; 
B. alba is suitable for a suspended pot or 
basket; being quite pretty when in bloom. B. 
lucida, when in fruit, is a very interesting 
plant. Propagated by division and by seed. 

Basella'ceae. A series of usually herbaceous 
climbers, and considered a tribe of Chenopo- 

Basil, Svireet. Oeim/um, Baailicum. Which see. 

Basil, Wild. The genus Pyenanihemum. 

Basil Thyme. Common name for Calamintha 

Ba'ssia. Butter Tree. Named after M. Basai, 
Curator of the Botanic Garden at Boulogne. 
Nat. Ord. Sapotacem. 

Tall trees, natives of the hottest parts of 
the East Indies and Africa ; the leaves are al- 
ternate, produced in terminal tufts. The 
trees are of considerable importance in their 
native countries. B. butryacea yields a thick, 
oil-like butter from its fruit. It makes good 
soap, and is adapted for burning. From the 
juice of the flowers a kind of sugar is pre- 
pared. The flowers of B. latifolia, the Mah- 
wah Tree, are used as an article of food in 
India, and when dried keep good a long time. 
A good sized tree will continue to shed its 
blossoms for fifteen days, at the rate of one 
hundred pounds per day, which weight is 
reduced one-half in the process of drying. 


A maund (eighty pounds) of dried Mahwah 
will furnish a fortnight's food to a family of 
two parents and three children. It is gener- 
ally eaten with the seeds of the Sal Tree 
{Shorea robusta) ; a small quantity of rice 
being sometimes added. The fruit of the 
Illupie Tree, B. kmgifolia, yields oil for lamps 
and various other purposes ; it is also used 
for food. B. Pcurkii is the Shea Tree, or But- 
ter Tree, mentioned by Mungo Park in his 
travels. Some of the species furnish a very 
valuable timber for the mechanic arts. 

Basswood or Whitewood. TiMa Americana. 

Bast. A strong woody fibre, much used in 
some places for making brooms, brushes, etc., 
obtained from the leaf stalks of Altalea 
fv/nifera and of Leopoldlnia Piaaaaba. Also 
the inner bark of the Lime Tree, of which the 
Eussian mats used in gardens are made. 
Cuba Bast is the fibrous inner bark of Paritium 
elatum, much used for tying up cigars, and by 
gardeners for tying up plants, etc., as is also 
the bast of the Lime Tree. Kaphia, however, 
is now fast superseding these materials 
among gardeners for tying purposes. See 

Bastard, or False Acacia. Robinia Paeudo- 

Bastard Pennyroyal. See Trichoatema diehoto- 

Bata'tas. Its Indian name. Kat. Ord. ConvoU 

A somewhat extensive genus of tuberous- 
rooted climbing plants, tender or half-hardy. 
Some of the species are handsome green- 
house climbers, with large, purple, showy 
fiowers. As the flowers fade quickly and 
have no commercial value, the species are 
rarely cultivated. The most interesting 
species is B. edulia, the well-known Sweet 
Potato, for description of which see Potato. 
The several species are natives of Mexico, 
South America and the East Indies. 

Batema'nnia. In compliment to James Bate- 
man, a celebrated English collector and culti- 
vator of Orchida, and author of the "Orchid- 
aceee of Mexico and Guatemala." Nat. Ord. 

A small genus of epiphytal Orchids, most 
of which. have small, inconspicuous flowers. 
Batemannia Bwlii is a very rare and showy 
plant, from Costa Eica, with flowers three 
inches in diameter, of a reddish brown, with 
yellow spots, lip white and dark purple. 
They require to be grown in a house with 
moderate heat, and to be watered with great 
caution. Introduced in 1872. • 

Baue'ra. Named after two brothers, German 
botanical draughtsmen. Nat. Ord. Saxifra- 

A genus of small green-house shrubs, 
natives of New Zealand and Australia. 
Their pale red or pink flowers are produced 
in the axils of the leaves in great profusion., 
They form very neat, pretty green-house ever- 
green plants, flowering nearly the whole year 
through. Easily increased by cuttings. 
Bauhi'nia. Named after the brothers John and 
Caaper Bauhin, botanists in the sixteenth cen- 
tury. Nat. Ord. Legwminoam. 

The numerous species that compose this 
genus are extensively diffused throughout the 















tropics, particularly in Brazil and India. 
They are generally climbers, frequently a1> 
taining a gigantic size ; some few, however, 
form trees, or large shrubs. B. tomentoea is a 
native of Ceylon, where it forms a small tree, 
growing about fifteen feet high, and having 
pale, yellow flowers, spotted with crimson, 
which has given rise to the superstitious idea 
that they were sprinkled with the blood of St. 
Thomas, hence the tree is called St. Thomas' 
Tree. B. Vaklii is the Maloo climber of India, 
a plant whose gigantic shrubby stems often 
attain a length of 300 feet, and climb over the 
tops of the highest trees in the forest, twist- 
ing so tightly round their stems that they 
not unfrequently strangle and cause death, 
the stems ultimately decaying and leaving a 
sheath of climbers standing in their place. 
The young shoots and leaves are covered with 
a rust-colored scurf, and are furnished with 
tendrils. The leaves are very large, often 
more than a foot in diameter, composed of 
two oval-shaped lobes joined together for 
about half their length, and heart-shaped at 
the base. The flowers are snowy-white, and 
arranged in racemes. The exceeding tough 
fibrous bark of this species is employed in 
India for making ropes, Avhich, from their 
great strength, are used in the construction of 
the suspension bridges across the River 
Jumna. The bark of another Indian species 
is used for making the slow-matches used 
with native guns. 

Bay-berry. See Myrica cerifera. 

Bay Oak. Quercus aessiliflora. 

Bay Rose. Epilobiwm a/ngvstifolium. 

Bay Tree. Magnolia glauca. 

Bay Tree. Poison, lllimm Floridamm,. 

Bay Tree. Rose. Nerium, Oleander. 

Bay Tree. S-weet. Laurua nobUis. 

Beach Grass. See Ammophila. 

Beach Pea. The common name of Lathyrua 
marUimus, a species growing plentifully in 
New Jersey and northward. 

Bead Tree. See Ormosia. 

Bean. Phaseolus. The varieties of our com- 
mon Garden or Bush Bean have their origin 
in P. vulgaHs, which is supposed to be a native 
of the East Indies, though there are none of 
the spfecies found wild that in any way resem- 
bles the varieties under cultivation. The 
earliest notice that we have of the Kidney 
Bean is that given by Pliny, who calls them 
Phaseoli, and says the pod is to be eaten with 
the seed. "According to Diodorus Siculus, 
the Egyptians were the first to cultivate it, 
and to make it an article of common diet, yet 
they conceived religious notions concerning 
it which made them at length refrain from 
eating it. Their priests dared not either 
touch it or look at it. Pythagoras, who was 
educated among the Egyptians, derived from 
them their veneration for the bean, and forbade 
his disciples to eat it. He taught that it was 

• created at the same time and of the same 
elements as man ; that it was animated and 
had a soul, which, like a human soul, suffered 
the vicissitudes of transmigration. Aristotle 
explains the prohibition of Pythagoras sym- 
bolically. He says, that beans being the 
ordinary means of voting on public matters, 
the white bean meaning an affirmative, and 


the black a negative, therefore Pythagoras 
meant to forbid his disciples to meddle with 
political government. The Eoman priests 
affirmed that the bean blossom contained in- 
fernal letters, referring to the dark stains on 
the wings, and it is probable that all the 
superstitions on the subject sprang from the 
fruit." — Am. Ency. This species was first 
cultivated in England in 1509, having been in- 
troduced from the Netherlands. Many varie- 
ties were known to Gerarde in 1590. The 
running or Pole Beans are of the species P. 
muUiflorus, introduced from South America in 
1663. (See Phaseolus.) The English Bean, 
so called by our seedsmen, and commonly 
known as Broad Windsor, is Faba vulgaris var. 
macrosperma, a genus that has bieen under 
cultivation as long as we have any records of 
gardening. It is supposed to have originated 
in Egypt, from the fact that the early Greek 
writers mention receiving it thence. Of this 
class there are many varieties, none of which 
succeed well with us. 

Bean. The common name for Faba. Bog 
Bean, the Buckbean, Menyanthes trifoliata. 
Oujumary Bean, the tonic seed of Aydendh-on 
Cujumary. Egyptian or Pythagorean Bean, 
the fruit of Nehrnibium spedoBum. French or 
Bush Bean, Phaseoliis vulgaris. Haricot Bean, 
the seed of Phaseolus vulgaris. Honey Bean, 
the seed-pods of Gleditschia triacanthos. In- 
dian Bean, an American name for Galalpa. 
Kidney Bean, the common name for Phaseolus, 
especially for those kinds cultivated as escu- 
lents. Lima Bean, the popular name for 
Phaseolus hmatus, of which the Sieva or 
Southern Lima and its dwarf variety Hender- 
son's Bush Lima Bean are evidently varieties. 
Locust Bean, the pod of Ceraionia siliqua. 
Molucca Bean, the seed of Guilandina Bondu- 
cella. Ordeal Bean of Old Calabar, the seeds 
of Physostigma venenaiiim. Ox-eye Bean, the 
seed of Mucmia urens. Piohurim.Bean, a com- 
mercial name for the cotyledons of Neclandra 
Puchury. Sacred Bean, the common name for 
Nelumbiwm. Sahuca Bean, the seeds of Sqja 
hispida. St. Ignatius's Bean, the seed of 
Slrychnos multiflora; also a Brazilian name for 
the seeds of Fevillea cordifolia. Scarlet Run- 
ner Bean, the seed of Phaseolus muUiflorus. 
Smoking Bean, the seed-pods of Catalpa big- 
nonioides. Tonga or Tonquin Bean, the seed of 
Dipterix odorata. Underground Bean, Arachis 
hypogcm, commonly called Pea-nuts. Water 
Bean, an English name for the family of 
NelvmbiacecE. Wild Bean, a common name 
for Apios. Algaroba Bean is Ceratonia sili- 
qua. Asparagus Bean, or Yard Long, Dolichos 
sesquipedalis. HibbertBean, Phaseolus hinatus 
(same as Lima Bean). Horse or Field Bean, 
Faba vulgaris var. equina. Horse-eye Bean, 
Mueuna urens. Inga Bean, the pod of the 
Bastard Cassia. Malacca Bean is the seed 
of Semecarpua anacmrdivmi. Mesqult Bean, 
the seed of Proaopia glanduloaa. Pigeon 
Bean is the small-seeded field Bean. Bam's 
Horn Bean is Dolichoa bicontortia. Red 
Bean is Vigna vmguiculata. Sea Bean, Florida 
Bean, a common name for the seed of Entada 
scandens and of Ormosia tlasycarpa. Seaside 
Bean is Canavalia obtuaifolia and Vigna 
luteola. Sugar Bean, Phaseolus aaccharatus 
and P. lunabus. Sword Bean is Entada acam~ 
dens and Canavalia glaMata. Tick Bean is the 




common field Bean, Faba vulgaris. Tree Bean 
of Australia is Bauhinia Hookerii. Yam Bean 
is Dolichos tuberosus. Year Bean is Phaseolus 
vulgaris. VanillaBean is Vanilla planifolia, etc. 

Bearberry. See Arctostaphylos. 
Californian. Rhamnus Purshiaims. 

Beard Grass. See Andropogon and Polypogon. 

Beard-tongue. A popular name of the genus 

Bear Grass. See Yucca. 

Bear's Foot. Helleboms fcetidus, H. viHdis, H. 
niger, Aconitum napellus and Alchemilla vul- 

Beato'nia. Named in honor of Donald Beaton, a 
celebrated Scotch gardener and writer. Nat. 
Ord. IridacecB. 

A small genus of Mexican bulbs, allied to 
the Tigridia, and requiring the same treat- 
ment. Flowers purple, growing in pairs or 
singly on a stem about a foot high. Intro- 
duced in 1841. Propagated by offsets. 

Beauca'rnea. A commemorative name. Nat. 
Ord. lAliacecB. 

A name given to a genus of Agave-like lili- 
aceous plants, formerly described under the 
name Pincenectitia. The few linown species 
are Mexican plants, with arborescent stems, 
remarliable for the large bulbiform swelling 
which, from the earliest stages of its growth, 
forms at its base ; these support a spreading 
ternfinal crown of long narrow leaves. B. re- 
curvata, is a noble conservatory plant when it 
has formed a large stem and lull head of leaves ; 
its flowers from 4,000 to 5,000 in number, are 
white, small, and fragrant, borne in a large 
terminal panicle, three or more feet in height. 
Beauoameas are grown principally for the 
beauty of their foliage and are grotesque, 
graceful, and extremely curious in habit and 
form. They are also excellent subjects for 
sub-tropical or lawn decoration in summer. 
Propagated chiefly by imported seeds. 

Beaufo'rtia. Named after Mary, Duchess of 
Beaufort. Nat. Ord. Myrtacem. 

A small genus of very desirable green-house 
plants from New Holland. They should be 
grown in loam and sand in about equal 
quantities, and in a cool part of the green- 
house will flower splendidly. The flo*vers are 
Scarlet, pink, or red. Propagated by cuttings 
of the hall-ripened wood. 

Beaumo'ntia. Named after Mrs. Beaumont, of 
Bretton Hall, Eng. Nat. Ord. ApocynacecB. 

This genus of green-house twiners has but 
few species, all natives of the East Indies. B. 
grandiflora is x'emarkable for its handsome 
JQowers which are pure white, borne in ter- 
minal or axillarj' corymbs. The plant is diffi- 
cult of propagation, which is effected by 
cuttings. Great age is required to bring it 
into flower. When a large plant is obtained 
and grown under favorable circumstances, it 
has but few rivals. Introduced in 1820. 

Beaver Poison. A common name applied to 
Oicuta maculata. 

Beaver Tree or Beaver Wood. Magnolia 

Bedding. This term is used by florists, mostly 
when plants are set out in what is known as 
the "Carpet," "Kibbon Line," or "Massing 
In Color" style of decorative planting. The 


" Carpet Style " is that produced by planting 
low-growing plants of different colors and 
forms of leaves, to form carpet-like pat- 
terns. They must be such plants as present 
a smooth, well defined color, and not exceed- 
ing three or four inches in height. To pro- 
duce the proper effect by this style of planting 
the plants must be set close enough to form a 
mass, covering the soil completely up, or the 
effect will not be so good. Bedding in " ribbon 
lines " is usually done along margins of drives 
or walks, in widths from one to ten feet, as 
desired, the plants used being such as to give 
the most pleasing contrast in color. The 
plants usually selected are such as will either 
form a slope to the walk by planting the 
highest at the back with the lowest growing 
in front, or else, if the line is a wide one, such 
as, by placing the highest plants in the center 
and the others on each side, will slope to each 
side of the line. But to keep the lines of color 
well defined and smooth, the plants must be 
carefully pinched back, so as to keep each line 
to its proper height. Bedding by "massing 
in color" is on the same principle, only that, 
instead of the plants being planted in lines, 
they are set in contrasting masses of different 
colors, in any number of shades desired, 
though the effect is most marked when but 
few colors are used In one bed. Large beds 
are often formed of one color, such as scarlet, 
maroon, blue, pink, or yellow, which, seen at 
a distance, in contrast with the green of the 
lawn, is by many more admired than when the 
colors are placed together. 

Bed Straw. One of the common names of the 
genus Galium. 

Bee Balm. Mellissa officinalis. 

Bee Flower, or Bee Orchis. Ophrys Apifera. 

Bee Larkspur. Delphinium grandiflorum. 

Beech. American. See Fagusferruginea. 
Blue. Carpinus Americama. 
Common. See Fagvs sylvatica. 

Beech-drops or Cancer Root. A common name 
of Epiphegus Virginica, a parasite that grows 
on the roots of Beech trees. 

Beech Fern. Polypodium Phegopteris. 

Beech Horn, or Horst. Carpinus Betulus. 

Beef Steak' Plant. Saxifraga Sarmentosa, and 
Begonia Eva/nsixma. 

BeefWood. The genus Caswarina. 

Beet, Chard, Sea-Kale, or Spinach. Beta 
Braeiliense, and B. Cicla. 

Beet. Bed. Beta vulgaris, which see. 

Befa'ria, In memory of M. Bejar, a Spanish 
botanist. Nat. Ord. Ericacem. 

A genus of green-house evergreen shrubs, 
found in the Alpine districts of Peru and 
Mexico. They are mostly, extremely beauti- 
ful plants, and grow at a great height in the 
mountainous districts, often at the very 
extreme of vegetation. The genus is nearly 
related to Rhododendron; it is rarely culti- 
vated. Syn. Bejaria. 

Beggar's Lice. A common name of Oynoglosswm 

Beggar's Ticks. The common name of a very 
disagreeable weed, Bidens chrysanthemoides. 
It has received this distinctive name because 
the fruit adheres to anything with which it 
comes in contact. 




Bego'nia. Named in honor of M. 
French patron of botany, Nat. Ord.' Bego- 

All the species of Begonia are interesting 
and beautiful winter ornaments of the hot- 
house or green-house, of the simplest culture 
in any rich soil if allowed an abundant supply 
of water. Cuttings may be struck without 
trouble/ B. Rex, the type of the large-leaved 
sorts, and the most ornamental of the species, 
is best propagated by cutting the leaves in 
sections, each being so cut as to form a junc- 
tion of the ribs at the lower end of the cutting. 
These should be laid in a damp, warm place, 
or on the propagating bench with good bottom 
heat ; or a leaf, or a portion of one, may be 
laid flat in any shady place in the house. 
Within the last twenty-five years a new race 
of tuberous-rooted sorts has been introduced 
from the South American Andes, of which 
B. rosmflora, B. Veiichii, B. octopetala and B. 
Bolivienaia are typical species, from which, by 
cross-fertUization and selection a large num- 
ber of beautiful and almost hardy kinds have 
been raised.' This is shown in the size, sub- 
stance, and rich colors of the flowers of the 
majority of the plants of this race. They are 
equally valuable for the green-house or for 
out-door decoration in summer. The tubers 
should be kept warm and dry during the 
winter, from November to April, when they 
may be started into growth. 

Bego'nia'ceae. A natural order, comprising a 
large number of useful and ornamental garden 
plants. The only genera are ' Begonia and 
Begoniella. The species are common in the 
East and West Indies, and South America, 
and a few are found in Madagascar, and South 
Africa. They are said to possess bitter and 
astringent qualities. 

Bellado'nna. See Airopa Belladonna. 

Bellado'nna Iiily. A common name for Ama- 
ryllis Belladonna. 

Belleva'lia. In memory of P. R. Belleoal, a 
French botanist. Nat. Ord- lAliacem. 

A small genus of bulbous plants found in 
the Mediterranean region and in temperate 
Asia. They are perfectly hardy, growing 
freely under the same conditions in which the 
Grape Hyacinth, Museari, is grown, and the 
finer species of which they closely resemble. 
Introduced in 1844. 

Bell-flower. See Campam/ula. 

Be'llis. The Daisy. From heChm, pretty; re- 
ferring to the flowers. Nat. Ord. ComposUm. 
Well-known perennials, of which B. perennis, 
the common Daisy, has been in cultivation in 
the British and Continental gardens from time 
Immemorial. The most beautiful varieties 
are the large double, the large quilled, and 
the Hen-and-Chickens; but there are many 
others. In Germany numerous curious varie- 
ties have been raised by saving the seed of 
the handsomest kinds. Each s"rt is much 
improved by being taken up, divided, and re- 
planted every autumn. They are all admira- 
ble plants for making edgings to borders, and 
they are well suited for growing in pots, 
though at present they are almost neglected. 
They thrive best in a loamy soil, richly man- 
ured, which should be dug over and well 
broken before planting, and they will bear 
transplanting even when in flower, provided 


they are taken up with a portion of soil at- 
tached. These pretty plants are seldom seen 
in our gardens in as great abundance as they 
deserve to be, which is owing, no doubt, to 
their being very impatient of our hot sum- 
mers. They should therefore be grown in a 
shady and rather cool border. 
Be'Ilium. A genus of pretty dwarf free-flower- 
ing plants, nearly related to the common 
Daisy, Bellis peremnis, and requiring similar 
treatment. Excellent plants for rockwork or 
a similar situation. 

Bell Pepper. See Capaicwm,. 

Bell'wort. See Utricidaria gra/ndiSora. 

Bellworts. The English popular name for the 
Nat. Ord. CampamdacecB. 

Belope'rone. A considerable genus of Acan- 
thacem, from Tropical America, containing 
many species of beautiful shrubs with large 
purple or blue flowers borne on terminal 
spikes ; nearly allied to Justida, and requiring 
the same treatment. 

Bene. See Sesa/m/mn. 

Bengal Quince. See .^gle. 

Benjamin Bush. A popular name of TJndera 
Benzoin, which is also called Spice Bush. 

Bent Grass. See Agroatis. 

Bentha'mia. Named after Mr. Bentham, a dis- 
tinguished English botanist. Nat. Ord. Cor- 

A small genus of half-hardy evergreen 
shrubs, natives of northern India. The fruit 
makes it a conspicuous plant forthe lawn. .It 
is of a yellowish white color, about the size of a 
Easpberry, but not edible. B. Japonica, very 
much resembles the flowering Dogwood, 
blooming two months later in the season. 
Propagated .from seeds or by cuttings. 

Benzoin. A genus of native shrubs now known 
as lAndera, which see. 

Berberida'ceae. A natural order of shrubs or 
hardy perennials, with terminal or axillary 
flowers, usually racemose, with alternate, 
compound leaves. These plants are found in 
South America as far as the Straits of Magel- 
lan, and in the mountainous parts of the 
northern hemisphere. They are common in 
the northern provinces of India, but none are 
found in Africa, Australia, or the South Sea 
Islands. The fruit of some of the species is 
used as a preserve, and is sometimes eaten in 
a fresh or dried state. They possess acid, 
bitter, and astringent qualities, and oxalic 
acid occurs in some. The stem and bark of 
several species are used in dyeing yellow. 
The astringent substance called Lycium by 
Dioscorides is supposed to be furnished by 
the root of various species of Berberry, and a 
similar preparation is much used in India as 
a febrifuge. The pinnate-leaved Berberries 
form the sub-genus Mahonia. The order con- 
tains twelve genera and a hundred and ten 
species, among which are Berberis, Leontice, 
Mpimedmrn, Nwndina, Jefferaonia, etc. 

Berberido'psls. From Berbeiria, and opia, like ; 
resembling the Barberry. Nat. Ord. Berberv- 

A small genus of half-hardy evergreen 
shrubs, natives of Chili. B. corallma is a 
handsome shrub of sub-scandent habit, thick, 




leathery leaves, and drooping, many-flowered 
racemes of long-stalked, crimson-scarlet 
flowers. This species is perfectly hardy - 
south of "Washington, and is a shrub of re- 
markable beauty. Propagated by cuttings 
or from seed. Introduced in 1862. 

Be'rberis. The Barberry. From herberya, its 
Arabian name. Nat. Ord. Berberidacem. 

There are several varieties of the common 
Barberry, all of which are ornamental shrubs, 
easily propagated by cuttings or layers, and 
well adapted for a large lawn, especially the 
purple-leaved variety. They thrive best in 
rather a light, sandy soil. The fruit is acid 
and highly esteemed for preserving, and for 
this purpose the seedless variety, B. vulgaris 
asperina, is mostly preferred. This variety is 
a native of Europe. B. Darwinii, introduced 
from Chili in 1849, is one of the most beautiful 
of the genus. It forms a densely spreading 
bush with very numerous racemes of bright 
orange colored flowers. 

Berche'mia. Named after M. Berchem, a French 
botanist. Nat. Ord. Rhamnacew. 

B. vohibilis is a common climbing shrub in 
the swamps of Virginia and the Carolinas, 
where it is popularly known as Supple-Jack, 
because of its lithe, tough stems. In foreign 
countries it is cultivated as an ornamental 
climber, but in dry soils it rarely grows more 
than eight or ten feet in height. 

Berkhey'a. See Stohaa. 

Bergamot A common name for. Mentha citrata. 
American Wild. MonarciafistuloBa. 
Medicinal. Citrua Bergamia var. mdgaria. 

Bermuda Grass. See Cynodon Dactylon. 

Bermuda Lily. See lAlium Harriaii. 

Bertholle'tia. Brazil Nut. Named after L. C. 
Berthollet, a distinguished chemist. Nat. Ord. 

B. excelsa, the tree that bears the Brazil Nuts 
of commerce, is the only species of this genus, 
and is one of the most majestic trees in 
the Brazilian forests. It often attains a height 
of 150 feet, and has a diameter of from three 
to four feet at the base. It is found in the 
greatest abundance in the forests on the 
banks of the Amazon, and it is also common in 
Central America, and in several of the States 
of South America. The nuts are incased in a 
shell from four to six Inches in diameter, which 
is extremely hard. Each shell contains aboub 
twenty nuts. So enormous is the weight of 
this fruit, that at the period when it falls the 
natives dare not enter the forests without 
covering their heads and shoulders with a 
strong buckler of wood. The time for collect- 
ing these nuts is in winter, when the Indians, 
in great numbers, ascend the rivers to obtain 
their harvest of nuts, upon which they depend 
for the year's subsistence. When the nuts are 
spread on the ground all the animals of the 
forest surround them and dispute their pos- 
session. The Indians say it is the feast of the 
animals as well as themselves, but they are 
angry with their rivalry. The gathering of 
the nuts is celebrated with rejoicings, like the 
"Harvest Home" of Old England. About 
once in Ave years another species or variety 
is seen in small quantities in a few of the fruit 
stores of New York. It is of a lighter color, 
much less angular, less oily, and very much 
finer in quality than the common Brazil Nut. 


It is called the Paradise Nut, and is quite dis- 
tinct. It is said to grow in the interior of the 
country, and is gathered by the Indians, and 
brought to the coast, which they visit at long 
intervals for the purpose of trade. 

Bertolo'nia. In honor of A. Bertoloni, an 
Italian botanist. Nat. Ord. MelastomacecB. 

A genus of very pretty trailing or creeping 
plants, natives of the dense forests of Brazil. 
B. maculata, typical of the genus, is an exceed- 
ingly beautiful tollhouse creeper. The leaves 
are spotted on the surface.'and purple under- 
neath. It requires a warm, moist atmosphere, 
and is readily increased by cuttings. Intro- 
duced in 1848. 

Beschome'rla. A genus of Agave-like Amaryl- 
lidaceous plants, allied to Littcea, and Fovr- 
croya. B. tubijlora, and B. yuccoidea, are 
highly ornamental species, very useful for 
lawn decoration in summer. 

Besle'ria. Erect, dwarf, branching plants, bear- 
ing yellow, white, or purple flowers and scar- 
let or purple berries, introduced from tropical 
America and belonging to the Nat. Ord. Oea- 

They are vei-y pretty stove shrubs, requir- 
ing a moist, warm atmosphere, and are 
readily increased by cuttings. 

Besse'ra. Named after Dr. Beaaer, professor of 
botany at Brody. Nat. Ord. LiliacecB. 

A small genus of very beautififl Mexican 
bulbs, allied to the Squills. The flowers are 
scarlet, purple, or white, produced on slender 
scapes about a foot high. They may be 
grown in a frame, like halt-hardy bulbs, but it 
is less trouble to treat them the same as the 
Tigridia. The bulbs must be kept warm and 
dry during the winter, if taken up Propa- 
gated by offsets. Introduced in 1846. 

Be'ta. Beet. From belt, the Celtic word for 
red; in reference to the red color of the Beet. 
Nat. Ord. Chenopodiacem. 

The several species included in this genus 
are natives of Europe, Northern Africa, and 
Western Asia. Four of the species are culti- 
vated as esculents ; the others are of no par- 
ticular interest. B. vulgaria, the parent of 
our garden varieties, is a native of Egypt and 
along the whole searcoast of the Mediterranean, 
and is now found growing wild in those locali- 
ties. The Beet has been highly esteemed as 
a garden vegetable for more than 2,000 years, 
and is specially noticed by all the early writers 
on plants. The roots of the Beet have been 
much improved by cultivation, both as regards 
size and quality, and long ago they arrived at 
that state of perfection beyond which pro- 
gress in the line of improvement must, of 
necessity, be slow. The several varieties of 
Mangel-wurzel and Sugar Beet, now grown so 
extensively in Europe, belong to the species 
jB. vulgaria var. macrorhiza. The Chard Beet, 
or Swiss Chard, is B. cycla, a native of 
Portugal, first introduced into English gar- 
dens in 1670. It is extensively cultivated 
in the gardens of Europe, and forms one 
of the principal vegetables of the laboring 
class, the leaves only being used. They are 
stripped off and boiled as a substitute for 
Spinach. The rib of the leaf, which is strong 
and fleshy, is sometimes dressed as Aspar- 
agus. Sea Beet is B. maritima, a speclesiof 
easy culture, used for greens only, and one of 




cne best plants under cultivation for that 
use. It is a native- -of tiie Britisli- coasts. 
Tlie Cliilian Beet, B. Chiliensis, a species of 
recent introduction, a native of Chili, as its 
name implies, is becoming popular for orna- 
mental gardening, particularly for large rib- 
bon borders, the two varieties, one with 
bright yellow, the other with crimson foliage, 
contrasting finely with other-plants. 

Betony. The common name of Stachys Be- 

Be'tula. Birch. ' From its Celtic name, heiu. 
Nat. Ord. Betulacem. 

An extensive genus of deciduous trees, com- 
mon in all the cold and inhospitable climates. 
Some of the species are the last trees found 
as we approach the snow in the most elevated 
districts. Thl-" genus is largely represented 
in our Nortnern States by B. alba, the com- 
mon White Birch, which, from the tremulous 
habit of the foliage, is in some localities called 
Poplar Birch. This species is remarkable for 
its elegance. It seldom divides the main 
stem, which extends to the summit of the tree, 
giving out from all parts numerous slender 
branches, forming a very neat and beautiful 
spray of a dark chocolate color, contrasting 
finely with the whiteness of the trunk. When 
grown as a single specimen, this tree assumes 
a beautiful pyramidal form, making a moder- 
ate-sized tree of great beauty. B. lemta is the 
Black or Cherry Birch, so named from its 
resemblance to the American Black Cherries. 
The bark of the young twigs of this species 
has a sweet, aromatic taste. The wood is 
dark rose dolor, fine-grained, and much used 
in fine cabinet work. There are several other 
native species common in our Northern States, 
all interesting, mostly low-growing trees or 
large shrubs. 

Beurre'. A general name applied to a class of 
dessert Pears, which have- their flesh of what 
is called a buttery texture, as the name itself 

Bi. In compounds signifies twice ; as Bicolor, 
two-colored ; Bidentate, with two teeth. 

Bidens. The botanical name of the well-known 
Beggar's Ticks. 

Bidwi'llia. Named after Mr. Bidwill, of Sydney, 
an ardent cultivator of bulbs. Nat. Ord. 

A small genus of Australian and Peruvian 
bulbs, allied to Antherieum. The flowers 
are white, borne In racemes, and differing but 
little from the Asphodelus. Propagated by 

Biennial. Lasting two years. A biennial plant 
requires two years to form its flowers and 
fruit ; growing one year, and flowering, fruit- 
ing and dying the next. This, however, is 
not true of all climates. Many plants that are 
classed as biennials in England, when sown 
in the southern parts of the United States, or 
in a hot-bed in March, at the North, and 

• planted out in summer, will flower, seed, and 
die just as many annuals do. 

Blfrena'ria. From bis, twice, and framwm, a 
strap ; in reference to the double strap, or 
band, by means of which the pollen masses 
are connected with their gland. Nat". Ord. 

A genus of pretty orchids, closely allied to 
Mamllaria, differing very slightly from that 


genus, and succeeding well under the same 
treatment. B. HarrisonicB, a very beautiful 
white species, with a purple lip, is known in 
cultivation under the following synonyms: 
Colax, Dendrobium, Lycaste, and Maxilla/Ha 
Bigno'nia. Trumpet Creeper. Named after 
Abbe Bignon, librarian to Louis XIV. Nat. 
Ord. BignoniacecB. 

An extensive genus of highly ornamental 
plants, and the type of an order equally beauti- 
ful. Most of the species are hot-house 
climbers, though a few assume a more ai'bo- 
rescent character. B. capreolala, a native of 
Florida, is sufflcicntly hardy to withstand our 
severest weather when trained against a wall. 
The flowers of all are large and showy, pro- 
duced in panicles, and are of various colors, 
red, blue, white, or yellow. They should be 
grown in rich loam, in a sunny position, or 
they will not flower well. Introduced in 1820. 
B. radicans, is a synonym of Teooma radicans, 
which see. 

B. Venuata, one of the most beautiful of the 
genus, is particularly suited for large green- 
houses, for training on rafters, or festooning 
between pillars, etc. Producing its rich, 
orange-red flowers in clusters, in great pro- 
fusion, during the winter months, makes it 
still more desirable. B. magniftca, with flow- 
ers varying from delicate mauve to rich pur- 
plish crimson, introduced from Columbia in 
1879, is another very handsome and showy 
species, flowering in summer. 

Bignonia'ceae. A large order of trees, or twin- 
ing shrubby plants, with usually opposite 
compound leaves, and showy, often trumpet- 
shaped flowers. The plants are found in the 
tropical regions of both hemispheres, but most 
largely in the eastern. In America they 
extend from Pennsylvania in the North to 
Chili in the South. Some yield dyes, and 
others supply timber. There are forty-six 
genera, and nver 150 known species. Bignonia, 
Oaialpa, Tecoma and Eooromocarpua are rep- 
resentative genera. 

Big-Root. See Megarrhiza. 

Billardie'ra. Apple Berry. Named after LabU- 
lardiere, a French botanist. Nat. Ord. Pittos- 

A small genus of green-house evergreen 
climbers, natives of Australia and Tasmania. 
The species are not remarkable for beauty of 
plant or flower, but are highly esteemed for 
their sub-acid fruit, which is pleasant and 
wholesome. The fruit is a small berry, either 
blue or amber-colored. Propagated by cut- 

Billbe'rgia. Named after BUlberg, a Swedish 
botanist. Nat. Ord. BromeUaceKB. 

These are handsome plants when well grown. 
The colors of the flowers are at once rich, 
vivid, and delicate, and are usually contrasted 
in the highest manner by the equally bright, 
tints of the colored bracts. They should be 
grown in pots of rich loam, in a warm green- 
house, or plunged into an active hot-bed until 
the growth is completed, when a cooler and 
drier place, as on a shelf of the hot-house, 
will induce them to flower freely. Propagated 
by suckers. Introduced from Brazil in 1825. 

Blllberry. See Vaccmium. 

Bilstead. A common nameof the lAquidamhar. 




Binding Plants. A name that may be given to 
such plants, the roots of which are useful for 
binding the soil on the banks of reservoirs, 
aqueducts, etc., as ■well as the loose sand- 
banks on exposed shores or wastes. Various 
species of Willows, Kaspberries, Blackberries, 
Vacciniums, and with strong spreading roots, 
are useful for the former. Alsike Clover is 
also well suited for this purpose. Its long, 
fibrous roots holding the soil well together. 
The Bermuda Grass, Cynodon Dactylon, is 
also exceedingly valuable anywhere south of 
Virginia, and yrith. Ammophila or Cala/magrostis 
arenaria, is invaluable for binding loose sand 
on exposed sea^shores and water-courses. (See 
Ammophila). Ampelopsis Veitchii, the Japan 
or Boston Ivy, has also been found useful for 
planting on railroad cuttings and embank- 
ments to prevent loose rocks from falling on 
the tracks. 

Bind-vtreed. A popular name for Convolvulus 

Birch. See Betula. 

Bird Cherry. See Cerasua Padus. 

Bird of Paradise. A name applied to the flowers 
of the StrelUzia RegincB, from their supposed 

Bird Pepper. Capsicum haccaiwm,. 

Bird's Bill. Trigonella omithorrhynchvs. 

Bird's Foot, or Bird's Foot Trefoil. Lotus com- 

Bird's-nest. Daucus Carota, or Wild Carrot. 

Bird's-nest Pern. Asplenivm, Nidus. 

Birth-root. Trillium erectum. 

Birth-Tvort. The genus Aristolochia. 

Bishop's Cap, or Mitre-wort. The genus 

Bishop's--wort. Stachys Betonica. 

Bishop-weed. See ^gopodiwm podograria. 

Bismarkia. In honor of the German statesman. 
An imperfectly-known genus of Palmacece, of 
which B. nobilis is the only species. It is a 
very ornamental plant, with the appearance 
and habit of a Pritchardia. Introduced from 
Madagascar in 1886. 

Bitter Almond. Amygdalus communia. 

Bitter Apple. Cucumis Colocynthis. 

Bitter Cress. The genus Cardamine. 

Bitter Nut, or Swamp Hickory. Carya amara. 

Bitter Root. Lewisia rediviva. 

Bitter Sweet. A popular name for Celastrus 
accmdens; also applied to Solammi Dulcamara. 

Bitter Vetch. The genus Orobus. 

Bitter Weed. Ambrosia artemisimfolia. 

Bi'za. Amatto. Its native South American 
name. Nat. Ord. Placourtiacem. 

South American trees, or shrubs, B. Orel- 
lana, commonly known as the Arnatto tree, 
Is a native of tropical America, the West 
Indies, Sumatra, and Java, and is much valued 
because of the coloring matter which is pro- 
cured from the pulp that surrounds the seeds, 
and which is an important article of com- 
merce. It seldom attains to more than twelve 
feet in height. The leaves are of a deeper 
green on one side than on the other, and are 
divided by fibres of a reddish-brown color; 
they are four inches long, broad at the base. 


and tend to a sharp point. The stem has 
likewise fibres, which, in Jamacia, are con- 
verted into serviceable ropes. The tree pro- 
duces oblong, bristled pods, somewhat re- 
sembling those of a chestnut. These, at first, 
are of a beautiful rose-color; but, as they 
ripen, change to a dark-brown, and bursting 
open, display a splendid crimson farina, or 
pulp, in which are contained thirty or forty 
seeds, in shape similar to raisin stones. This 
pulp is separated by throwing the freshly- 
gathered seeds into a tub of water, and stir- 
ring them until the red matter is detached, 
when it is strained off and evaporated to the 
consistency of putty. In this state it is made 
up into rolls, and is ready for market. This 
drug is used in coloring cheese, butter, and for 
inferior chocolates. It is also used by silk- 
dyers ; and by varnish-maiers, for imparting 
a rich orange tint to some kinds of varnish. 

Bixi'neEB, or Bixa'ceae. A name sometimes 

given to the order MacowrtiacecB, which see. 
Black Alder, or Winter-berry. Prinos Verti- 

Black-berry. See Rubus. 
Black-betryliily. See Pardanthus. 
Black Bind-weed. Polygonum Convolvulus. 
Black Bryony. See Tamus. 
Black Grum, or Sour Gum. Nyssa multiflora. 
Black Haw. Viburnum pnmifolium. 
Black Horehound. Balotta nigra. 
Black Jack, or Barren Oak. QusrcMS nigra. 
Black Moss, or Florida Moss. Tillandsia 

Black Mustard. See Sinapia nigra. 
Black Oat Grass. Stipa avenacea. 
Black Oyster Plant. See Scorzonera Hia- 

Black Pepper. See Piper nigrum. 
Black Snake Root. Sanieula Marilandica. 
Black Thorn. Prunus apinosa, also Cratcsgua 

Black Varnish Tree. MelanorrUma usitatissima. 
Bladder-wort. The genus Utricularia. 
Bladder Catch-fly. Silene inflata. 
Bladder Nut. Staphylea irifoliata, and 8. pin- 

Bladder Senna. Colutea herbacea, and C. ar- 


Blanching. This process is effected, for the 
purpose of obtaining crispness, and for con- 
verting what would, under ordinary circum- 
stances, be a dangerous plant — in the case of 
Celery especially so — into a highly popular deli- 
cacy. Blanching can only be accomplished by 
entirely excluding the light from the plants, 
thus depriving the coloring matters of their 
power to decompose water and carbonic acid 

Blandfo'rdia. Named in honor of George, Mar- 
quis of Blandford. Nat. Ord. lAliacecB. 

Beautiful green-house bulbs from New South 
Wales. They should be grown in large pots 
filled with leaf mould, loam and sand, placed 
in the green-house, and, if properly attended 
to with water, will flower freely. The flowers 
are crimson or orange. Introduced in 1812. 
Propagated by seeds and offsets. 




Blazing Star. A common name of Liatris aquar- 
roaa, and also given to Chammlinwm luteum. 

Ble'chuum.. Prom blechnon, a Greek name foi" 
a fern. Nat. Ord. Polypodiacece. 

A considerable genus of Ferns of the same 
group as Lomaria, the distinction between the 
two consisting in the fructification of 7/om- 
aria being marginal, and that of Blechnum 
being within the margin. The genus contains 
a considerable number of species, which are 
abundant in tropical countries ; South America 
and the West Indian Islands having contrib- 
uted the greatest number. 

Bleeding Heart. The popular name of Dielytra 
{Diclytra, Dicentra) ^ectabilis. 

Blepbi'lia. A genus of uninteresting herbs, 
nearly allied to Monarda, Horse-mint, common 
in the southern and western States. 

Blessed Thistle. Cnicua Mnediclus. A genus 
of Thistles, natives of the Levant and Persia. 
Naturalized and common on the roadsides in 
the southern States; now caUed by some 
authors, Carbenia benedicta. 

Ble'tia. Named after a Spanish botanist of the 
name of Blet. Nat. Ord. Orchidacete. 

Pretty, tuberous-rooted, terrestrial Orchids, 
which produce large spikes of shaded purple 
flowers and require to be grown in pots of a- 
brous loam and leaf mould. A somewhat high 
temperature, say 70" or 75°, with plenty of 
moisture while they are growing, and a consid- 
erable reduction of both as soon as it is com- 
pleted, is necessary to cultivate them in per- 
fection. They are increased by means of 
offsets. Introduced from Mexico in 1822. B. 
TankervilUm, is now included under Phams, 
which see. 

Bli'gMa. Named in honor of Capt. Bligh, who 
first carried the bread-fruit to the West 
Indies. Nat. Ord. Sapindacece. 

This is called the Akee Tree, and is a plant 
much esteemed in Africa and the West Indies 
on account of its fruit, which is as large as a 
goose's egg, and of a reddish or yellow color. 
This fruit contains several large seeds, the 
coating of which is eaten ; it is said to possess 
an agreeable sub-acid taste, very grateful to 
the palate. Syn. Oupania. 

Blight. As used by cultivators this term is of 
vague significance. It is applied to those 
diseases of grain, etc., which usually depend 
upon the presence of parasitic Fwngi. The 
Pear Blight so destructive to pear trees for 
many years past, is now generally believed to 
be owing to the presence of a Fungus, 
though not a few still believe that it is to be 
attributed to a diseased condition of the sap. 
There have been several theories put forth to 
account for this destructive disease, and the 
subject still remains more or less a mystery. 
Insects have also been charged with producing 
the disease ; but whatever the cause, all know 
the results to be only too fatal, and, thus far, 
without remedy. Blight is not confined to the 
field and the orchard, but also finds its way to 
plants in the garden. If Fimgi are not the 
cause of the disease, they may be said to be 
always present as a result. 

Blind Shoots. A term given to such shoots as 
do not show flower buds. 

Blood Flower. The common name for Hcb- 
West Indian. Aaclepias curasaaeica. 


Blood Root. See ScmguinaHa Canadense. 
Blood Wood. Australian. Eucalypttm corym- 


E. Indian. LageratrcMnia RegiruB. 
Blue Bells. Cwmpcmula rotwndifolia, and SciZZa 

Blue-berry. Vaoainiwm Permaylvamowm, etc. 
Blue-bottle. Oentaurea cyam/aa. 
Blue Cohosh. A popular name of Caulophyllum 

thalictroidea, also called the Pappooae root. 
Blue Curls. A popular name for the genus 

Blue Daisy. Agathea caleatia and Aater Tripo- 

Blue-eyed Grass. SiayrincMwm Bermvdiamim. 

Blue Flag. Iris veraicolor. 

Blue Grass. Kentucky. See Poa pratenais. 

Blue Gum. See Eucalyptua globulua. 

Blue Palmetto. See Rhapidophylhim. 

Blue Pea. See Clitoria iematea. 

Blue Tangle. Dangleberry, Huckleberry. Oay- 

Bluets. Common name for Hbuatonia ccerulea ; 
also the French name for Centwwrea Cyarms. 

Blue Weed, or Viper's Bugloss. Echiwm vvX- 

Blumenba'chia. In honor of Dr. Blumenbach, 
of GSttingen, a distinguished comparative 
anatomist. Nat. Ord. Loasacem. 

Elegant branched climbing or trailing, an- 
nual, biennial, or perennial herbs, with large 
white or yellow flowers, and generally covered 
with stinging hairs, which are very objection- 
able. ' 

Booco'nia. Named after P. Bocconi, M.D., a 
Sicilian. Nat. Ord. Papaveracem. 

B. cordnta, the only species adapted for the 
border, is a handsome, hardy herbaceous 
plant, a small clump or single specimen of 
which would take high rank among ornamen- 
tal-leaved plants, but unfortunately, it refuses 
to be kept within bounds, and will, when once 
established, not only take possession of the 
border, but the lawn as well; and for this 
reason, notwithstanding its great beauty, it 
should not be planted on the lawn. Syns. 
B. japonica and Macleaya yedoenais. 

Boehme'ria. Eamee or Bamie. In memory of 
George Rudolph Bczhmer, a German botanist. 
Nat. Ord. ZJrticacecB. 

A genus of herbaceous plants or shrubs, 
allied to the true Nettles, but differing from 
them in not having stinging hairs. The most 
interesting species is B. rmiea, the Chinese 
Grass-cloth Plant. It is a small, shrubby 
plant, about three or four feet high, throwing 
up numerous straight shoots, which are 
about as thick as the little finger, and covered 
with soft short hairs. Its leaves grow on 
long hairy footstalks, and are broadly heart- 
shaped, about six inches long and four broad. 
They are of a deep green color on the upper 
side, but covered on the under side with a 
dense coating of white down, which gives 
them an appearance like that of frosted silver. 
The beautiful fabric known as Grass-cloth, 
which rivals the finest cambric in softness of 
texture, is manufactured from the fiber ob- 
tained from the inner bark of this plant. The 
Chinese bestow an immense amount of care 




and labor upon its cultivation and the prep- 
aration of its fiber. They obtain three crops 
of its stems annually, the second being con- 
sidered the best. To obtain the fiber, the 
bark is stripped off in two long pieces and 
carefully scraped with a knife, so as to get rid 
of all useless matter, after which it is softened 
and separated into fine filaments either by 
steeping it in hot water or holding it over 
steam. This plant has been Introduced into 
the Southern States, where it grows freely ; 
but the difficulty in separating the fiber so as 
to make its production profitable, has yet to 
be overcome. 

Bog Asphodel. See Narthecium. 

Bog Moss. See Sphagnum. 

Bog Myrtle. Myrica Oale. 

Bog Rush. Jutvcus. Common in all marshy 
grounds or swamps. 

Boilera, Oreenhouse. See Heating. 

Bokhara Clover. One of the popular names of 
Melilofua Alba; an excellent Bee-food plant all 

Bolbophy'lliim. Prom boXbos, a bulb, and phyl- 
lam, a leaf; referring to the leaves issuing 
from thp apex of the pseudo-bulbs. Nat. Ord. 

A genus of dwarf epiphytal Orchids from 
Africa and the East Indies, more curious 
than beautiful. Flowers large, single or in 
pairs; color, yellow or white, with purple 
spots or stripes. Not often seen in collections. 
Syn. Bulbophyllwm. 

Bo'llea. Derivation of name not given. Nat. 
Ord. Orchidacem. 

A small genus of epiphytal Orchids, consist- 
ing of only two species, natives of New Gren- 
ada. " They are showy plants, with radical 
foliage, from the base of which the flowers are 
produced on single scapes. The flowers are 
shaded pink, with a bright yellow lip. They 
require to be grown in pots of Moss, in rather 
a warm house, and are increased by division. 
Placed by some authors under Zygopetalwm. 

Bolto'nia. A genus of three species belonging 
to the CoTnposiicB family, and peculiar to North 
America, where they extend from Canada to 
the Southern States, They produce an abun- 
dance of flower heads with whitish or purplish 
rays, very much like the Asters to which 
genus they might at flrst glance be referred. 
They are well *orth a place in the mixed 

Boma'rea. Derivation of name not given. Nat. 
Ord. Amaryllidacem. 

A somewhat extensive genus of tuberous- 
rooted plants, formerly included in the genus 
Alstrwmeria, and differing only in the fruit. 
The species abound in the Peruvian Andes, 
and are common in other high elevations in 
South America. B. edulis is a West Indian 
species, the roots of which are eaten like those 
of the Jerusalem Artichoke. For culture 
and propagation see Alstrameria. 

Bo'mbaz. Silk Cotton Tree. From bombax, 
cotton ; in reference to the woolly hairs which 
envelop the seed, like those of the Cotton- 
plant. Nat. Ord. StereuMaeew. 

A genus of tall growing trees, that abound 
In South America and the East and West 
Indies. B. Ceiba, a typical species, has a 
spiny trunk, and is one of the tallest trees of 


both Indies, but the wood is very lightand not 
much valued except for canoes. Their trunks 
are so large, that when hollowed out they make 
very large ones, so that in the West Indies 
they frequently carry from fifteen to twenty 
hogsheads of sugar, of from six to twelve 
hundred pounds each. The cotton which is 
enclosed in the seed-vessels is seldom used, 
except by the poorer inhabitant, to stuff pil- 
lows or chairs ; and it is generally thought 
unwholesome to lie upon. 
Bonapa'rtea. Named in honor of Napoleon 
Bonaparte. Nat. Ord. Bromeliacrm. 

A genus remarkable for the gracefulness of 
their long, rush-like leaves. They are well 
adapted for growing in vases out of doors in 
summer. They require a warm house in 
winter. Propagated by seeds. Introduced 
from Mexico in 1828. 

B. juncea has been placed under the genus 
Agave, as A. geminiflora, by some botanists. 

Bone Dust. One of the safest and best of con- 
centrated fertilizers. When used broadcast, it 
should be sown on the soil after digging or 
plowing, just thick enough to cover it with a 
thin layer, about as thickly as sawdust or 
sand is used on a floor. If used on dug 
ground, it should be well chopped and mixed 
through the soil, so as to mix it to a depth of 
five or six inches. If on ground that has been 
plowed, a thorough harrowing will mix it to 
the required depth. This thickness will re- 
quire at the rate of from fifteen hundred to 
twenty-five hundred pounds per acre. If to 
be used in drills or "hills," or only where 
seed are to be sown or plants planted, and 
not over the whole ground, it will take only 
about from one hundred and fifty to three 
hundred pounds per acre, which should be 
mixed in the soil in the same manner. 

Boneset. See Eupatorium. 

Bonne'tia. Named after C. Bonnet, a disting- 
uished naturalist. Nat. Ord. TemstromiacecB. 
A small genus of Brazilian and Peruvian 
shrubs or low growing trees, the flowers of 
which are mostly white, nearly as large as 
those of a Camellia and are produced singly 
and in panicles. The leaves of B. paniculata, 
have an agreeable aromatic smell when 

Bonus Henricus, Good King Henry. Cheno- 
podiwm Bonus Henricus. 

Boraginaceae. A large order of herbs or 
shrubs, having spirally coiled inflorescence, 
round stems and alternate rough leaves. 
The fruit consists of distinct seeds without 
albumen. The plants are principally natives 
of northern temperate regions. They are 
found in southern Europe, the Levant, and 
Central Asia. In high northern latitudes 
they are less frequent, and nearly dis- 
appear within the tropics. The plants 
abound in mucilaginous and demulcent quali- 
ties. Some yield dyes, as Alkanet (Anchvsa 
tinctoria). The common Borage {Borago 
officinalis), when steeped in water, imparts 
coolness to it, and is used in the beverage 
called cold tankard. The leaves of Mertensia 
mariiima have the taste of Oysters, whence the 
common name of Oyster Plant. The species 
of MyoHotis are universally prized under the 
name of Forget-me-not. There are fifty- 
eight known genera of this order, and over 










six hundred species. Myoaotia, Borago, 
Cyfiwgloaawm, Jjithoapermwm, Cerinthe, Symphy- 
tum, and Andhuaa, are examples of this 

Bora'go. Borage. Altered from ear, heart, and 
ago, to affect ; referring to the cordial quali- 
ities of the herbs. Nat. Ord. BoraginacecB. 

Hardy annual and perennial herbs, common 
throughout Europe. The leaves of B. offieinaliB 
are sometimes used in salads or boiled as 
spinach. The spikes of flowers are aromatic, 
and sometimes used in cooling drinlis. All 
the spegies are easily cultivated and are admir- 
ably adapted for naturalizing in dry, stony 
places. They also afford excellent food for 
bees during the whole season. 

Bora'ssus. Palmyra Palm. Linnaeus applied 
this name to the spathe of the date-palm. Nat. 
Ord. Palmacce. 

A genus of magnificent Palms, consisting of 
two species only, which have a wide geo- 
graphical distribution, ranging from the 
north-eastern parts of Arabia, through the 
Indian Ocean, and the southern parts of 
Hindostan, to the Bay of Bengal. The 
number of Palmyras in the Jaffua peninsula 
and adjacent islands alone has been estimated 
at nearly six million and a half, being at the 
rate of thirty-two trees for each of the popu- 
lation. The utility of the plant is commensu- 
rate with its extended dispersion, a providen- 
tial arrangement in the economy of nature, of 
which the food-plants afford many instructive 
examples. This plant is believed to yield one- 
fourth part of the food of about 250,000 in- 
habitants of the northern provinces of Ceylon, 
while it forms the chief support of six or 
seven millions of the people of India and other 
parts of Asia ; thus, remarks Seeman in his 
History of Palms, " proving itself one of 
the most important plants on earth, rival- 
ing the date-tree, and ranking only below 
the cocoa-nut palm in usefulness." The 
fronds give shelter to scores of animals by 
night and day, besides affording a refreshing 
supply of moisture, the grooves of the petioles 
and the construction of the leaves being 
peculiarly suitable for conveying and retain- 
ing rain. The same causes attract orchids 
and other epiphytes, and ferns, which find 
their conditions of growth on the stem ; and 
various species of the fig, including the true 
■banyan-tree, are found in living embrace with 
the Palmyra. In the Botanic Garden at 
Calcutta a banyan sprang from the crown of a 
palm where the seed had been deposited by a 
bird, and, sending its roots down to the earth 
through the palm-stem, destroyed and replaced 
It. But in the region of the Palmyra, the 
banyan often becomes the foster-mother of 
that beautiful and serviceable plant. One of 
the largest banyans of Ceylon, the resort of 
pleasure parties from Jaffua, has two or three 
Palmyras growing in it, the united trees cover- 
ing one and one-twelfth acres of ground. The 
cocoa palm is celebrated for its 365 uses ; a 
poem in the Tamil language extols the Palmyra 
for 800 purposes to which it can be applied, 
without exhausting the catalogue. The roots 
yield a medicine ; the young plants are used 
lor food, prepared in various ways ; the wood 

■ serves Innumerable purposes, in building and 
furnishing houses, and for the manufacture of 
umbrella handles, walking-canes, fancy boxes. 


and for hundreds "of other small articles ; 
fields are fenced with the mid-rib of its leaves, 
the decayed leaves furnish good manure for 
the soil ; mats are made of the leaves, and are 
Used instead of carpets on the floors, for 
ceilings, for drying coffee upon ; baskets, bags, 
hats, caps, fans, in short, everything manu- 
factured of wood or straw, is also produced 
from some part or parts of this palm. 
The plants reach maturity about the twelfth 
or fifteenth year. Then they yield a toddy, 
"a beverage almost as famous for its use 
as for its abuse." The fruit of this palm 
is sometimes eaten raw, but more generally 
roasted, and is in great repute by the natives, 
who assemble together under the shade of 
a tree, light a fire, squatt around it, sucking 
the pulp out of the fibres of the roasted 
fruits, tearing them asunder with nails 
and teeth in the most approved style, 
and presenting a truly oriental spectacle 
of gustati ve enj oy mcnt. A full grown Palmyra 
is from sixty to seventy feet high : the trunk 
at the bottom is about five and a half feet, and 
at the top, two and a half feet in circumference. 

Borders. Flower. A flower-border is generally 
a continuous bed of greater length than width, 
skirting a shrubbery or fence, and containing 
plants of a mixed character. It should be 
thoroughly drained, well manured, and raised 
slightly above the surrounding level. No 
rules can be laid down as to the arrangement 
of the plants, which of course depends on indi- 
vidual taste ; all formal hnes, however, should 
be avoided, the taller plants either singly or 
in groups forming the back-ground, with the 
dwarfer subjects in front. As the object 
should be to obtain a continuous succession of 
bloom, the best results will be obtained when 
the. border is made up mainly, of herbaceous 
perennials as permanent occupants, with a 
liberal admixture of hardy spring-blooming 
bulbs, such as Narcissus, Snow-drops, Tulips, 
Scillas, etc., assisted by quantities of summer 
blooming plants, Lontanas, Geraniums, 
Dahlias, Heliotrope, etc. Many sorts of hardy 
annuals are useful to fill up vacant places, and 
assist largely to keep up a succession of bloom 
till frost comes. See Herbaceous Plants. 

Borbo'nia. A genus of ornamental green- 
house evergreen shrubs belonging to the pea- 
flowered section of Leguminosce, and num- 
bering some thirteen species, all natives of the 
Cape of Good Hope. The flowers are gener- 
ally yellow, borne in terminal heads. They 
require cool green-house treatment and are 
propagated by cuttings. 

Borecole. Kale. Brassica oletacea fimbriala. 
The chief characteristic of the Borecoles or 
Eales consists in their not producing heads 
like the Cabbage, or eatable flowers like the 
Cauliflower or Broccoli, aijd by their beauti- 
fully cut and curled leaves, which are of a 
green or purple color, or variegated with 
red, green, or yellov/. Several of the sub- 
varieties are known in our markets, and ex- 
tensively grown by market gardeners, the 
most popular being the dwarf green curled 
Scotch, the brown or purple German curled; 
and for early spring use, the Siberian Kale or 
" Sprouts." The Borecole is a native of the 
British coasts and the north of Europe. The 
garden varieties are not many removes from 
the species. 




Boro'nia. Named after Borcmi, an Italian 
attendant of Dr. Sibthorp. Nat. Ord. Butacem. 
■ A genus of elegant green-house shrubs 
from New Holland. The flowers are pink or 
■whitish. They are very elegant and useful 
shrubs, requiring the same treatment as 
ordinary hard-wooded gret.n-house plants, 
being much aided by a little extra heat in 
spring when starting into gi'owth. Propa- 
gated by cuttings. 

Bossiae'a. Named after M. Bossier Lama/rtiniere, 
a French botanist, who accompanied the 
unfortunate La Peyrouse round the world. 
Elegant Australian green-house shrubs of the 
Nat. Ord. LegvminoscB. 

Flowers yellow or yellow and purple, B. 
linophylla, B. rotundifolia, B. dnerea (Syn. B. 
tenuicaulis), and others of the genus are highly 
ornamental, and no green-house collection of 
any pretensions is to be rfound without some 
of them. Propagation by cuttings or seeds. 

Bos'wellia. Olibanum Tree. Ornamental and 
economic evergreen trees of the Nat. Ord. 

These trees are remarkable as furnishing a 
gum-resin. B. glabra is used in India in 
place of pitch ; B. thurifera, known also as B. 
eerrata, a very common tree in Coromandel, 
furnishes the resin known as Indian Olibanum, 
which is supposed to have been the Frankin- 
cense of the Ancients, and is still employed 
for its grateful perfumes as incense in the 
Roman Catholic churches. 

Botry'cMum. Moonwort. From hotrya, a 
bunch ; in reference to the bunch-like form of 
the fructification forming a separate branch 
on frond. Nat. Ord. Pohfpodiacem. 

A genus of hardy ferns, composed of about a 
dozen species, found in nearly all countries 
except Africa. B. lunaria, Moonwort, is 
found rarely in the North and West. B. Vir- 
ginica is a very beautiful and ornamental 
native species, easily transplanted to the 
hardy fernery. Many of the other species are 
common in rich woods. 

Bottle-brush. Eqvdsetum sylvaticwm, E. arvense, 
and Bippuris vulgaris. 

Bottle-brush Flowers. The flowers of Beavr- 
fortia splendens, Melaleuca hyperidfolia, Metro- 
aider osjloribunda, and some species of Oallia- 

Bottle-gourd. Laganaria vulgaris. 

Bottle-grass. One of the common names of 

Bottle-tree, AustraLan. Brachychiton {Delay 
beehea) rupestris. 

Bougainvillea. Named after the French navi- 
gator Be Bougainville. Nat. Ord. Nyctagir 

Gorgeous warm green-house or conserva- 
tory plants, comprising some of the most 
showy climbers in cultivation. Their beauty 
lies in the showy rose-colored bracts which 
envelop the small greenish flowers. Those 
of B. apectabilis, are singularly handsome. 
B. glabra may be grown in pots but the other 
species require more room and are best 
planted out in the green-house border. Na- 
tives of South America ; easily increased by 

Bouncing Bet. A popular name of Saponaria 


Bouquets, Baskets of Flowers, etc. Bouquet 
making is (or at least ought to be) the art of 
arranging cut flowers. 

Many people decry the artificial arrangement 
of flowers, but how shall we otherwise use 
them to advantage? The moment we begin 
to tie them together we leave nature, and 
ought to do so only to study art. In their 
simplest arrangement, form and color must 
be studied to produce the best effect, and 
whoever best accomplishes this, will surely 
succeed in displaying his flowers to the best 

Probably the simplest, easiest, and com- 
monly the most desirable, method of using 
cut flowers is arranging them in vases. The 
more loosely and unconfused, the better. 
Crowding is particularly to be avoided, and to 
accomplish this readily a good base of greens 
is required, to keep the flowers apart. This 
filling up is a very important part in all 
bouquet making, and the neglect of it is the 
greatest stumbling-block of the uninitiated. 
Spiked and drooping flowers, with branches 
and sprays of delicate green, are indispensable 
to the grace and beauty of a vase bouquet. 
To preserve the individuality of flowers, which 
is of the greatest importance, the placing of 
those of similar size and form together ought 
to be avoided. Thus Heliotrope, Stevia, Eupa- 
torium, or Alyssum, when combined, lose 
their distinctive beauty ; but, if placed in juxta- 
position to larger flowers, and those of other 
forms, their beauty is heightened by contrast. 
It may be stated as a rule, that small flowers 
should never be massed together. Large 
flowers with green leaves or branches may be 
used to advantage alone, but a judicious con- 
trast of forms is most effective. 

Some years ago. Bouquets were Invariably 
arranged in the formal style, the colors being 
used in consecutive rings, or alternating with 
each other in geometrical forms. Taste, or 
fashion, if you will, has changed for the 
better, and closely-made, mushroom-like 
bouquets, are now the exception rather than, 
the rule. The flowers are now arranged quit© 
loosely, plenty of Maiden-hair Fern and 
Smilax being used so as to shoy off each 
flower distinctly. Indeed the modern Bouquet, 
especially if composed of roses, looks as if the 
flowers had been picked up and tied together 
without any thought of, or attempt at ar- 
rangement. In these bunches, one color is 
usually chosen, with a bunch of Violets, Heli- 
otrope, Mignonette or other sweet smelling 
flowers, tied on one side as a contrast, and to 
add fragrance to the arrangement. For extra 
occasions. Bouquets are made of Orchid blos- 
soms, generally two or more sorts that har- 
monize in color, being used, aided by a liberal 
admixture of Fern fronds or sprays of the 
beautiful fllmy South African Asparagus. 
Bouquets of Lily of the Valley, forced White 
Lilacs, Violets, etc., are often used, either 
alone or in combination with one or two other 
flowers, the colors generally massed, however, 
rather than mixed, fashion now leaning to- 
wards simplicity and naturalness of arrange- 
ment. Baskets and Plateaus of flowers are 
also arranged on the same principles, groups 
of different flowers or of the same flower in 
different shades being used In preference to 
an admixture of color. 

Bourbon Palm. See lAvistona. 




BousBinga'ultia. Madeira Vine. Named in 
honor of J. B. Bouamngavlt, a celebrated nat- 
uralist and traveler. Nat. Ord. ChmopodiacecB. 
The only species, B. baselloidea, is an ele- 
gant climbing tuberous-rooted plant from 
the Andes, a rapid grov/er and profuse 
bloomer. The flowers are nearly white and 
deliciously fragrant. It grows readily in any 
garden soil, and is readily increased by divi- 
sion or by seed. Introduced in 1836. 

Bouva'rdia. Named after Dr. Bouvard, curator 
of the Botanic Garden, Paris. Nat. Ord. 

Green-house evergreen shrubs, introduced 
from Mexico. They are amongst the most im- 
portant plants cultivated for winter flowers, 
owing to the yearly increasing variety of color, 
and their excellent adaptation forthat purpose. 
They are also effective as bedding plants for 
the flower garden, beginning to bloom in 
August and continuing until frost. Many 
very superior varieties have originated in this 
country, notably the pure white free-growing 
and free-flowering B. Daviaani, and the rich 
crimson B. elegcms, both sports from B. 
Hogarth, a brilliant scarlet variety; the 
double white B. Alfred Nevmer, and double red 
B. Prea. Oarfield, with many other excellent 
free-flowering sorts. Propagated by root cutr 
tings, or by cuttings of young wood in sand. 

Bowe'nia. In honor of W. G. Bowen, a gover- 
nor of Queensland. 

A remarkable genus of Cycadacem, consist- 
ing of but one species, which was discovered 
in Australia in 1819. The species is described 
in the Botanical Magazine as follows: "The 
most prominent character of Bowenia is the 
compound leaf, its general characters (all but 
shape), texture and venation; the leaflets do 
not differ from those of Macrozamia, and are 
so very similar to those of the West Indian 
Zamia that it is difficult to distinguish theni 
generieally, except that in Bowenia the leaflet 
is decurrent by the petiole, and not articulated 
with rachis." The fern-like aspect presented 
by this plant is very remarkable and intere"st- 
ing, giving it a prominent position among 
green-house plants. Propagated by seeds or 
from suckers. 

Box. The common name of Bvavs aempervirens, 
a plant at one time much used for edgings in 
ornamental gardening. It is a native of 
Europe and Asia, and is readily increased by 

Boxberry. A name sometimes applied to the 
Wintergreen, Gaultheria procwmbens. 

Box Elder. See Negundo. 

Boxes for Seeds. Seeds, particularly flower 
seeds, when sown under glass, do much 
better when sown in shallow boxes than 
in flower-pots. A convenient size is the 
ordinary soap box, cut info four, inaking a 
depth of from one and a half to two inches. 
Or, what is even more convenient, the shallow 
boxes in which tin is imported. These are 
filled nearly full with flnely-sifted soil, which 
is made as level and smooth as possible. On 
this smooth surface the seeds are sown, and 
then' pressed down level into the soil, and 
over the seeds Is sifted dry moss, leaf mould, 
or cocoanut fiber (which has been run through 
a sieve as fine a:s mosquito wire), in quantity 
enough to fairly cover the seeds. This, from 


its spongy nature, retains moisture, while Its 
lightness offers but little resistance to the 
tender seed germ. The same style of box is 
used for "pricking off." See "propagation." 

Box Thorn. Heo Lydum-barbarum. 

Box-'wood. West Indian. VUex vmbroaa. 

Brabei'um. African Almond. From brabeion, 
a sceptre, in reference to the racemosed 
flowers. Nat. Ord. Proteacea. 

An ornamental green-house evergreen, with 
white, sweet-scented flowers, disposed in 
elegant, axillary, spiked racemes. Its seeds 
are called Wild Chestnuts and Wild Almonds, 
and are both roasted and eaten, and used as 
a substitute for coffee. Introduced from the 
Cape of Good Hope in 1751. 

BraohycM'ton. From brachys, short, and chiton, 
a tunic ; plant covered with imbricated hairs 
and scales. Nat. Ord. Sterculiacece. 

A genus of tropical and sub-tropical trees 
from Australia. B. a/xrifoliimi is called the 
Flame Tree about Illawarra, on account of its 
bright scarlet flowers, which make the tree a 
conspicuous object at a distance. B. BidwillU, 
a native of the Wide Bay district, has bright 
crimson flowers, produced in axillary 
bunches. B. Delabechia, Syn. Delabechia 
rwpeatris, is a very interesting species, popu- 
larly known as the Bottle Tree of Austrsdia. 

Brachyco'mc. From brachys, short, and konie, 
hair. Nat. Ord. CompoaitcB. 

This beautiful annual is found on the banks 
oi the Swan Elver, in Australia, and has there 
the very appropriate name of Swan EiVer 
Daisy, as the flower closely resembles the 
Daisy. The plant grows from six to ten 
inches high, and has a closely compact 
branching habit, producing an abundance of 
flowers. It is well adapted for small beds 
or rockeries. Propagated by seeds. Intro- 
duced in 1840. 

Brachyse'ma. From brachys, short, and sema, 
standard ; the flowers ■ having the standalrd 
petal short. Nat. Ord. LegwminoscB. 

A genus of handsome green-house shrubs, 
mostly climbing, from Australia. B. aphyllum 
is, as its name would imply, a leafless plant, 
the branches being singularly compressed 
and winged, so as to perform the functions of 
leaves. Small brown scales are found scat- 
tered over these branches, and from these the 
flowers grow. They are single, large, and of 
a bright blood-red color. B. lanceolatum is a 
very handsome species, and. well adapted for 
the green-house, flowering, as it does, in 
winter or the early spring months. Its leaves 
are ovate or lanceolate in form, with a gl6ssy 
upper surface, and covered with a silvery 
pubesence underneath.. The flowers are in 
axillary clusters, large and i-ich scarlet.' 

Bracteee or Bracts. The leaves placed imme- 
diately below a calyx, if they are a£ all alteried 
from their usual form; 

Bracted Bindweed. See Calystegia. 

Bra'hea. Named after Tycho Brache, the cele- 
brated astronomer. Nat. Ord. Palmaceoe. 

A genus of medium-sized Palms, with fan- 
like leaves and spiny leaf-stalks. B.fllanven- 
tosa, a native of Lower California, is largely 
cultivated in our green-houses for decorative 
purposes. It is of graceful habit and rapid 
growth, succeeding well with but little care' in 



the green-house. This species Is also known 
as Pritchardia fiUfera. It is now said that B. 
filamentoaa is neither a Brahea nor a Pritch- 
ardia, and it Is therefore proposed to call it 
Washingtonia, whicl\ see. Young plants are 
obtained from seed. B. edulia ia now placed 
under Erythea, which see. 

Brahmin's Beads. An Indian name for the 
corrugated seeds of Elceocarpua, which are 
used by the Brahmins, f or neclilaoes, etc. 

Brai'nea. After J. C. Braine, of Hong Kong. 
Nat. Ord. PolypodiacecB. 

B. insignia, the only known species, is a very 
handsome dwarf Tree Fern, a native of Hong 
Kong. The stem is from three to four feet 
high ; the fron.ds about three feet long, finely 
pinnate, giving the plant an elegant outline. 
Sir W. J. Hooker says : "We have here a very 
remarkable, and, if I may say so, a new form 
among the Ferns." 

Brake or Bracken. The popular name of 
Pteris aqyilina, one of our common strong- 
growing Ferns. 

Bramble. See Rvbua. 

Brassavo'la. Named after A. M. Brasaavola, a 
Venetian botanist. Nat. Ord. OrchidactcB. 

A small genus of epiphytal Orchids, belong- 
ing exclusively to tropical America. But few 
of the species have merits that entitle them 
to a place in general collections. The few are 
of easy culture, and produce flowers nearly 
six inches across, white, or creamy white, 
spotted with chocolate. The plants are all 
dwarf, with very short flower stems. They 
are usually grown on a block, in a rather high 
temperature, and are increased by division. 
Introduced in 1840. 

Bra'ssia. Named after Mr. Brass, a traveler 
and botanical collector. Nat. Ord. Orchidacem. 
This genus of Orchids is nearly allied to 
Onddium, but not so popular because of their 
dull-colored flowers. Some of the species are 
highly valued by growers, as they pro- 
duce, with but little care and trouble, an 
abundance of flowers from June to August. 
Flowers mostly yellow, or greenish white 
spotted with brown. Introduced in 1844. 

Bra'asica. Cabbage. From ireaic, the Celtic 
name for Cabbage. Nat. Ord. Orueiferm. 

From this genus which is found throughout 
Europe, moi'e particularly in Great Britain, 
there has been produced a greater variety of 
culinary vegetables than from any other. It 
comprehends Cabbage, Cauliflower, Tu/mip, 
Borecole, BroccoU, Bruaaela Sprouts and Kohl 
Babi, each of which will be noticed under its 
popular name. 

Brasslca'ce^. A sub-order or tribe of Cruci- 

Bravo'a. Named after Bravo, a Mexican 
botanist. Nat. Ord. AmarylUdacem. 

This genus consists of but a single species, 
B. geminiflora, a graceful little tuberous-rooted 
plant, native of Mexico. It has a small 
tuft of narrow leaves, from which arises 
a flower spike about a foot high, with a ter- 
minal cluster of small, crimson, Amaryllis-like 
flowers, in July. It will flower in the open 
border, but requires the protection of tbe 
green-house during winter. Propagated by 


Brazilian Tea. Bex Paraguarienaie and Star 
chyta/rphela Jamaicenais. 

Brazil Nut. See Bertholldia. 

Brazil Wood. See CcEsalpinia. 

Bread Fruit. See Artocarpua. 

Bread Nut. See Brosimum. 

Bre'dia. A gpnus of Melaatomaeem, consisting 
of two species of shrubby plants from Japan 
and China, with unequal foliage, and terminal 
cymes of rose-colored flowers. B. hirauta is a 
very showy plant with rosy-pink flowers, one- 
half inch across, and is increased readily by 
cuttings or from seeds. It is a native of 
Japan and was introduced in 1870. 

Bre'xia. From hrexia, rain ; in reference to the 
protection from rain given by the large leaves 
of some of the species. Nat, Ord. Saxi- 

A small genus of very handsome evergreen 
trees, natives of Madagascar. The flowers 
are of a leathery texture, greenish color, and 
produced in axillary umbels. They have 
alternate leathery leaves, furnished with spiny 
teeth. The plants are readily increased by 
cuttings, but are too large for ordinary cultiva- 
tion in the green-house. 

"Bruyere ' 

A corruption of the French 
of which pipes are made. Erica 

Bridal-Wreath. A popular name for SpircBa 
pnmifoUafl. pi. 

Brimstone (Vegetable). The inflammable spores 
of Lycopodium clavaiwm and L. Selago, some- 
times employed in the manufacture of fire- 

Bristle Fern. Trichomanea radicans. 

Bristly. Covered with stiff hairs. 

Bristly Foxtail Grass. See Selaria. 

Bri'za. Quaking Grass. From brieo, to nod ; on 
account of the quaking character of the spike. 
Nat. Ord. Oraminacem. 

A handsome genus of grasses, some of 
which are cultivated in the garden as orna- 
mental plants. When dried they are highly 
esteemed for bouquets of dried flowers and 
grasses. The kinds usually grown are B. 
media, a perennial, and B. maxima, a larger 
species, an annual from the south of Europe. 
It is of easy culture, requiring only to be 
sown where it is wanted to be grown, in the 
open border, as early in spring as the ground 
can be prepared. 

Brlzopy'rum. Spike Grass. Name compound- 
ed of briza, the quaking grass, and pyroa, 
wheat. Nat. Ord. Qraminacem. 

B. Spicatwm, the best known species, is a 
salt marsh grass, with creeping rootstocks, 
stems from ten to eighteen inches high, in 
tufts. It has no agricultural value. 

Broccoli. Brasaicaoleraceabotrytia. This vege- 
table somewhat resembles the Cauliflower, 
from which it is supposed to have originated, 
although there is nothing definitely known as 
to its origin. It is, however, more recent 
than most others of tjie genus. Miller says it 
was Introduced into England from Italy in 
1724, two varieties, white and purple, from 
which all the present garden varieties hav« 
been produced. 




Brodiae'a. Named after J. J. Brodie, a Scotch 
oiyptogamist. Nat. Ord. LiUacecB. 

very curious little bulbous-rooted plants. 
B. Oalifomica, with blue and white flowers, Is 
easily cultivated in sandy loam with the con- 
venience of a green-house or cold frame. 
Increase is sparingly effected by offsets. Intro- 
duced in 1848. 

Brome Grrass. See Bromus. 

Bromelia'ceEB. The Pine-apple family. A 
natural order, consisting of short-stemmed 
plants, with rigid, channeled, and often scurfy 
and spiny leaves and showy flowers. They 
are natives of the American continent and 
Islands, whence they have been distributed to 
Africa and the East Indies. Ananaasa saliva, 
the Pine-apple or Ananas, is one of the best 
known and most delicious of this or any other 
order. The fruit is composed of the pistils 
and bracts of several flowers united into a 
succulent mass, and crowned by a series of 
green leaves. The fibers of the plant are 
used in manufactures. The Pine-apple is 
grown under glass very successfully in Europe, 
but the fine condition in which they are 
received here from Jamaica and other places, 
makes their culture under glass here unneces- 
sary. Some of the Bromeliads grow attached 
to the branches of trees, and are called Air 
Plants, the best known hero being Tillandaia 
nsneoides, the Tree Beard of South America. 
Under the name of Florida Moss it is very 
largely used for decorative purposes. It is 
also used for stuffing cushions, etc., under 
the name of Spanish Moss, Black Moss, or 
Long Moss. There are twenty-eight known 
genera, and 176 species of this order. Brom- 
elia, Anana88a, Bilbergia, JEchmea, and Til- 
~land8ia, are examples of the order. The 
bracts of some of the species are exceedingly 

Bro'tnns. Brome Grass. So called from bro- 
moa, the Greek name for a wild oat. Nat. Ord. 

A genus of poor, coarse-growing grasses, of 
little use in agriculture, and of little beauty. 
This is the pest of the farmer, to which he 
applies a significant and a justly proper 
name. Cheat or Chess. However much it may 
cheat the farmer by crowding out Wheat and 
Eye, we cannot excuse him for cheating him- 
self with the absurd delusion, so widely preva- 
lent, that his Wheat has turned into Chess, 
from some cause which cannot be explained. 
The species are annuals, and the seed will 
remain a long time in the ground, and germi- 
nate only when the conditions of growth are 
favorable. It is a native of Europe, though 
naturalized in many places in this country. 
B. Schroederi, Rescue Grass, or Australian 
Prairie Grass, is a valuable forage grass, 
remarkable for the rapidity of its growth and 
its productiveness. As soon as the first cut- 
ting is made a new growth shoots up, and this 
can be repeated sometimes four or five times 
during the season, providing it is cut before 
the seed matures. It thrives in almost any 
soil, but is better adapted to that which is wet 
or moist. 

Brongnia'rtia. Named in honor of Brongmmi, 
a French botanist. Nat. Ord. Legvminoam. 

A valuable and rather scarce plant, having 
flesh-colored flowers. It should be treated as 


a green-house shrub, potting it in loam and 
sand. A native of New Spain, introduced in 

Brook Iiimc. Veronica Becabunga. 
American. Veronica Americana. 

Brook Mint. Mentha hirsuta. 

Brook Weed or Water Pimpernel. The popu- 
lar name of Samolus, a common plant in wet 
or marshy places. 

Broom. A name applied to Gytiaua or Saroth- 
amnus acopa/rius, and also to Lygeum Spa/rtum, 
African Broom is a common name for Aspa- 
lathua. Butcher's Broom is Ruscaa avuleoiua, 
and is also a common name for Rtiscus. Dyer's 
Broom is Geniata tinctoria. New Zealand 
Broom is Carmichaelia auslralis. Rush Broom 
is a common name for Viminaria; it is also 
applied to Spartiumjuncewn. Spanish Broom 
is Spartiumjimcevm. Broom Corn is Sorghwm, 
vulgare, the branched panicles of which are 
made into carpet brooms and clothes brushes. 

Broom GrasB. Andropogon scopariua. 

Broom Rape. A popular name of the genus 

Broom Weed. Oorchorus ailiquoaua. 

Bro'simum. Bread Nut. From brosimoa, good 
to eat; the fruit being edible. Nat. Ord. 

A small genus of tall-growing trees, natives 
of the West Indies and South America, where 
they are highly esteemed for the food obtained 
from them, and for the valuable timber they 
furnish. B. Alicastrum is the Bread-nut Tree 
of Jamaica, the fruit of which is about an Inch 
in diameter, and contains a single seed or nut, 
which is said to form an agreeable and nour- 
ishing article of food. When boUed or roasted 
the nuts have the taste of hazel-nuts. Snake- 
wood or Leopard-wood is the heart-wood of 
one of the species, B. Aubktti, a native of 
Trinidad and British Guiana. B. galacloden- 
dron, which is the celebrated Cow Tree of 
South America, yields a milk of as good qual- 
ity as that from the cow. It forms large for- 
ests on the seacoast of Venezuela, growing 100 
or more feet high, with a smooth trunk six to 
eight feet in diameter. Its milk, which is 
obtained by making incisions in the trunk, so 
closely resembles the milk of the cow, both in 
appearance and quality, that it is commonly 
used as an article of food by the inhabitants 
of the localities where the tree abounds. 
Unlike most other vegetable milks, it is per- 
fectly wholesome, and very nourishing, pos- 
sessing an agreeable taste, like that of sweet 
cream, and a balsamic odor ; its only unpleas- 
ant quality being a slight amount of stickiness. 
Like 'animal milk, it quickly forms a yellow, 
cheesy scum on the surface, and after a few 
days turns sour and putrefies. 

Broughto'nia. Named after Mr. Broughton, an 
English botanist. Nat. Ord. OrcMdacece. 

A small genus of very handsome West 
Indian Orchids, somewhat resembling the 
LceUa and Oattleya. They commonly grow on 
bushes in Cuba and Jamaica. The flowers are 
crimson and produced from the top of the 
pseudo-bulb during the symmer, and are of 
long duration. They are of easy culture, 
growing best on blocks of wood, and should 
have plenty of light and sun. Propagated by 
division. Introduced in 1824. 




Broussone'lia. Named after BroMSsoreet.aPrench 
naturalist. Nat. Ord. Urticacem. 

A small genus of trees closely allied to the 
Mulberry. B. papyrifera, is the well-known 
Paper Mulberry, which is so called on account 
of its fibrous innerbark being used by the 
Chinese and Japanese for making paper. It 
grows wild in China and Japan, and also in 
many of the islands of the Pacific Ocean, 
where the natives manufacture a large part 
of their clothing from its bark. It forms a 
small tree, attaining about twenty or thirty 
feet in height, with a trunk seldom more than a 
foot in diameter, and generally branching at 
a short distance from the ground. The young 
branches are covered with short, soft hairs. 
The bark from the young shoots onlj', is used 
for mailing paper. In the South Sea Islands, 
a strong cloth is made from this bark, which 
is commonly used for clothing, either plain or 
printed, and dyed of various colors. 

BrovT-a'llia. Named after J. Browalliua, Bishop 
of Abo. Nat. Ord. ScrophulariacecB. 

The Browallias are handsome, fiee-flower- 
ing, half hardy annuals. They succeed best 
started in the green-house and repotted before 
being planted out; they can, however, be 
successfully grown by being started in the 
hot-bed ; and often grow well when sown in the 
open border. The plants will be completely 
studded over with their beautiful blue or 
white flowers the whole summer. They are 
also excellent winter-flowering plants. B. 
Jamesmii, known also as Streptosolon, is a 
beautiful autumn flowering species, with large 
panicles of bright orange-colored, tubular 
flowers, with a lighter-colored throat. Ke-in- 
troduced recently from New Grenada, after 
being lost to cultivation for over thirty years. 

Brown Bugle. Ajuga 

Bro'-nmea. Named in honor of Dr. Patrick 
Browne, who wrote a history of Jamaica. 
Nat. Ord. Leguminosm. 

A small genus of low evergreen trees chiefly 
confined to Venezuela and New Grenada. The 
leaves are alternate, and from one to one and 
a half feet long, with from four to twelve 
pairs of entire leaflets. The flowers are rose- 
colored or crimson, and disposed in terminal 
or axillary heads. B. grandiceps has large and 
beautiful heads of flowers, of a pink color, ar- 
ranged in tiers, the outer ones expanding first, 
followed by the others until all are open, when 
the flower-head somewhat resembles that of 
a Rhododendron. A singular fact in connec- 
tion with this plant is, that the leaves droop 
during the day so as to almost hide the 
flowers from view, and protect them from the 
heat of the sun. At evening they rise up 
again, and remain erect during the night, and 
the flowers are thus exposed to the falling 
dew. The species are rarely seen under cul- 

Brugma'nsia. Named In honor of Prof. 8. J. 
Brugmana, a botanical author. Nat. Ord. 

Peruvian shrubs, or low, succulent-stemmed 
trees, of which B. suaveolens (better known by 
the name otDatwra arborea), B. Knightii, and B. 
Bamgtdnea&re magnificent species. Being large 
plants, growing to the height of ten or twelve 
feet, they look best when planted in the ground 
in a conservatory ; but they will grow well in 


large pots, or they maybe planted in the open 
garden in the summer season, and taken up 
and preserved in a cellar, from which the frost 
is excluded, during winter, to be replaced in 
the open border the following spring. The 
flowers, popularly called Angels' Trumpets, 
are trumpet-shaped, a foot or more in length, 
and very fragrant. The plants grow freely in 
light, rich soil; and they are readily propa- 
gated by cuttings either of the shoots or 


Brune'lla. Name changed from Prunella, 
which see. 

Brunfe'lsia. A name given to a genus of 
ScrophulariacecB, in honor of Otto Brunfeh, of 
Metz, who published the first good figures of 
plants in 1530. 

Elegant free-flowering evergreen plants, 
natives of South America and the West 
Indies. B. calycina has large purple flowers 
disposed in large trusses, which are produced 
in succession throughout the whole year. 
B. conferliflora, has light blue flowers, borne 
on terminal heads or cymes. All the species 
are fragrant, and may be propagated by 

Brunsvi'gia. Named after the house of Bruns- 
wick. Nat. Ord. Amaryllidacem. 

Of this splendid genus of Cape bulbs, Sweet 
observes: "Some of the bulbs grow to a 
great size, and require large pots to have them 
flower in perfection ; or, if planted out in the 
open borders in spring, there will be a better 
chance of their flowering, taking the bulbs up 
again in autumn ; or the best way to succeed 
well with them is to have a pit built on purpose 
for them, so as to occasionally be covered 
with the lights to keep off too much wet, and 
to be covered close in severe weather, as they 
cannot bear the frost. The mould must be 
made for them of full one-third sand, more 
than one-third of turfy loam, and the rest of 
leaf mould, all well mixed together, but not 
chopped too small, as the roots run better 
through it for being rough and hollow. 
When in full growth and flower they require 
a frequent supply of water, but none while dor- 
mant." B. Joaephmm is very seldom induced 
to flower in this country, though it is no un- 
common occurrence in its native country, 
where it is said to produce very large heads 
of flowers. Several species flower more 
freely, though none so grand. Propagated by 

Brussels Sprouts, Brassica oleracea bullata 
geminifera, a variety of the Cabbage, which 

Bryo'nia. From bryo, to sprout; in allusion 
to the quick growth of the stems. Nat. Ord. 

A genus of climbing, hardy herbaceous per- 
ennials, natives of Europe, the East Indies, 
and the Cape of Good Hope. B. alba and B. 
dioicaare generally considered by botanists to 
be one species, the only difference being in 
the color of the berries. The species is what 
is generally known as the Common Bry- 
ony, and is found in the hedgerows of Great 
Britain. Jt has a very large tuberous root, 
from which twining stems spring, -Which are 
annual and rough. The plants climb by 
tendrils, and, what is very unusual, the direc- 
tion of the spiral is now and then changed, so 




that, after proceeding in one course for some 
distance, the tendril suddenly changes to an 
opposite direction. The male and female 
flowers are in separate clusters ; sometimes, 
though not always, they are on different 
plants. The plant has a fetid odor, and pos- 
sesses acrid, emetic and purgative properties, 
and from its elegant appearance in autumn, 
with its brilliant colored fruit, accidents not 
unfrequently occur to children and others, 
incautiously tasting the fruit, which is an 
active poison. Singularly enough, the young 
shoots may be cooked and eaten with impu- 
nity. When served up in the same manner as 
Asparagus, they are said to equal it in flavor. 
Many of the siieeies are not poisonous, and 
are much valued for their medicinal prop- 

Bryono'psi3 laciniosa, is a beautiful oucurbi- 
taceous annual climber with palmately, five- 
cleft leaves, yellow flowers and very pretty 
fruit about the size of a cherry, green marbled 
with white. It was introduced from Ceylon 
in 1710. It is now placed under Bryonia, by 
some authors. 

Bry'ony. See Brymia. 

-Bryophy'llum. So named from bryo, to grow, 
and phyllon, a leaf ; in reference to the circum- 
stances of the leaf, when laid upon damp earth, 
emitting roots, whence arise young plants. 
Nat. Ord. Craaaulacem. 

B. calydnum, a species common in the 
green-house, is a "native of India. When in 
flower it is quite handsome, producing loose 
panicles of drooping, greenish-purple flowers. 
It is very easily grown. 

Buchu, Bucha or Buka. A name applied in 
South Africa to the leaves of several species 
of 'Barosma. 

Buchne'ra. A syn. for Stephandra. 

Buckbean. The common name of a plant 
belonging to the Gentian family, Menyanthes 
trifoUata, common in wet places and of little 

Buckeye. See j^sculus. 

Bucklandia. Named after Dr. Buckland, a pro- 
fessor of geology at Oxford. Nat. Ord. Ham- 

■ B. Populnea, the only species in cul- 
tivation, is one of the most beautiful trees 
of the forests of the Sikkim Himalayas at an 
elevation of 4,000 to 6,000 feet. It attains a 
height of one hundred feet, with a cylindrical 
trunk, and oblong crown of evergreen foliage. 
The leaves are orbicular-cordate and may be 
likened to those of a Dioscorea, being when 
young of a rosy purple color with golden-green 
veins. Introduced in 1875. 

Buckthorn. See Bhamnvs. 

Buckwheat. Fagopyrwm eacwlentv/m. The com- 
mon Buckwheat is a native of Central Asia, 
and has long been under cultivation. It is 
more extensively grown as an article of food 
in this country than in any other, Buckwheat 
cakes being purely an American institution. 
It thrives on a poor soil that would not sustain 
many other plants, and give a fair yield. Of 
the improvement in the quality of this grain 
from its native wild state we have no record. 
There are several varieties grown, but the 
quality depends largely upon soil and climate. 
The Japanese Buckwheat lately introduced has 


proved to be a great improvement on the 
ordinary sorts, the kernels being at least 
twice the size of any other variety, peculiar in 
shape, and of a rich dark shade of brown in 
color. Flour made from it is equal in quality, 
if not superior to any other sort. It is 
enormously productive, yielding two or three 
times as much as any other sort, both in grain 
and straw. 

Buckwheat Tree. CKftonia {Mylocaryvm) Ugu8- 

Budding. This is the practice in use of placing 
a bud of one variety of plant on another. The 
shoot or stock to be budded upon must always 
be in a thrifty, growing state, so that the bark 
can be raised freely from the wood, and the 
bud to be inserted must be in such a state 
that it shows prominently at the axil oi the 
leaf. Select a smooth portion of the stem of 
the shoot to be budded upon, strip it of leaves 
(or thorns, if any) sufQcient to allow room for 
the operation ; then make a cut through the 
bark to the wood in length sufficient to admit 
the bud, with a cross cut at the top. Above 
this cross cut make a slight sloping cut in the 
bark, about a quarter of an inch in length, 
so as to admit the easy Insertion of the bud. 
This custom is not general, but it will be 
found to be easier, and, we think, safer. Next 
take the shoot from which the bud to be 
inserted is to be cut, and selecting such as 
have the properly developed condition of bud, 
cut it from the shoot about half an inch on 
each side of the bud, 3ust deep enough to get 
about as much thickness of the wood as the 
bark. If the portion of the shoot from which 
the bud is taken is well ripened, it is best to 
separate the wood from the bark ; but if not, 
it will do quite as well not to remove it, but 
insert the bud in the stock just as it is cut. 
The edges of the cut in the stock are lifted 
and slightly pressed outward by the point of 
the budding-knife,, the bud inserted, and 
pushed down by the ivory handle. To keep 
the bud in place it is wrapped neatly round 
with any soft tying material, the flber known 
as Raphia being the best. ' In two or three 
weeks after the bud has been put in it will be 
safe to remove the tying. All shoots starting 
below the bud must be rubbed off as soon as 
they start, and when the bud begins to grow, 
the portion of the stock above the graft must 
be cut off, so that the inserted bud may get 
the full benefit of growth. 

Buddle'ia. Named after A. Buddie, an English 
botanist. Nat. Ord. Scrophula/riacece. 

An extensive genus of herbaceous plants, 
shrubs, and low-growing trees. Leaves oppo- 
site and thickly covered with hairs. The 
flowers of some of the species are very beauti- 
ful and fragrant; they are mostly small, bright 
orange, purplish or lilac, and arranged in 
small globular heads, on long peduncles. 
They are natives of South America, Mexico, 
Africa, and tropical Asia. Some of the species 
are half-hardy, and would be likely to succeed 
well, south of Washington. 

Buffalo Berry. Missouri. Shepherdia argentea. 

Buffalo Grass, or Buffalo Clover. See Trir 


Buffalo Nut. Pyrularia oleifera. 
Bugle. See Ajuga r^tana. 




Bugle 'Weed. The popular name of Lycopua 

Bugloss. Lycopaia arvemais. 

Bugloss. Covnslip. Pulmonaria offldnalia. 

Buglosa. Viper's. Echium vulgare. 

Bulb. An underground bud, consisting ol 
numerous fleshy scales placed one over the 
other, a modlfltid form of the leaf bud. A 
bulb is usually placed partly or entirely under- 
ground. There are several kinds of bulbs, 
the following being the most common: A 
Naked Bulb is a bulb whose scales are loose 
and almost separate, as in the Crown Im- 
perial. A Tunicated Bulb is qne whose fleshy 
scales overlap each other, forming concentric 
layers, the outer ones being thin or mem- 
braneous, such as Hyacinths, Onions, Tulips, 
etc. A Solid Bulb is properly a Corm, which 

Bulbiferous. Bearing or producing bulbs. 

Bulbil. An axillary bulb with fleshy scales, 
falling off its parent spontaneously, and prop- 
agating it. Applied more especially to those 
buds on the stem, which occasionally assume 
the character of bulbs, as in JAlium tigrinum. 

Bulbi'ne. From bolioa, a bulb. Nat. Ord. 

Half-hardy plants, available for flower- 
gardening purposes. They are showy, frag- 
rant, do not require any particular care in 
their management, and are propagated rapidly 
by cuttings. Natives of the Cape of Good 
Hope ; introduced in 1820. 

Bulboco'dlum. From holboa, a bulb, and Jcodion, 
wool ; referring to the woolly covering of the 
bulbs. Nat. Ord. Melanthacem. 
Very handsome hardy bulbs, bearing purple 

' flowers, and well deserving of attention. They 
should be carefully watered in dry weather. 
£. vemum, one of our earliest spring flowers, 
was introduced from Spain in 1629. . The other 
species, B. versicolor, flowering towards the 
autumn, was introduced from the Crimea in 

Bulbophy'Uum. Nat. Ord. OrchidacexB. 

A genus of Orchids containing a number of 

species, few of which are worth cultivating 

except as curiosities. 
Bullace. Prunus inaititia. 

Bullace. Jamaica. Melicocca 
BuUate. Blistered, or puckered. 
Bull-rush, or Club-rush. The popular name of 
the genus Seirpus ; also TypKa haifolia. 

Bumelia. The Greeks gave this name to-the 
common Ash. Nat. Ord. SapotacecB. 

A genus of spiny shrubs, with hard wood, 
remarkable for the beauty of their foliage. 
Natives of the West Indies and the Southern 
United States. Our native species are locally 
known as Gum Elastic, Shittlm-wood, Iron- 
wood, Saffron Plum, etc. 

Biuich-berry. A common name of Comus Cana- 
denaia, Dwarf Cornel or Dog-wood. 

Bu'nium. A genus of tuberous-rooted umbel- 
liferous plants, chiefly inhabitants of southern 
Europe and western' Asia; interesting on ac- 
count of their producing edible tubers. Those 
of B.fieayaoavm, a native of Britain, are called 
Ar-nuts, Pig-nuts, Kipper-nuts, etc. B.ferulcB- 
foliwm, produces tubers as large as hazel nuts, 


which are eaten by the Greeks under the 
name Topana. 

Bu'phane. A misprint (subsequently corrected 
by Herbert), for Buphone, from botia, an ox, 
and phone, destruction, in allusion to the 
poisonous properties of the plant, but Bvphane 
is the name adopted by the authors of the 
" Genera Plantarum," and by Baker in his 
" Amaryllideee." Nat. Ord. AmarylUdacew. 

A small genus of South Africa bulbs, for- 
merly included in the genus Brunsvigia. They 
are remarkable in having precocious flower- 
scapes, with from 100 to 200 flowers in a single 
head. B. toxicaria is called the Poison Bulb, 
and is said to be fatal to cattle. B. diaticha 
has immense bulbs, the flowers of the former 
are flesh-colored, and quite small ; those of 
the latter orange-red. All this class are quite 
difficult to manage. They succeed best grown 
in a pit, and protected against cold and wet. 

Buphtha'lmum. Ox-eye.. From hovs, an ox, 
and ophthalmoa, an eye ; in allusion to the re- 
semblance the disk of the flowers bears to an 
ox's eye. Nat. Ord. Compoaitm. 

A genus including many hardy annuals, 
perennials, and green-house evergreen shrubs. 
Two of the more conspicuous species are 
hardy. perennials, natives of Central Europe. 
They gi-ow from a foot to a foot and a half 
high; leaves narrow, flowers large, bright 
yellow. They have too weedy an appearance 
for a collection of choice plants. 

Burbi'dgea. Named after F. W. Burbidge, the 
discoverer of the genus in Borneo. Nat. Ord. 

B. niiida, the only described species, is 
a very large, brilliant-flowered, stove-house 
herbaceous perennial, allied to Hedychimn. 
Its flowers are bright orange scarlet, borne in 
many-flowered terminal panicles four to six 
inches long. It was introduced from N. W. 
Borneo in 1879, and is increased by division. 

Burdock. The well-known popular name for 
Lappa offieinalia, of which there are two 
varieties, minor and major; the common Bur- 
dock being the latter. 

Bur Grass. Cenchrua echinatua. 

Burlingto'nia. Named after the Cowtteaa of 
BwUngton. Nat. Ord. Orchidcuxm. 

A genusofveryhandsomeepiphytal Orchids, 
inhabiting Brazil. They are remarkable for 
their long, pendulous racemes of snow-white 
flowers, with the lip touched or lined with 
yellow. A few of the species have flowers in 
which yellow or lilac colors predominate. 
The plants of this genus are all of dwarf habit, 
with beautiful evergreen foliage. They will 
grow either on cork or in baskets, and are 
propagated by division. Introduced in 1824. 

Burma'nma'ceae. A natural order differing 
principally from Orchidacece in their having 
perfectly regular flowers. They are all her- 
baceous plants bearing blue or white flowers, 
and inhabit marshy or shady places. With 
the exception of Bnrmannia biflora, which is 
found in Virginia, they are all tropical 

Bur Marigold. One of the common names of 
the genus Bidena. 

Burnet. See Poterivm, Samguiaorba. 
Saxifrage. Fimpinella Saxifraga. 









(- i^tfflS^' ^ 






Burning Bush. DMammis Fraxinella. 
American. Euonymus alropwrpwreus. 

Burtonia. Named after D. Burton, a col- 
lector for the Kew Gardens. Nat. Ord. Legv^ 

A small genus of dwarf, heath-like shrubs, 
natives of Australia. The flowers are pea- 
shaped, axillary, and often thickly gathered 
on the ends of the branches ; the corolla rich 
purple, the keel of a deeper color, and the 
standard generally having a yellow blotch 
at its base. There are only a few species 
under cultivation, but they are all conspic- 
uous objects in the green-house. They 
come into flower in April, and are propagated 
from cuttings of the half-ripened wood. Intro- 
duced in 1803. 

Bur Reed. See Sparganivm. 
Burweed. The common name for XwntMmn. 
Bush Clover. The popular name of the genus 

Bush Honeysuckle. A popular name for the 

genus IHervilla. 
Butcher's Broom. See Ruscus. 

Butoma'ceae. An order of aquatic plants now 
generally included under AlismacecB. 

Bu'tomus. Flowering Rush. From ious, an ox, 
and temno, to cut ; in reference to its acrid 
juice causing the mouth to bleed. Nat. Ord. 

B. umbellatiis is a beautiful aquatic plant, 
common in the marshes of Groat Britain. 
Gerarde (1629), in speaking of this plant says : 
" The Water Gladiole, or Grassie Rush, is of 
all others the fairest and most pleasant to be- 
hold, and serveth very well for the decking 
and trimming up of houses, because of the 
beautie and braverie thereof." A variety 
with striped leaves, lately introduced, is now 
highly recommended for collections of aquatic 

Butter-and-Eggs. A local name for Linaria 


Butter-Bur. Petaaitea vulgaris. 

Buttercup. See Rcmunculua. 

Butterfly Flower. The genus Schizomthua. , 

Butterfly Orchid. Oncidvum PapiUo. 
E. Indian. Phalcenopais amabilia, and others. 

Butterfly Orchis. Habernaria chlordntha, and 
H. bifoUa. 

Butterfly Pea. A name sometimes given to 

Butterfly Weed. A popular name for Aaclepiaa 

Butternut See Jiigla/na. 

Butter Tree. See Baaaia. 

Butterwort. Se 

Button Bush. Cephalanthua occidentalia. 

Button Flower. The genus Gomphia. 

Button Snake-root. lAatria pycnoatachya. 

Button Weed. Centawrea nigra. 

Button Wood. See Platanua. 

Bu'xus. A small but important genus of Spurge- 
worts (^EyphorbiacecB), one species of which is 
the well known common evergreen Box of 
our gardens, employed both as an ornamental 
shrub and as an edging plant for walks, etc. 
It is a native of both Europe and Asia, but 
found principally in Spain, Italy, the coasts of 
the Black Sea, Persia, Northern India and 
Japan. It varies considerably in height, 
some varieties growing twenty-five to thirty 
feet, with a trunk of eight to ten inches in 
diameter, while others never exceed three to 
four feet, and have very small stems. It is 
most valued for its wood, the chief character- 
istics of which are, excessive hardness, great 
weight, evenness and closeness of grain, light 
color, and being susceptible of a fine polish. 
These are the qualities that render it so 
valuable to the wood engraver, the turner, 
mathematical and musical instrument makers, 
and others. 


Caapeba, Pareira Brava Root, or Velvet- 
Leaf. Se ~ 

Cabbage. Braaaica oleracea. For the following 
history of the Cabbage we are indebted to the 
Treasury of Botany : 

" The Cabbage, in its wild state, Is a native 
of various parts of Europe, as well as of several 
places near the sea in England. It is a bien- 
nial, with fleshy-lobed leaves, undulated at 
the margin, and covered with bloom; al- 
together, so different in form and appearance 
from the Cabbage of our garden that few 
would believe it could possibly have been the 
parent of so varied a progeny as are com- 
prised in the Savoy, Brussels Sprouts, Cauli- 
flower, Broccoli, and their varieties. A more 
wonderful instance of a species producing so 
many distinct forms of vegetation for the use 
of man is scarcely to be met with throughout 

the range of the vegetable kingdom. The 
common, or cultivated Cabbage, B. oleracea 
capUata, is well known, and from a very early 
period has been a favorite culinary vegetable,' 
in almost daily use throughout the civilized 
world. The ancients considered it li^ht of 
digestion when properly dressed, and -very 
wholesome if moderately eaten. For the in- 
troduction of our garden variety of Cabliage 
we are indebted to the Romans, who are also 
believed to have disseminated it in other 
countries. It is said to have been scarcely 
known in Scotland until the time of the Com- 
monwealth, when it was carried there from 
England by some of Cromwell's soldiers ; but 
it now holds a prominent place in every gar- 
den throughout the United Kingdom." From 
its wild state the Cabbage has been brought to 
its present state of perfection very gradually, 



by careful Belootlon under cultivation. The 
various stages of these improvements have 
not been sufficiently noted to enable us to 
award the credit where it properly belongs. 
AU the Cabbage tribe requires the soil to be 
rich, deep and well drained — naturally or arti- 
ficially — and abundantly manured. For the 
early kinds plant thirty inches between rows 
and sixteen inches between the plants, and 
for late kinds plant three feet by two feet. In 
the improvements made within the last fifty 
years the market gardeners around New 
York have taken a conspicuous part, and to 
them we are indebted for our best market 
varieties. The three most popular kinds for 
market purposes are "Early Wakefield," 
"Early Summer" and "Succession." The 
Bed Cabbage, B. oleracea rubra, is an entirely 
distinct variety, but its origin and early 
development are unknown. It has bean known 
in Holland for several hundred years, and the 
Dutch have made the growing of the seed an 
extensive business. The Savoy Cabbage, B. 
oleracea bullata, differs but little from the 
other kind's of Cabbage. It is distinguished 
by its leaves being wrinkled in such a manner 
as to have a netted appearance. The Savoys 
are remarkable for their tender, crisp leaves 
and excellent fiavor. It would seem not to 
be generally known that the Savoys are the 
most delicious of all the Cabbages. The 
Brussels Sprouts, or Bud-bearing Cabbage, B. 
oleracea bullata geminifera, originated in Bel- 
gium, and has from a very early date been ex- 
tensively grown around Brussels, where it 
seems to thrive better than in most other 
countries. It forms a head somewhat like 
the Savoy, of which it is considered a sub- 
variety, differing in the remarkable manner 
in which it produces at the axils of the leaves, 
along the whole length of the stem, a num- 
ber of small sprouts resembling miniature 
Cabbages of one or two inches in diameter, of 
an excellent flavor. 

Cabbage. Arkansas. Streptamtkus 
Skunik, or Meadow. Symplocarpus foetidus. 

Cabbage Maggot. See Insects. 

Cabbage Palm. See Areca and Oreodoxa olera- 

Caca'lia. Tassel Flower. From Ttakoa, perni- 
cious, and Man, exceedingly; supposed to be 
hurtful to the soil. Nat. Ord. Oompositw. 

O. cocdnea, the only species worthy of cul- 
tivation in the flower garden, is a half-hardy 
annual, that can be grown readily from seed 
sown where wanted to grow. Its bright scar- 
let blossoms are borne in profusion from July 

. to October. Introduced from New Holland in 

Caca'o or Coco'a. The seeds of Theobroma 
Cacao, which form the chief ingredient in pure 

Caccinia. Named tn honor of G*. Caceird, an 
Italian Savant. Nat. Ord. Boraginacem. 

A small genus of hardy perennial herbs, 
natives of the Orient. C. glauca, the only 
species yet in cultivation, has racemose cymes 
of violet-blue flowers changing to red. It 
grows from one to three feet high, and may 
be increased by seeds or division. Intro- 
duced from Afghanistan la 1880. 

Cacta'ceee. A natural order consisting of suc- 
culent shrubs, with remarkable spines clus- 


tored on the stems, which are angular, round, 
two-edged, or leafy, and have their woody 
mMter often arranged in a wed^e-like 
manner. The calyx consists of numerous 
sepals, the petals are numerous ; the stamens 
are numerous, with long filaments. The 
fruit is succulent, and the seeds without 
albumen. They are natives of various parts 
of America, but have been introduced- into 
many parts of the world. The fruits of the 
Opuntias are called Indian Figs, and are 
edible, having a sub-acid and refreshing 
juice. The stems of some of the species 
are eaten by cattle. These stems vary greatly 
in form, some being spherical, others jointed, 
while still others are triangular, and some 
send polygonal shafts sixty feet or more into 
the air. These stems are very succulent or 
fleshy, and the plants are thus adapted to dry 
climates, or, rather, such as have a "dry sea- 
son." Among the tall-growing kinds may be 
mentioned Cereus giganteus growing sixty or 
more feet high, and from one to two feet in 
diameter ; C. Peruvianus, with stems thirty to 
forty feet high; C. Thwrberi, with stems ten 
to fifteen feet high, and C. Schottii, with stems 
eight to ten feet high. The spines on some 
Cacti are very formidable, and on others very 
numerous. The spines and bristles on a 
specimen of Echinocadaa platyceras were reck- 
oned at 51,000, and those of a Pilocereus senilis 
at 72,000. Opwntia vulgaris, our common 
Prickly Pear, bears an edible fruit. O. cochi- 
nillifera (Nopalea), the Nopal plant, is very 
largely grown for rearing the Cochineal 
insect (^Coccus Cacti). The number of known 
genera is eighteen, and there are over eight 
hundred species. Cereus, EpipUyllwrn, Phyllo- 
cactus, Mammillaria, Melocactus, Pereakia, etc., 
are examples of this order. 

Ca'ctus. A name applied by Theophrastus to 
semi-spiny plants. Nat. Ord. Cactacece. 

The very remarkable succulent plants, 
arranged by Linneeus under the name of Cac- 
tus, have been distributed by modern bot- 
anists over numerous genera, which they are 
still continually changing and re-arranging. 
At first a few plants were left in the genus Cac- 
tus, but now that genus is annihilated, and 
seven or eight new genera substituted for it ; 
still, as all the plants that once composed it, 
and the new ones of the same nature that col- 
lectors are continually sending home, are 
known by the general name of Cacti, it has 
been thought advisable to give here a slight 
sketch of the whole family. In the time of 
Linneeus very few Cacti were known, and 
even in the year 1807, Persoon enumerated 
only thirty-two; but now about 500 living 
species are to be found in a single collection, 
and numbers of new species are being sent 
home by collectors every year. These new 
species are chiefly found in the tropical 
regions of America, but they extend over 75° 
of latitude, some being found within the 
boundary of the United States -and some near 
the town of Conception, in Chili. By far the 
greater number, however, grow in the dry, 
burning plains of Mexico and Brazil, where 
they are subjected to the alternate seasons of 
extreme moisture and extreme drought. In 
these arid plains, where all nature seems 
parched up for six months in the year, the 
Cacti have been mercifully provided to serve as 




reservoirs of moisture, and not only the na- 
tives, by -wounding the fleshy stems -with 
their long forest knives, supply themselves 
■with a cool and refreshing juice, but even the 
cattle contrive to break through the skin with 
their hoofs, and then to suck the liquid they 
contain, instinct teaching them to avoid 
■wounding themselves ■with the spines. Some 
of the species serve the Indians with food. 
The Cacti are arranged by nature into several 
distinct groups, the first of which consists of 
the tree Cacti, or those kinds of Cereus ■which 
have long, slender stems, and ■which usually 
grow on the summits of the mountains of 
Mexico and Brazil, forming a singular kind of 
crest. These are generally thirty or forty 
. feet high, and sometimes are branched like 
candelabra, and sometimes consists of only 
one naked stem, not thicker than a man's arm, 
■though of such enormous height. Others, 
again, not only gro^w to a height of fifty or 
sixty feet, but have a diameter of two or three 
feet. The Mammillarias and Eohinocacti, 
■which form another group, grow in the val- 
leys of the -temperate regions, generally in 
loamy soils and low grass ; and the Opuntias 
and Pereskias, -which form two others, are also 

Principally found in the temperate latitudes, 
'he Melocacti, or Melon Cacti, and the Bhip- 
salis, ■which has narrow-jointed stems, and 
two other groups, are found in the hottest 
parts of the tropics. With regard to the cul- 
ture of Cacti, it is found that, generally speak- 
ing, they ought to have a season of complete 
rest, followed by one of excitement. They 
ought to be ■watered sparingly ■while dormant, 
and freely ■when in bloom, and grown in a 
light, sandy soil. Several of the best known 
genera of Cactus, such as Epiphyllwm, Cereua 
and PkyUocactvs, will be found under their 
respective heads. 

Cactus. Cochineal. Opumtia cocMnUUfera and 
O. Tuna. 
Old Man. Pilocereus senilis. 
Bat's Tail. Cereus flagelliformis. 
Turk's Cap. The genus Melocactua. 

Cactus Dahlia. Dahlia Jvarezii. 

Caducous. Tailing off soon ; deciduous. 

Caesalpi'nia. In memory of Andreas CoBsatpinus, 
chief physician to Pope Clement yill. Nat. 
Ord. LeguminoscB. 

A genus of tropical trees of considerable 
importance in an economic point of view, but 
without special beauty. C. coriaria, a West 
Indian and South American species, yields 
large quantities of tannin, which Is extracted 
from its seed pods. C. Braziliensis, furnishes 
the Brazil-wood, exceedingly valuable for 
dyeing purposes, and an impoirtant article of 

Caesius. A pale blue ; a blue metallic luster 
seen on some leaves, as those of Selaginella 

Caffre Bread. A South African name applied 
to various species of Encephdlartos, and Zamia. 

Cseruleus. Blue ; the clear blue of the sky. 

Caespitose. Growing in little tufts or patches. 

Caja'nus. Pigeon Pea. From catjang, its Mala- 
bar name. Nat. Ord. LeguminoscB. 

A genus of valuable perennial shrubs, culti- 
vated in the tropics for their seeds, which 
constitute an important article of food. C. 


indicus, is a native of the East Indies, but is 
now naturalized and cultivated in the West 
Indies, and most other tropical countries. Of 
this species there are two varieties, one is 
called the Congo Pea, in Jamaica, and fur- 
nishes the negroes ■with their principal food. 
The variety /auMS is called in the West Indies 
No- eye Pea, and is considered in its green 
state but little inferior to our garden Peas, 
and, when dried and split, quite as good. Pea- 
meal of vei-y good quality is prepared from 
both varieties. Horses and cattle are very 
fond of the young branches and leaves, either 
in a fresh or dried state. Although perennial 
shrubs, they are usually treated as annuals ; 
after the seeds are gathered the plants are 
used for fuel. 

Cajeput-tree. See Oreodaphme. 

Calabar Bean, or Chopnut. Physostigma ven- 

Calabash. Sweet. The fruit of Passiflora mali- 

Calabash-Tree. Various species of Oreacentia. 

Cala'dium. A word of uncertain derivation, 
probably from kaladion, a cup. Nat. Ord. 

Of this genus of tuberous-rooted plants 
there are many rare and beautiful species and 
varieties that rank high as ornamental foliage 
plants, useful only as green-house or rather hot- 
house plants, as they will not succeed well 
with a temperature below 60°. They must bo 
kept dormant from October to April, and should 
never be chilled when started to grow. Those 
found in the swamps of the Biver Amazon, in 
the province of Para, are pre-eminent for 
graceful growth, and for elegant and 
brilliant markings. All the species are easily 
propagated by division of the tuber, just as 
the growth begins. Introduced in 1828. The 
plant commonly known as Caladiv/m esculen- 
tum does not belong to this genus, and will be 
described under Colocasia. 

Calamagro'stis. A genus of coarse-growing 
grasses, a description of which will be found 
under AmmopMla, a division of the genus. 

Calamint. See Calaminiha. 

Calami'ntba. Calamint. From kalos, beautiful^ 
and mintha, mint. Nat. Ord. LabiatcB. 

A genus of coarse-growing, hardy herba- 
ceous perennials, with purplish or whitish 
flowers. They are indigenous or extensively 
naturalized in many parts of this country. 
They are mostly aromatic herbs, and former- 
ly had important medicinal properties attrib- 
uted to them. C. nepeta, Basil Thyme, is one of 
the best known species. None of them has 
sufficient merit to warrant its introduction 
into the garden, either for ornament or 
Cala'mpelis. {Eccremocarjms.) From kcdos, 
beautiful, and ampelis, a vine. Nat. Ord. 

The only species, C. scabra, is a well-kno^wn, 
beautiful, half-hardy clirabiug plant. Trained 
to a trellis or to a south wall in the open air, 
it forms a very ornamental object through the 
summer months, its bright orange-colored 
flowers being conspicuous among the pleasing 
delicate green of the foliage. It grows best 
in rich loam, and should be protected in a 
cold pit through the ■winter. Cuttings root 




readily in a gentle heat. Introduced from 
Chili in 1824. 

Ca'lamus (a Eeed). This word has been 
restricted to hollow, inarticulate stems, like 
those of Eushes. 

Ca'lamus. From kalamos, a reed, an old Greek 
name. Nat. Ord. Palmacem. 

An elegant genus of Palms very useful in 
their young state for house decoration. C. 
Rotang, C.rudentwm, O.miminalia, and probably 
several other species furnish the canes or 
rattans so commonly employedfor the bottoms 
of chairs, couches and similar purposes. In 
the countries where these palms abound, the 
inhabitants make use of them for a great 
variety of purposes, baskets of all kinds, mats, 
hats and other useful articles being commonly 
made of them. Their most important use how- 
ever, is for the manufacture of the ropes and 
cables usually employed by junks and other 
coasting vessels. C. Sdpwwwm, the stems of 
which are much thicker than the preceeding, 
furnishes the weJl known Malacca canes so 
much prized for walking-sticks. There are 
over two hundred species in this genus, all 
natives of ti'opical and sub-tropical regions, 
more especially Eastern Asia. 

Calamus aromaticus. An old name for the 
Sweet Flag, Acorus calamus. 

Calandri'nia. Named after Calandrini, a Ge: - 
man botanist. Nat. Ord. PortulacacecR. 

Very beautiful dwarf-growing plants, usu- 
ally treated as tender annuals, though of per- 
ennial duration if protected in winter. The 
seeds may be sown in gentle heat about the 
middle of March, and when planted in the 
open air in May, become a blaze of beauty 
whenever the sun shines upon them. The 
soil should be light and rather dry. The best 
of the species are C. spedosa, grandiflara, dis- 
color, and nmbellata. Introduced from South 

Cala'nthe. From kalos, beautiful, and iviUhos, 
a flower; literally, a pretty blosHom. Nat. 
Ord. OrchidacecB. 

A large genus of stemless terrestrial 
Orchids, having broad, many-ribbod leaves, 
and long spikes of flowers, which are of 
various colors, white, lilac, purple, and cop- 
per-colored. They require a very light house 
for the perfect development of flowers and to 
give them good color. The same general treat- 
ment as given the Bletia, with the exception of 
more careful watering, is all they require. 
Most species are natives of tropical Asia, and 
are propagated by division of the i-oots. In- 
troduced about 1820. 

Cala'thea. ZebraPIant. Fromfeote<Ait8,abasket; 
in reference to the leaves being worked into 
baskets in South America. Nat. Ord. Scita- 

A genus of interesting plants, with beauti- 
fully marked foliage, distinguished from 
Mcm-anta by mere botanical characters. 
Many of the most beautiful species of the 
latter have been transferred to this genus. C. 
VeitcMi, zebrma, Vanden Heckii, regalis, Makoy- 
ama, Masamgeana, and many others are among 
the most beautiful and showy of warm 
green-house or stove plants. They are mostly 
natives of Brazil, and require a high tempera- 
ture and humid atmosphere for perfect devel- 
opment. They are increased by root division. 


Calcariform. Shaped like a spear. 

Calcecla'ria. Slipperwort. From calceolua, a 
slipper, in reference to the shape of the flower. 
Nat. Ord. ScrophuCariacece. 

The numerous species of this well-known 
genus, found abundantly in the regions of 
Chili and Peru, are divided into two classes, 
herbaceous and shrubby. The former are 
found near the line of the sea, the latter are 
inhabitants of the higher parts of the Cor- 
dilleras ; hence it is, that among the many in- 
troduced species, some are more or less 
hardy, growing freely in a shady border, and 
others require the humid atmosphere of a 
green-house. Many of the original species 
have been modified by hybridizing, and are 
rarely found in collections. The hybrids 
are very numerous, and many are highly 
prized. The European floHsts, having made 
a specialty of this genus, have brought out 
varieties remarkable for size, color and mark- 
ings. Propagation of the herbaceous varieties 
is readily effected by seeds, and the shrubby 
varieties by cuttings or from seeds. 

Calceolate. Having the form of a slipper, or 
round-toed shoe. 

Cale'ndula. Pot Marigold. From calendcB, 
the first days of the months ; in reference to 
its flowers being produced almost every 
month. Nat. Ord. CompositcB. 

There are several handsome species, some 
of which are shrubby and some annuals. The 
common Marigold, C. officinalis and its double 
varieties, and C. stellata, are the handsomest 
of the annual species. The Cape Marigolds, 
C. pluvialis and C. h/yhrida, have been removed 
to a new genus, which is called Dimorphotheca. 
Both these species are hardy annual plants, 
with very elegant flowers, which close at the 
withdrawal of the sun ; and as they do not 
open at all when it is dark, or heavy clouds 
foretell the approach of rain, Linneeus called 
the commonest species C pluvialis, or the 
Eainy Marigold. The florets of the ray of the 
flowers of this plant are of a, pure white inside, 
and of a dark purple on the outside; while 
those of C. hybrida are of a dingy orange out- 
side. A tincture is inade from the flowers of 
the several varieties, that is considered highly 
efScacious for bruises or sprains, affording 
relief more quickly than arnica. 

Calico Bush. See Kalmia latifolia. 

California Fuschia. See Zauschneria. 

California Laurel . See Orcodaphne. 

California Nutmeg. See Torreya Califomica. 

California Poppy. See Eschscholtzia. 

CaUsa'ya Bark, or Yellow Cinchona Bark Tree. 
See Cinchona Calisaya. 

Calla. Water Arum. From hallos, beauty. Nat. 
Ord. Aroidem. 

C. paVastrisl the only species, is an herba- 
ceous marsh plant, of but little interest, com- 
mon in swamps throughout the Northern 
States. The roots yield an edible starch, and 
were formerly procured for that article ; but 
they are no longer used for that purpose, and 
the plant is without special merit. Richardia 
^thopica, so well known as the " Calla Lily," 
is frequently erroneously called Calla JEtho- 

Calla. Black. See Arum sancta. 




Callica'rpa, Prom kaios, beautiful, and carpoa, 
fruit ; referring to the beautiful berries. Nat. 
Ord. VerbendcecB. 

A considerable genus of low-growing shrubs, 
mostly tender evergreens. C. Amencama, a 
species common from Virginia southward, is 
a hardy deciduous shrub, of great beauty, and 
one of the most aesirable for the lawn or 
shrubbery border. In a good soil it grows 
about four feet high, very branching from 
near the root, giving the plant a most grace- 
ful outline. The flowers are small, incon- 
spicuous, in numerous axillary cymes or 
clusters. The beauty of the plant consists in 
its clusters of violet-colored berries, which 
are exceedingly showy from September until 
December. It is freely propagated by seed or 
from cuttings. C. Japoniea is also hardy, 
with a little protection. 

Calli'chroa. This genus of Californian Compo- 
site is now usually Included under Layia, 
which see. 

Callio'psls. Derived from kalliatos, beautiful, 
and opaia, the eye ; in allusion to the beauti- 
ful bright eye of the flower. Nat. Ord. Com- 


This is a genus of showy annuals, separated 
from Coreopsis. They are of a hardy char- 
acter, requiring only to be sown in rich earth 
about the end of March, and afterward thinned 
out. Those taken up for the purpose may be 
transplanted, and will afford a later bloom. 
They usually attain a height of about three 
feet, and, consequently, should be sown some 
distance fi'om the margin of the bed. If a 
very early bloom be desired, a few plants may 
be raised on heat and transplanted in May. 
All are American plants, found from Arkansas 
to Texas. 
Callipro'ra. Pretty Pace. From Taillos, beauty, 
and prora, a front ; referring to the front view 
of the flowers. Nat. Ord. Liliacew. 

C. lutea, the only species, is a beautiful little 
yellow-flowering California bulb, the flowers 
of which are produced in August, in umbels, 
drooping, on short scapes. Not hardy in this 
climate. Propagated by offsets. Syns. Bro- 
Msa imoides, aad Milla ixioides. 

Callirho'e. Named for Callirhoe, a daughter of 
the river-god Arehelous. Nat. Ord. Malvaoem. 
This genus of American plants comprises 
both annuals and perennials. The former are 
a showy, free-blooming class, somewhat re- 
sembling the Scarlet Linum ; the latter pro- 
duce flowers much larger and very beautiful, 
but are rarely met. The annual varieties grow 
readily from seed ; the perennials from seed 
or by division of the root. Syn. NultaXlia. 

Callista'chys. Prom kalos, beautiful, and 
stachys, a flower-spike. Nat. Ord. Legumin- 


Green-house plants from New Holland, pro- 
ducing beautiful yellow flowers. They grow 
readily and without trouble under ordinary 
treatment. Cuttings strike freely in sand, 
covered with a glass. Introduced in 1815. 
Syn. Oxylobium. 
Calliste'mon. A name indicative of the beauty 
of the stamens, which are of a beautiful scarlet 
color. Nat. Ord. Myrtacece. 

All the species of this genus are very orna- 
mental, and neat in habit. Natives of Aus- 
tralia, and well adapted for a cool green-house 


or conservatory. Metrosideros spedosa is a 
synonym for C. spedosus. 
Calliste'phus. China Aster. Prom kallistos, 
most beautiful, and stephos, a crown. Nat. Ord. 

C. Chinensia is the well-known China Aster, 
the varieties of which are so universally 
grown. The seed should be sown in March 
on a gentle heat for the earliest bloom, and 
others may be sown in the open ground as 
soon as it is fit to work, to afford a succession 
of flowers. The first, after being gradually 
inured to the open air, may he removed 
to their destined places as soon as danger 
from frost is past. The soil for them cannot 
be too rich ; on this, and selecting an open 
situation, rests all the art of obtaining fine 
flowers. There are so many varieties now in 
cultivation that it is impracticable- to particu- 
larize them in a work like this, sufflce it to 
say, they are all beautiful, and deserving of 
cultivation. The original species was intro- 
duced from China in 1731. Syn. Callis- 

Callitha'uma. Derivation not explained. Nat. 
Ord. AmairyllidacecB. 

A smaU genus of Peruvian bulbs, with 
yellow flowers, produced on a slender scape 
before the leaves start, like the Guernsey 
Lily. They may be grown successfully, with 
the protection of a frame during winter. Pro- 
pagated by offsets. Introduced in 1843. 

Calli'tris. Prom kaloa, beautiful ; referring to 
the appearance of the whole plant. Nat. Ord. 

A small genus of evergreen, cypress-like 
trees, allied to Thuja. They are natives of 
New Holland, Barbary, and the Cape of Good 
Hope. C. quadrivalmia is a large tree with 
straggling branches. It is a native of Bar- 
bary, but can be successfully grown from the 
Carolinas southward. The resin of this tree 
is used in varnish-making under the name of 
Gum Sandaraoh. It yields a hard, durable, 
and fragrant timber, of a mahogany color ; 
for which reason it is largely used in the con- 
struction of mosques and similar buildings in 
the north of Africa. Syn. Frenela. 

Calli'xine. A genus of LiliacecB. Now included 
with Luzuriaga, which see. 

Callu'na. Heather. From kalluno, to adorn; 
in reference both to the beauty of the Heather, 
and to its use as a scrubbing-brush or broom. 
Nat Ord. Erioacece. 

C. vulgonna, the only species, is the well- 
known "Heather" of Scotland, popularly 
known as Ling or Common Heath ; a low- 
growing, much-branched little shrub, with 
very pretty rose-colored, purple, or white, 
fragrant flowers, produced in crowded axillary 
clusters, forming one-sided (mostly) spikes or 
racemes. This beautiful little plant has be- 
come naturalized in a few localities in this 
country. It is reported at Tewksbury, Mass., 
and at Cape Elizabeth, Maine. It is also 
found sparingly in Nova Scotia and New- 

Ca'llus. A hardened part. This term is best 
known as used to denote the cambium that 
forms at the cut end of a slip or cutting before 
the roots appear, and heals the wound over. 
It has a granular or warty appearance, and 
hence the name. 




Calocephalus. From kaloa, beautiful, and cep- 
hale, a head ; alluding to the inflorescence. 
Nat. Ord. Compositm. 

A genus of cottony or woolly annual or per- 
ennial herbs or shrubs, natives of Australia. 
C. Brovmii, is the only cultivated species and 
is much used in carpet bedding and ribbon 
bordering. It is best iinown in cultivation as 
Leucophyta Brownii, 

Calocho'rtus. Mariposa Lily. Prom kalos, 
beautiful, and chortus, grass; referring to 
the leaves. Nat Ord. lAliacecB. 

This genus contains some of our gayest 
and most beautiful half-hardy bulbs. They 
were found in Columbia and California by the 
intrepid and unfortunate collector, Douglas. 
The flowers somewhat resemble the Tulip in 
shape. Colors are white, purple, and yellow, 
most of them richly spotted. They grow freely 
in light, sandy loam, should have slight pro- 
tection in winter, and succeed well grown in 
pots. They flower from July until September. 
Propagated by offsets. Introduced in 1826. 

Galode'ndron. Derived from kalos, beautiful 
and dendron, a tree ; in reference to the beauty 
of the plant. Nat. Ord. Rutacew. 

C. Capense, the only described species, is 
a tall growing, green-house evergreen tree of 
an ornamental character. Its stems are pubes- 
cent, leaves in opposite pairs, and pubescent 
on both surfaces. The creamy white flowers, 
composed of linear oblong petals, are borne 
in immense terminal panicles. Native of the 
Cape of Good Hope, first introduced 1789. 

Calony'ctioii. The circumstance of the flowers 
opening at night has suggested the derivation 
of the generic name, from kalos, beautiful, 
and nyx, night. The plants comprising this 
genus are again relegated to IpoTncEa and 

Calo'phaca. From kalos, beautiful, and phake, 
a lentil; in reference to the lentil-like flowers. 
Nat. Ord. Leffuminosm. 

C. Wolgarica, the only described species is 
a hardy deciduous shrub from Siberia. Its 
flowers are yellow, produced in axillary 
clusters, and somewhat resembles the Cylisvs, 
an allied plant. Loudon says of it : "Grafted 
standard high on the common Laburnum, it 
forms an object at once singular, picturesque 
and beautiful." It is difficult of propagation 
except by grafting or from seed. 

Calo'phanes. From kalos, beautiful, a,nd pJiMno, 
to appear. Nat. Ord. Acardhacem. 

C. oblongifolia, is a fine hardy herbaceous 
plant from Florida, bearing lively blue flowers, 
of little merit as a border plant, as the flowers 
are too small to be effective. Introdiioed in 

Calophy'llum. This genus of GuttifercB con- 
tains about twenty species mainly natives of 
the East, only four or five being found in 
America. Tney are large trees with shining 
green leaves, elegantly marked by numerous 
transverse veins. Some species yield valuable 
oils, and resins, and the timber of some of the 
larger sorts is much used for building, masts, 
etc. Several species are in cultivation for 
their ornamental foliage. 

Calopo'gon. Prom kalos, beautiful, and pogon, 
a beard; the lip being beautifully fringed. 
Nat. Ord. Orehidacew. 


A small genus of tuberous Orchids, found 
in swampy situations on the south side of 
Long Island and many other parts of the 
United States. The flowers are borne on a 
scape growing about one foot high; color 
bright purple, quite conspicuous. Like most 
of our native Orchids, it improves by cultiva- 
tion. Shady situations and a light, fibrous 
sou will suit it. 

Calotha'mnus. One of the beautiful genera of 
Myrta^xcB, in which Australia abounds. Shrubby 
green-house plants, with needle-like leaves 
and scarlet flowers. The name indicates that 
the branches become covered with the beauti- 
ful flowers. Propagated by cuttings of the 
firm young wood. 

Ca'ltha. Harsh Marigold. Butter Cup. A con- 
traciion of kodathoa, a goblet ; refen'ing to the 
shape of the fiower. Nat. Ord. RanunculacaB. 
C. palustris is an indigenous hardy herba- 
ceous perennial, common In swamps and 
marshy places throughout the Northern 
States. The flowers are bright yellow, borne 
in large clusters, in April or May. The leaves 
are highly esteemed as a pot herb. The plant 
is frequently called Cowslip, a name that 
properly belongs to Prirmda veria. 

Caltrops Water. The fruit of Trapa rmtans, 
which see. 

Calyoantha'ceae. A natural order of shrubs 
with square stems and opposite, entire leaves 
without stipules, and solitary lurid flowers, 
which have an aromatic fragrance ; natives of 
North America and Japan. ' The bark of Caly- 
canthvs floridus, the Carolina Allspice, is used 
as a substitute for, and to adulterate cii- 
namon. There are two known genera, 
Calycamthwa, of this country, and Chimonanthus, 
of Japan, comprising six species. 

Calyca'nthus. Sweet-scented Shrub, Straw- 
berry Shrub, Carolina Allspice. From kalyx, 
a cup or calyx, and anthoa, a flower ; from the 
closed cup which contains the pistils. Nat. 
Ord. Calycanlhacem. 

G. floridUfS ia a native deciduous shrub, rcr 
markable for the scent of the flowers (which 
is commonly thought to resemble that of ripe 
fruit), as well as for their peculiar color. It 
is a native of the Southern States, perfectly 
hardy, and will grow in almost any soil or 
situation. Propagated by seeds or offsets. 
The bark of this species is used in the adul- 
teration of cinnamon. There are other species 
and varieties, but this is the most conspicuous 
and desirable. 

Calyciform. Formed like a calyx. 

Caly'pso. Name from kalypio, to conceal, not 
merely to the covering of the stigma, but pre- 
serving an analogy between this botanical 
beauty, so difficult of access, and the secluded 
goddess, whose isle was fabled to be protected 
miraculously from the observation of navi- 
gators. Nat. Ord. Orchidacem. 

C. borealw, the only species, is one of the 
most beautiful of our native Orchids. It is a 
tuberous plant with one leaf and one flower 
only. The fiower is rose-colored and has 
something of the appearance of a Cypripedivm, 
owing to its forming a large pouch, which ia 
woolly-hairy inside. It is found in cold bogs 
and wet woods in northern New England, 
west and northwards, its bulbs resting in 




moss ; the flowers appear as soon as the snow 
melts in spring. 

Calyste'gia. Braoted Bindweed. From kalyx, a 
calyx, and atega, a covering ; in reference to 
the calyx being hid by two bracts, as is the 
case with a section o£ Bindweeds. Nat. Ord. 

This somewhat extensive genus includes 
our common hedge Convolvulus, but only a 
few species are considered interesting. C. 
pvbescena, from China, a hai-dy double-flowered 
variety. Is useful as a screen, or for covering 
unsightly places, the chief objection to it 
being its tendency to get beyond control. 
Propagated by division of root in spring. 

Calyx. The most external of the floral en- 
velopes; it is called adherent or superior 
when it is not separate from the ovary ; free 
or inferior when it is separate from that part ; 
and calyculate when it is surrounded at the 
base by bracts in a ring. 

Camaro'tis. From camara, an arched roof ; in 
reference to the form of the lip or labellum. 
Nat. Ord. OrchidaeecB. 

A small genus of East Indian and Brazilian 
Orchids, bearing pale rose flowers, with yellow 
lip, produced on pendulous racemes in March 
and April. They require a warm, moist house, 
and need but little rest. They are increased 
by division. Introduced in 1818. Syn. Sarco- 

Cama'ssia. Wild Hyacinth. From quamash, so 
called by Indians, who eat the bulbs. Nat. 
Ord. LiliacecB. 

Allied to the Scilla or Squill. C. escuknta re- 
sembles the common blue Hyacinth, but is 
larger, its leaves being about a foot long, very 
narrow, and grooved down the inside. Its 
flower stalks grow from one to two feet high, 
and bear large, showy purple flowers. This 
plant grows in moist grounds from the Mis- 
sissippi River to the Pacific Ocean, and its 
bulbs form a staple food of the Indians, the 
different tribes visiting the plains for the pur- 
pose of collecting them, immediately after the 
plant has flowered. The occasion is one of 
their feasts, in which the women take an im- 
portant part, as the labor of digging devolves 
entirely upon them. The unmarried females 
endeavor to excel each other in the quantity 
they collect, their fame as future good wives 
depending upon their activity upon the Qua- 
mash plains. The roots are cooked by digging 
a hole in the ground and paving it with large 
stones, upon which a flre is lighted and kept 
up until they are red hot, when they are 
covered with alternate layers of branches and 
roots till the hole is full. It is then covered 
with earth, and a fire kept burning upon it for 
twenty-four hours, when the roots are taken 
out, dried, or ' pounded into cakes for future 

Cambium. The viscid fluid which appears 
between the bark and wood of Exogens, when 
tire new wood is forming. 

Came'Ilia. Named in honor of George Joseph 
Kamel, or Camellim, a Moravian Jesuit and 
Eastern traveler. Nat. Ord. Temstrmmiaeem. 

This well-known genus is so closely allied 
to the tea family as to be distinguished from 
it with great difficulty, the great difference 
being in the number of parts and position 
of the flower. The number of true species 


of this splendid genus is very limited, not 
exceeding six or seven, and only one or two 
of them are thought worth cultivation, except 
for botanical purposes. The hundreds of 
beautiful varieties which grace our collections, 
possessing at once the most rich and vivid 
colors in their fiowers, and the noblest gran- 
deur in the whole aspect of the plants, fully 
compensate for this scarcity of species, and 
leave us little to desire that may not reason- 
ably be expected from the same skill and per- 
severance which have already produced such 
. splendid results. C. Japonica may be regarded 
as the parent of the whole race of cultivated 
Camellias. It is a native of China and Japan, 
where it attains the altitude of a tree, and is 
much employed by the natives of those 
countries in decorating their gardens. Camel- 
lias delight in an even temperature, rapid 
fluctuation being injurious at any season, and 
the same regular and equable amount of both 
light and moisture should prevail for the 
whole year, that in effect the difference 
between the summer and winter seasons may 
be lessened as far as practicable For this 
purpose the plant should be kept in summer 
in a cool gieen-house, moderately shaded 
from the sun. When the plants are in a grow- 
ing state they require abundance of water, 
both at the roots and over the leaves. After 
making their growth, and setting their flower- 
buds, they require less attention than at any 
other period. Moderate supplies of water and 
a situation as cool as can be afforded without 
danger of frost or nipping currents of air are 
best. About the middle of March is the com- 
mencement of the ordinary growing season, 
when a higher temperature and plenty of water 
to the roots should be given them. Potting 
should be done when the greatest benefit will 
be conferred on the prospective shoots, which 
wUl be before the roots have made much pro- 
gress, or as soon after blooming as may be. A 
distinction in the quality of soil to be used 
should be made in accordance with the state 
of each plant, bearing in mind that they grow 
much stronger in loam, but do not usually 
produce flowers so freely, and vice versa for 
healthy specimens; and" under ordinary cir- 
cumstances an addition of leaf mould seems 
most advisable, introducing a small propor- 
tion of sand, and using the soil quite rough. 
At this time it should be determined at what 
period the plants will be required to bloom in 
the ensuing season, whether early or late, to 
accord with which the plants may be either 
forced or retarded. They will bear almost 
any amount of heat while growing, but after 
the formation of the flower-buds it must be 
withheld, as the slightest application then, 
instead of hastening their development, will 
Infallibly cause them to fall off. Hence, the 
only way to "force" Camellias into early 
flowering in fall and winter is to keep them at 
a high temperature while growing in spring. 
A temperature of about 65° is the most proper 
for such as are desired to flower in the follow- 
ing winter ; 45° or 50° will be sufficient for the 
next, or those which may be said to bloom 
naturally, while the portion required to fur- 
nish flowers for the late spring months should 
be placed out of doors. This treatment must 
be continued until the new growths are com- 
pleted, and the Incipient flower-buds can bo 
discovered, when a cool, shaded situation 




should be provided for each secljlon as they 
require it ; observing to supply them bounti- 
fully with water during the whole period of 
growth, with an occasional sprinkling over 
the foliage, and moderate shade. Any situa- 
tion secure from frost will preserve them 
through the winter, and as the flowers expand, 
the plants may be removed wherever their 
presence may be deemed most ornamental. 
Many of the best Camellias in cultivation 
have been raised from seed in this country ; 
several of the finest of which have originated 
in Boston, with Messrs. M. P. Wilder and C. H. 
Hovey, and have been awarded the highest 
honors. The usual mode of propagation is by 
cuttings, or by grafting or inarching, either of 
which should be done as soon as the new 
wood is firm enough to handle. The sub- 
jects operated on should be placed in a close, 
humid atmosphere, such as is atforded by a 
common hand-glass placed over a tan-bark 
bed. The union takes place in a few weeks, 
and with encouragement, the scions will form 
fine plants in one season. The Tea Plant, known 
generally as Thea, Bohea or Thea viridis, is now 
returned by many botanists to this genus 
under the name of C. theifera. 

Camoe'nsia. Named in honor of Louis Cam- 
oens, a celebrated Portuguese poet. Nat. Ord. 

C. maxima, the only species yet in cultiva- 
tion, was introduced from Angola in 1878, and 
is the largest-flowered leguminous plant 
known. It is one of the most beautiful of 
tropical climbers. The splendid bunches of 
pendulous milk-white flowers, tinged with 
gold on the edges of the petals, grow in droop- 
ing racemes from the axils of the leaves ; the 
petals are white, venose, frilled at the margin, 
where they are tinted with golden-yellow. 
Propagated by cuttings. 

Campa'nula. Bell Flower. The diminutive of 
campana, a bell; literally, a little bell. Nat. 
Ord. CamparmlacecB. 

This extensive and well-known genus con- 
sists of more than two hundred species. 
Including annuals, biennials, and perennials. 
Some of the hardy perennials are dwarf plants, 
producing a profusion of flowers, which ren- 
der them particularly adapted for rock-work 
or for growing in pots. C. pyramidalta is a 
tall-growing variety, at one time a very popu- 
lar plant, and some of the old gardeners still 
cling to it with a peculiar fondness. When 
grown in pots it requires frequent repot- 
ting, which wUl bring it to an enormous size. 
When well grown it is a splendid plant. C. 
medium (Canterbury Bell) is a very ornamental 
garden flower of the easiest culture, with 
double and single varieties, bearing blue, red, 
purple, and white flowers. Like other bien- 
nials, it may either be sown where it is to 
remain, any time after midsummer, or may be 
sown in beds In spring for transplanting. C. 
rotundifolia (Hairbell) is the most beautiful of 
our native species. Some of the species are 
grown in France and Italy as esculent roots. 
All succeed well in any good soil, and are pro- 
pagated freely by seeds or division. 

Campa'nula'ceae. A natural order of milky 
herbs or undershrubs. With alternate leaves, 
having no stipules, and usually bearing showy 
blue or white flowers. The plants are chiefly 
natives of the north of Asia, Europe, and 


North America, and are scarcely known in hot 
regions. The chains of the Alps, Italy, Greece, 
the Caucasus, and the Altai, are their true 
homes. Several are found at the Cape of Good 
Hope. The plants have a niilky, acrid juice, 
but the roots and young shoots are often culti- 
vated as articles of food, as, for example, the 
Bampion (Campanula Rapunciilua). There are 
twenty-nine known genera, and 540 species. 
Some of them furnish handsome flowei-s for 
the border. Josione, Phytewma, Campanula, 
Adonophora, and Platycodon are examples of 
the order. 

Campa'nulate. Bell-shaped, as the corolla of 

Campeachy Wood. The red dye-wood, better 
known as Logwood, obtained from Hmma^ 
toxylon CampecMam/wm. 

Camphire, or Samphire. Crithmwm marUimum. 

Camphor. See Camphora. 

Ca'mphora. Camphor-tree. From Camphor, 
the commercial name of its chief product. 
Nat. Ord. Laiwacem. 

C. officinalis, the only species constituting 
this genus, is an evergreen tree that grows to 
a considerable height, dividing into many 
branches covered with smooth, greenish bark. 
Its flowers are small, white, destitute of calyx, 
with a six-petalled corolla. The fruit re- 
sembles that of the cinnamon. 

This tree is a native of China and Japan, 
growing abundantly in the woods of the 
western part of the island. The roots, 
wood and leaves have a strong odor of 
camphor. This substance is found to 
lodge everywhere in the interstices of 
the fibres of the wood, also in the pith, but 
most abundantly in the crevices and knots. 
The camphor of commerce, or Chinese cam- 
phor, is obtained from the wood, branches 
and leaves, by dry distillation. It is chiefly 
produced in the island of Formosa, and is 
brought in great quantities to Canton, whence 
foreign countries are supplied. 

Campion. Moss. Silene acaulis. 

Bose. i/yahnis coronanria, and L. Flos Jovis. 

Campsi'dium. From Kampsis, a curving. Nat. 
Ord. BignoniacecB. 

C. filicifoUum is a beautiful climber from 
OhUi. The foliage is of a dark shining green 
color, and resembles the fronds of some 
Ferns. The flowers are small, of a rich 
orange color. It is a rapid grower, well 
adapted for covering rafters or back walls in 
the green-house. In the woods, in its wild 
state, it grows forty to fifty feet high, cover- 
ing the tops of the trees in a most graceful 

Camptoso'rus. Walking Fern. The rather 
rare or local C rhizophyllus, is the only native 
representative of the genus, and is remark- 
able for its fronds, tapering above into a 
slender prolongation like a runner, which 
often roots at the apex, and gives rise to new 
fronds, and these in turn to others; hence 
the popular name. Syn. Asplenium,. 

Campylobo'trys. From Icampylos, a curve, and 
botrys, a bunch ; alluding to the form of the 
inflorescence. Nat. Ord. Cinchonacem. 

A genus of very beautiful green-house 
shrubs, natives of Brazil. They are more 
remarkable for their glossy foliage than for 





the beauty of the flowers. C. regalia has ellip- 
tic leaves, with a satiny luster and a rich 
bronzy-green color. This, with one or two 
other species, has been introduced into the 
green-house lor the rare beauty of the foliage. 
They were introduced in 1859, and are propa- 
gated by cuttings. By some authors this 
genus is placed under Hoffmarmia. 

Cam-wood. See Baphia. 

Canada Balsam. Ahiea Balaamea. 

Canada Rice. Zizania aquaiica. 

Canada Tea. GauUheria procumbens. 

Canada Thistle, See Cirsmm. 

Canary Bird Plcwer. See VropcBolwm,. 

Canary Grass. See Phalaris. 

Canava'lia. A genus of elegant twining plants 
of the Nat. Ord. LegwminoscB. 

The purple or white and red flowers are 
produced in racemes from the axils of the tri- 
foliate leaves. Well adapted for training up 
the rafters of a stove or warm green-house. 

Cancer Hoot. A common name applied to the 
genus Epiphegua, and also to CcmopUolis, 
on account of their supposed medicinal vir- 

Cancer Root. One-Flowered. Aphyllon uni- 

Cancer-wort. lAnaria sptiria, and L. Elatine. 

Candidus. A pure white ; but not so clear as 

Candle-berry Myrtle. Myrica cerifera; and M. 

Candle-berry Tree. Aleuritea triloba. 
Candle Tree. Panama. See Parmentiera cerifera. 
Candle 'Wood. Callfornian. F(yuquiera splen- 

Cando'Ilea. Named for A. De Candolle, of 
Geneva, author of many botanical works. 
Nat. Ord, Dilleniacew. 

A genus of. very ornamental evergreen 
shrubs, natives of Australia. C. tetrandra is a 
very compact-growing and free-flowering plant 
with yellow flowers, borne at the ends of the 
branches. Introduced in 1842. It is a valu- 
able addition to our fall and winter blooming 
plants. Propagated by cuttings, or by seeds 
when obtainable. 

Candy-tuft. See Iberia. 

Cane-brake. A common name for different 
species of Armidina/ria. 

Cane. Dumb. Dieff'enbachia8egui7ie,'m'hio)isee. 
Chair-bottom. Various species of Calamvs, 

which see. 
Malacca. Galamua adpionvm. 
Rattan. Calamua draco {C. Rotang). 
Sugar. Saceharum officinarum. 
Sugar, Chinese. Sorgh/wm Sacckanraivm. 

Cane Stakes. The tree-like culms or stems of 
two species of Arvmdinaria, found in swamps 
and by the margins of rivers from Florida to 
Indiana. They are much used, especially by 
florists, for plant stakes, as they can be cut to 
any desired length, and are ready for use at 
once. Those from Indiana are considered the 
best, as they are tougher and more durable. 

Canescens. More or less gray, verging on 
white; grayish-white; hoary; a term ap- 
plied to hairy surfaces. 


Canker. A rather indefinite term, used to denote 
a disease resulting in the slow decay of trees 
or other plants attacked by it. See 

Ca'nna. Indian Shot. The Celtic name for a 
cane or reed. Nat. Ord. SdtaminecB. 

This is an extensive and very interesting 
genus of tender herbaceous perennials. Most 
of the species have showy crimson, orange 
and yellow flowers. They are usually grown 
for the remarkable beauty of their foliage, 
which is highly ornamental; hence they are 
favorite plants in cultivation, and produce a 
striking effect either singly, or grouped in beds 
upon the lawn in the summer months. If 
planted in a rich, deep soil, and freely watered, 
some of them will grow ten feet during the 
season, and from a single tuber make a clump 
three or four feet in diameter. A new seotipn,. 
introduced in 1884 by a Mr. Crozet of France, 
has a dwarf bushy habit. The flowers are 
produced in abundance from June to October 
when they can be lilted and flowered during 
winter in green-houses. This section comprises 
many grand varieties, the flowers of many of 
which are marked like orchids. Beauty is not 
their only claim to consideration, some of the 
species, as C. edulia, being grown extensively 
in Peru and the Sandwich Islands as a vege- 
table. Arrow-root is also made from this 
species. Propagated by seeds or more com- 
monly by division of tubers, which should be" 
kept during the winter like Dahlias. 

Ca'nnabis. Hemp. So called from ganeh, its 
Arabic name, and from the Celtic appellation 
can, reed, and ab, small. Nat. Ord. UrtiGa,cecB. 
Of the two species that compose this genus, 
the truly important one is C. sativa, a native 
of India, which furnishes the Hemp of com- 
merce. The Hemp plant is an annual, growing 
from four to eight feet high; in very hot 
climates it frequently grows twenty feet high. 
The. flowers are of separate sexes on differ- 
ent plants, the males being produced in 
racemes, and generally crowded together 
towards the top of the plant or end of the 
branches; the females are in short spikes, 
their calyx consisting merely of a 
single sepal, rolled around the ovary, but 
open on one side, and they have two hairy 
stigmas. The fruit (commonly known as 
"Hemp-seed") is a small, grayish-colored 
smooth, shining nut, containing a single oily 
seed. For the production of good fiber the 
seed is sown close, so as to produce 
straight stems without branches. The hair- 
vesting takes place at two periods ; the male 
being pulled as soon as it has done flowering, 
and the female not until the seeds are ripe. 
After gathering it undergoes treatment sim- 
ilar to that given flax to separate the fiber. In 
Persia and other very hot countries the plant 
furnishes a soft resin, which is collected by 
the coolies, and is smoked like tobacco, or 
pounded into pulp, so as to make a drink, 
laoth being stimulant and intoxicating. The 
Asiatics are passionately addicted to the usie 
of this means of intoxication, as the names 
given to the Hemp show : "leaf of delusion," 
" increaser of pleasure," etc. 

Canoe-'Wood. The Tulip tree. Liriodendran 

Canterbury Bells. See Campanula mediwm. 




Ca'ntua. From Cantu, the name of one of the 
species in Peru. Nat. Ord. Polemoniacece. 

A genus of green-house evergreen shrubs 
from Peru. The foliage Is fleshy, the flowers 
large and showy, produced in terminal 
corymbs, the colors being white, scarlet, 
yellow and blue. They require the same 
treatment as the Fuchsia. C. buxifoUa is the 
Magic Tree of the Peruvian Indians, and was 
formerly used to decorate their houses on 
feast days. All the species are readily 
increased by- cuttings, C. coronopifolia, a native 
of South Carolina, is Gilia coronopifolia of 
Kuiz and Pavon. 

Caoutchouc. The elastic, gummy substance 
known as Indian Rubber, which is the juice 
of various plants growing in tropical climates 
in different parts of the world. It is chiefly 
obtained from the Fious elastica, Castilloa 
dastica, Urceola elastica, etc. The milky juice 
of Siphocampylos caovichouc is quite different 
from the Caoutchouc of commerce. 

Cape Bulbs. A term employed to designate a 
large number of bulbs from the Cape of Good 
Hope, that require the protection of a frame 
to be grown, in this latitude. They are not 
sufficiently hardy to endure our winters with- 
out protection. Among the class may be 
found J^das, Bdbianas, Sparaxis, Tritoniaa, 
GeiasorMza, etc. 

Cape Figwort. See Phygelius. 

Cape Gooseberry. Physalis Peruviana. 

Cape Jessamine. See Gardenia florida. 

Cape Poison Bulb. Buphane disticha (Syn. 
Bnmsvigia toxicaria). 

Cape Pond "Weed. Aponogeton distachyon,. 

Cape Treasure Flower. Gasia/nia pavonia. 

Caper tree. See Capparis. 

Capitate. Having a head ; pin-headed, as the 
stigma of the Primrose. Also, growing in a 
head, or close terminal clusters, as the 
flowers of Compositce, etc. 

Capparida'ceae. A natural order composed of 
herbs, shrubs, or trees with alternate leaves 
and solitary or clustered flowers. The order 
is divided Into two sub-orders: Cleomem, 
with dry, dehiscent (splitting) fruit, and Cap- 
parecB, with a berry fruit. The plants are 
chiefly tropical, and abound in Africa and 
India. Some are found in Europe and in 
North America. They have pungent and 
stimulant qualities, and have been used for 
scurvy. The flower buds of Capparis apinoaa 
furnish the well-known Capers. C. ^gyptiaca 
is thought by some to be the Hyssop of Scrip- 
ture. There are thirty-three known genera 
and 355 species. Capparis, Cleome, Polamaia, 
and Craixma, are examples of the genera. 

Ca'pparis. Caper-tree. From kabar, the Arabic 
name for Capers. Nat. Ord. Capparidacem. 

An extensive genus of tender or half-hardy 
climbing or trailing plants. The best known 
of the species is C. spinosa, a native of the 
' south of .Europe. In habit it resembles the 
common bramble. The Capers are the buds, 
which are gathered just before expanding, and 
pickled. In Italy .the unripe fruit is some- 
times pickled in vinegar in the same manner 
as the buds. Capers are chiefly imported from 
Sicily, though they are extensively grown in 
the south of France. 


Caprifolia'oeae. A natural order of shrubs or 
herbs, often twining, natives of the northern 
parts of Europe, Asia and America, found 
sparingly in northern Africa, and unknown in 
the southern hemisphere. Some are astrin- 
gent, and others have emetic and purgative 
qualities. Many have showy and fragrant 
flowers. The common Honeysuckle (LonUxra) 
is one of the most esteemed of our climbing 
or twining plants. Among other plants of the 
order may be mentioned the Snowball or 
Guelder Rose (^Viburmmi opulus), the Snow- 
berry {Symphoricarpvs racemosua), the Elder 
{SambuGus nigra), and the Laurustinus (Vi- 
bwrnum Tinua), as well as lAnTima borealis. 
The black berries of the species of Vibwmum 
found on the Himalaya Mountains are eatable 
and agreeable. ' 

Capse'lla. A common weed belonging to Nat. 
Ord. OrwAfeiroi. 

C. JBwaa-paatoris, Shepherd's Purse, a native 
of Europe, is so called from the resemblance 
of its pods to some ancient form of purse. 
It has accompanied Europeans in all their 
migrations, and established itself wherever 
they have settled. It is a troublesome weed, 
hence its utilitarian popular name, "Pick- 
pocket," is more appropriate perhaps, than 
the sentimental one "Shepherd's Purse." 

Ca'psicum. Chili Pepper. From kapto, to 
bite; referring to its pungency. Nat. Ord. 

An extensive genus of tender annual and 
biennial plants, natives of the East and West 
Indies, China, Brazil and Egypt. C. anrmwm 
is the common garden pepper, a native of 
India, from which many varieties have origi- 
nated. C. frutescema, a native of Chili, is the 
species that furnishes the Cayenne Pepper of 
commerce, and is also used in the preparation 
known as Pepper Sauce. C. grossum, a native 
of India, is the Bell Pepper of our gardens. 

Capsule. A dry dehiscent seed vessel or fruit. 

Caraga'na. Siberian Pea-tree. So called from 
Carachana, its name in Tartary. Nat. Ord. 

An Asiatic genus of shrubs or low growing 
trees. One of the best known of the species 
is, C. Arborescena, the Siberian Pea-tree, alow 
sized shrubby tree, with numerous yellow, 
tapering twigs, and very small, pinnate leaves 
of the same character as those of the Acacias, 
but much smaller and of a rare golden-green 
color ; the flowers are small, yellow, and pro- 
duced singly or in clusters, at the axils of the 
leaves. It is a tree of marked beauty in early- 
summer, by the contrast it presents with 
shrubs of dark and less delicate foliage. C. 
Chamlagu, a, Chinese species, is a low spread- 
ing shrub, two to four feet high, with branches 
at first upright and then decumbent. Loudon 
says: "When grafted on C. arborescena, it 
forms a singularly picturesque pendulous 
tree; beautiful not only when it is in leaf 
or in flower, but from the graceful lines 
formed by its branches, even in- the midst of 
winter, when they are completely stripped of 
their leaves." The flowers are produced 
freely in large clusters, yellow or reddish, in 
May or June. 

Carageen or Carrageen. Irish Moss. A nam^ 
given in Ireland to Ckondrua oriapua and some 
other allied AlgcB. Vast quantities are col- 




lected for sale, and supply a useful article for 
feeding cattle, and making jelly for invalids. 
Its decided sea taste and odor are against its 
being a perfect substitute for isinglass. 
There is no doubt, however, that In the sick 
chamber it is a far better substitute than 
gelatine, as that has very small, if any nutri- 
tive qualities, a fact not perhaps sufQciently 

Caragua'ta, A genus of Bromeliacem, closely 
allied to Tillandsia; stove-house epiphytes. 
Their bright scarlet bracts are very showy 
■when in bloom. 

Caraway. See Carum. 

Carcinodes. A term appliei to what is com- 
monly called Canker in trees, which may be 
characterized as a slow decay, and in regard 
to which the Rev. M. J. Berkeley, an excellent 
authority, says : " The appearances are very 
different in different plants, and the causes 
different. The same plant, as the Apple, may 
even exhibit three or four different kinds of 
Canker. One form arises from the attack of 
the Woolly Aphis; a second from the devel- 
opmorit of bundles of adventitious roots, 
whose tips decay and harbor moisture, and 
contaminate the subjacent tissues; a third 
exhibits itseli witlioutau^ uppai'eut uuu&u, m 
the form of broad, dark, or even black patches, 
spreading in every direction ; while a fourth 
shows pale, depressed streaks, which soon 
become confluent, and eventually kill, first 
the bark, and then, as a necessary conse- 
quence, the underlying wood. The only 
remedy is to cut out completely the affected 
parts, and that is not always efficacious. The 
Canker of the Plum and Apricot is brought on 
by gumming. In many cases Canker arises 
doubtless from the roots penetrating into 
gome ungenial soil, which vitiates the Juices 
and induces death to the weaker cells, from 
which it spreads to surrounding tissue. The 
rugged appearance is generally due to a 
struggle between the vital powers of the plant 
and the diseased action." , 

Cardami'ne. Ladies' Smock. Cuckoo Flower. 
From kardamine, a diminutive of ka/rdamon, 
cress ; referring to the acrid flavor. Nat. Ord. 

An extensive genus of hardy herbaiceous 
perennials, common in many parts of the 
United States, Europe, and northern Asia. O, 
pratensis, popularly known as Ladies' Smock 
or Cuckoo Flower, is a very pretty meadow 
plant, with large lilac flowers, common in 
Europe, but a rather rare plant in this coun- 
try. A double variety of this species, some- 
times found growing wild, is remarkably 
proliferous, the leaflets producing new plants 
where they come in contact with the ground, 
and the flowers, when they wither sending 
up a stalked flower-bud from, their centers. 
The leaves of some of the species are used 
in salads. 
Ca'rdamon. See Amomwm. 
Cardinal Flower. See Lobelia ccurdinalis. 

Cardiospe'rmum. Balloon Vine. From kar- 
dia, a heart, and aperma, seed ; in allusion to 
the shape of the seeds. Nat. Ord. Swpin- 

Of" this small genus only one species is 
grown as an ornamental plant, viz. , C. Hali- 
cacahwm, which is a rapid-growing, handsoirid 


climber, remarkable for an inflated mem- 
branous capsule, from which it receives its 
common name. Balloon Vine. It grows readily 
from seed. Introduced from India in 1504. 

Cardoon. See Cynara. 

Ca'rduus. Thistle. From ard, the Celtic word 
for a prickle or sharp point; referring to the 
spines of the Thistle. Nat. Ord. Compositm. 

Some of the species are very ornamental, 
though many of them are tall, robust-growing 
plants, which require a great deal of room 
and are too large for a small garden. O. 
Mariamius (Syn. Silyhwm Marian/wm) the Holy 
Thistle, is well marked by the white veins on 
its large, shining leaves, fabled to have been 
produced by a portion of the milk of the Vir- 
gin Mary having fallen on them. They are 
annuals, growing freely from seed. 

Ca'rex. From careo, to want ; the upper spikes 
being without seeds. Nat. Ord. Cyperacece. 

This genus includes more than 1,000 species, 
widely distributed over the temperate and 
Arctic regions. They are all perennial grasses ; 
a few species are handsome plants for the 
green-house, and useful for basket work and 
aquariums. They are usually found growing 
in bogs, marshes, or moist woods, where they 
yield a very inferior quality of grass. C. 
Praseri is the handsomest species of the 
genus, resembling at a short distance, when 
in flower, one of the lAUcuiecB. The leaves of 
several of the species are used for seating 
chairs, and various other purposes for which 
we use the common Flag. There are more 
than 300 species in this country, all of which 
are without interest except to the botanist. 

Caricature Plant. See Oraptopkyllum. 

Carinate. Keel-shaped. 

Carludo'vica. Named after Oharlts IV. of 
Spain, and Louisa, his queen. Nat. Ord. 

A genus of low-growing, palm-like, stove- 
house plants. Some of them have long, 
climbing stems, sending out aerial roots, 
which fasten upon the trunks of trees or hang 
down like ropes, while others are stemless 
and form dense thickets. O. palmata is one 
of the more interesting species. Its leaves 
are shaped and plaited like a fan, and are 
borne on long, slender stocks. Tlioy are of" 
tolerably large size, and deeply cut into four 
or five divisions, each of which is again cut. 
It is from the leaves of this species that the 
well-known Panama hats are made. The 
leaves are cut when young, and the stiff par- 
allel veins removed, after which they are slit 
into shreds, but not separated at the stalk 
end, and immersed in boiling water for a short 
time, and then bleached in the sun. This 
species is also exceedingly useful for any orna- 
mental or decorative purpose. C. plicata is 
a very interesting climbing species, with foli- 
age similar to that of G. palmata, but with 
much shorter leaf-stalks. There are several 
other species useful for decorative purposes, 
and valuable from the fact that they will suc- 
ceed in any out-of-the-way comer, where most 
other plants would perish. This genus is 
common throughout the shady thickets of 
Panama, and along the coast of New Grenada 
and Ecuador. They are increased from 
suckers or from seed. 

Carnation. See Dianthiis caryophylhm. 




CameuB. Pale red, or flesh-color. 

Carnivoroiis Plants. A term applied to IHoncsa 
muscipala, Darlingtonia Califomica, the Dro- 
seras, and other insect-catching plants, on the 
supposition that they feed on the insects 
■which they entrap. 
Carob Tree. See Cerakmia. 
Carolina Allspice. A popular name of the 

Calycanlhua, or Sweet-scented Shrub. 
Carolina Jasmine. See OeUemium. 
Carpel. A division of the ovary; one of the 
roUed-up leaves of which the pistil is com- 
posed, whether they are combined or distinct; 
the small parts of which compound fruits are 
Caxpente'ria. Named after the late Professor 
Carpenter of Louisiana. Nat. Ord. Saxifrag- 

An ornamental, hardy, tall-growing shrub 
with pure white flowers, and broadly-lanceolate 
pinnately-veined leaves, whitened beneath, 
with a minute and close pubescence. Intro- 
duced to cultivation from the Sierra Nevadas, 
California, in 1880. 
Carpi'uus. Hornbeam, Iron Wood. From the 
Celtic car, wood, and pinda, head ; the wood 
being used for the yokes of cattle. Nat. Ord. 

C. Americana, the only representative of this 
genus in our woods, is a low-growing tree of 
compact form, and a very rigid trunk. It is 
particularly handsome in autumn, because of 
its richly-colored foliage. It is found in 
nearly all parts of the country, but is not 
plentiful in any section. The wood of this 
tree is exceedingly hard and close-grained, 
and is well suited for any work requiring great 
hardness and strength. 
Carpoly'za. From karpoa, fruit, and Jyssa, 
rage ; in reference to the three-celled fruit, or 
seed-pod, opening like the mouth of an 
enraged animal. Nat. Ord. AmarylUdacem. 

A genus of South African bulbs, the only 
species being G. spiraKs, which is a very pretty 
little plant. The leaves and flower scape are 
twisted, from which fact it derives its specific 
name. The flowers are white, sepals pink, 
tipped with green. It requires protection in 
winter, or may be kept dry and grown in pots, 
starting them about the flrst of February. 
They are propagated by offsets. Introduced 
in 1791. 
Carrion Flcwer. Coprosmamfhus herbaceus, 

Smilax herbacea, and the genus Stapelia. 
Carrot. Datieus carota. The wild Carrot, indig- 
enous to Great Britain and many other parts 
of Europe, and so extensively naturalized in 
this country as to become one of the most 
troublesome pests of the farmer, has generally 
been supposed to be the parent of the many 
varieties of the common garden Carrot, which 
has been under cultivation from time im- 
memorial. Diosoorides describes accurately 
the Carrot, both as a wild plant and as culti- 
vated as an esculent root. The parentage was 
not questioned until Miller, the celebrated 
English gardener and botanist, undertook to 
improve the wild Carrot by cultivation, and 
signally failed in his many and varied 
attempts. Others have experimented at dif- 
ferent times, with no better success. The 
prevailing opinion now is that the garden 


Carrot is a distinct species, or was obtained 
under circumstances entirely different or 
unknown at the present day. The carrot was 
introduced into England, in about its present 
form, by the Dutch, during the reign of Queen 
Elizabeth, and soon thereafter became a favor- 
ite vegetable, and a useful as well as a profit- 
able field crop. Careful selection has gradually 
improved the quality in certain respects, of 
the Carrot, during the past hundred years, 
and good cultivation is now required to keep 
the varieties up to their proper standard. 

Cartha'mus. Safflower. From qiiartom, to 
paint, in Arabic; the flowers yield a fine 
color. Nat. Ord. Compositce. 

This genus consists of two species only, 
annual plants, found in Caucasus and Egypt. C. 
tinctorivs, the Saffron Thistle, is extensively 
cultivated in India, China, and other parts of 
Asia, for the coloring matter which its 
flowers yield. These flowers contain two 
kinds of coloring matter — the one yellow, 
which is soluble in water, the other red, 
which being of a resinous nature, is insolu- 
able in water, but is soluble in alkaline carbon- 
ates. The fruit is never converted to any use, 
as it dyes only dull shades of color ; the other 
is a beautiful rose-red, capable of dyeing every 
shade, from the palest rose to a cherry-red. 
It is chiefly used for dyeing silk, affording 
various shades of pink, rose crimson and 
scarlet. Mixed with flnely-powdered talc it 
forms the well-known substance called rouge. 
In France this species is grown for the beauty 
of its flowers, and in Spain it is grown in 
gardens to color soups, olives and other 
dishes. It is readUy grown from seed, which 
should be started in the hot-bed or green- 
Ca'rum. Caraway. From Carta, in Asia Minor, 
where it was flrst discovered. Nat. Ord. 

A small genus of hardy biennials, but one 
species of which, C. Carwi, is of any special 
interest. This is a native of Europe, and pro- 
duces the Caraway seeds which contain an 
aromatic volatile oil, and are used in flavoring. 
The plants are of the simplest culture, requir- 
ingonlytosowtheseeds where the plants are 
wanted to grow. 
Ca'rya. Hickory. The Greek name for the 
Walnut. Nat. Ord. JugUmdacew. 

A well-known genus of hardy deciduous 
trees, confined wholly to North America. C. 
alba is the common Shell-bark or Shag-bark 
Hickory, so called on account of the rough, 
shaggy bark of the trees, peeling off in long, 
narrow strips from large trees. This species 
furnishes the best Hickory nuts. C. oUvctfor- 
mis is the Pecan-nut tree, common from Illi- 
nois southward. It is a large and beautiful 
tree. Its delicious nuts are well-known. C 
pordma is the Pig-nut, one of the most valu- 
able as a timber tree, but the fruit is worth- 
less. C. amara is the Bittdr-nut or Swamp 
Hickory-nut. C. sulcata is the Western Shell- 
bark Hickory, remarkable for the size of the nut 
which has a very thick shell, but is of excel- 
lent quality. C. tomentosa, common in the 
West and South, bears the largest nuts of any 
of the species, the size, however, being at tha 
expense of the quality. The timber of all the 
species is valuable for any purpose where 
strength and elasticity are required. 




Caryopti'yUaceae. An extensive order of herbs, 
with stems swollen at the joints, the flowers 
terminal, solitary, or disposed in racemes, 
panicles or corymbs; the leaves entire and 
opposite. The plants of this order are natives 
principally of temperate and cold regions. 
They inhabit mountains, rocks, hedges and 
waste places. Humboldt says that Clove- 
worts constitute a twenty-secondth part of 
the flowering plants of France, one twenty- 
seventh of those of Germany, one seventeenth 
of Lapland, and one seventy-secondth of 
North America. There are some very showy 
flowers in the order, such as the well-known 
and popular Pinks and Carnations; but the 
greater jmmber are mere weeds. The Clove 
Pink {DiaTahus Caryophyllm) is the origin of 
all the cultivated varieties of Carnations, as 
Picotees, Bizarres and Flakes. The common 
Chickweed {Slellaria media) aiid Spurry {Sper- 
ffida arvensis). the latter used as fodder for 
sheep, are other examples. There are about 
sixty genera and 1,100 species. Diantkas, 
Silene, I/ychnis, CerasUwm, Arenaria, Alaine, 
Saponaria, are examples of this order. 

Caryophy'llus. Clove-tree. From karmm, a 
nut, and phylUm, a leaf; referring to the 
appearance of the flower-buds. Nat. Ord. 

C. aromaticus, the tree producing the WeU- 
known spice called Cloves, is a handsome 
evergreen, rising from fifteen to thirty feet, 
with large elliptic leaves and purplish flowers, 
arranged in terminal heads on short-jointed 
stalks. It is a native of the Molucca Islands, 
where it is not only cultivated tor its great 
commercial value, but also as an ornamental 
tree. The whole tree is highly aromatic, and 
the foot-stalks of the leaves have nearly the 
same pungency as the calyxes of the flowers. 
A celebrated writer who had visited the 
islands, says : " Clove-trees as an avenue to a 
residence are perhaps unrivalled — ^their noble 
height, the beauty of their form, the luxuri- 
ance of their foliage, and, above all, the spicy 
fragrance with which they perfume the air, 
produce, on -driving through a long line of 
them, af degree of exquisite pleasure only to 
be enjoyed in the clear, light atmosphere of 
those latitudes." 

Caryo'pteris. From kanum, a nut, a,nd pteron, a 
wing; the fruit is winged. Nat. Ord. Ver- 

C. Maatacanthvs, the best known species, is 
a. hardy herbaceous plant, of easy culture, 
blooming in autumn. The flowers are light 
azure-blue in color, and are borne in axillary 
globose heads. It grows about two feet high, 
and was introduced from China in 1844. 

Caryo'ta. Toddy Palm. The old Greek name 
used by Dioscorides ; the Greeks first applied 
this name to their cultivated Date. Nat. Ord. 

O. urens, commonly called Fish-tall Palm, is 
the most prominent species of this genus. It 
is a beautiful tree, growing from sixty to 
eighty feet high, with a trunk a foot in. diam- 
eter, producing many pendulous spikes of 
flowers, which are succeeded by strings of suc- 
culent globular berries, dark red when ripe, 
and are very sharp and acrid in taste. In 
Ceylon it yields a sort of liquor, sweet, whole- 
some, and no stronger than water. It is taken 
from the tree two or three times a day, each 


yield from a large tree being from three to 
four gallons. When boiled down it makes a 
coarse brown sugar called jaggory. When the 
tree has come to maturity there comes out a 
bud from the top ; that bud the natives cut 
and prepare by putting salt, pepper, lemons, 
garlic, leaves, etc., over it, which keeps it 
from ripening. They dally cut off a thin slice 
from the end, and the liquor drops into a ves- 
sel, which they set to catch it. The buds are 
most delicious to the taste, resembling wal- 
nuts or almonds. The species are natives of 
the Indies, and are grown in the green-house, 
where they succeed well with the same treat- 
ment which other tropical Palms require. 

Cascari'Ila Bark. See Croton. 

Cashew-Nut. See Anacardium. 

Cassa'ndra. ■ Leather-leaf. C. Calyculata, the 
only known species, sometimes included under 
Andromeda, is generally distributed through- 
out the northern hemisphere. It is a low, 
much-branched shrub belonging to the Nat. 
Ord. EricacecE, and produces its pretty 
white flowers on one-sided racemes, early in 

Cassava Bread, or Cassava Meal. See Mani- 
hot vtilisaima. 

Ca'ssia. Senna. From the Greek name of a 
plant, Kassiam, of the Bible. Nat. Ord. 

An extensive genus of hardy herbaceous and 
green-house perennials, found scattered over 
nearly all parts of the globe. Many of the 
species are well known, and considered of 
great importance for their medicinal proper- 
ties. The leaflets of several of the species 
constitute what is known in medicine as 
Senna leaves. Those from C. acidifolia and 
C. obovata, African and East Indian species, 
are the most highly esteemed. The leaves of 
C. MariUtruUca, wild Senna, a native of the 
Middle and Southern States, have, to some 
extent, the same properties, and are some- 
times used as a substitute for the officinal 
Senna. This species may be justly regarded as 
one of our most valued plants for the border. 
It grows from three to four feet high ; foliage 
a beautiful deep green, not unlike the finer 
Acacias; flowers bright yellow, produced in 
short axillary racemes, continuing a long time 
in succession. Some of the roadsides of Long 
Island are bordered with this plant, and no 
public park, with all that art can bestow upon 
its drives in the way of ornamentation, can 
compare In simplicity and beauty with 
these roadsides. C. nictitams, Wild Sensitive 
Plant, another native species, is a very beau- 
tiful hardj' annual, common on our roadsides, 
growing about six inches high, and in appear- 
ance almost identical with the Sensitive Plant, 
Mimosa pudAoa, and well worth cultivating for 
its beautiful foliage. C. ehamcEcrista, com- 
monly known as Partridge Pea, is a very 
pretty species, common in the Southern 

Cassi'nia. Named after M. Henri Cassimi, an 
eminent French botanist. Nat. Ord. Com- 

A very handsome genus of shrubby plants 
or herbaceous perennials, natives of Australia 
and New Zealand. C. Vawviliersii produces 
numerous small white flowers in compact 




clusters, ■which though pretty, are not enough 
to recommend the plant for general culture ; 
but its golden coat which suffuses the back 
of the leaves, and still more densely the entire 
young stems, ■will always make it an object of 
interest. It is perfectly hardy, and is readily 
increased by cuttings. 

Casta'nea. Chestnut. From a town of that 
name in Thessaly. Nat. Ord. Corylacece. 

The Chestnut Tree is well known 
because of the nuts, which are universally 
esteemed. There are two species indigenous 
to this country, the common Chestnut, C. ves- 
ca, found throughout the States, and C. pumila, 
a low-growing tree or shrub, common south- 
ward, which produces a smaller nut, known 
as the Chinquapin. The Spanish Chestnut, a 
variety of C. vesca, differing from our native 
Chestnut mainly in the size of the fruit, is a 
native of Asia Minor, introduced at a very 
early date. This tree grows to an immense 
size. A tree near Queens, L. I., planted 
nearly one hundred years ago, has a trunk 
almost twelve feet in circumference, and is 
about fifty feet high, with immense spreading 
branches. It is one of the noblest shade trees 
to be found in this country. A species of 
late introduction from Japan promises to 
become one of our most useful as well as 
most ornamental trees, or, more properly, tall 
shrubs. The fruit of this species was 
received in New York a few years since in a 
consignment of goods from Japan. The 
merchant receiving the same, seeing the nuts 
were of such excellent quality, fully equal to 
those of our native species, and as large as the 
Spanish Chestnut, attempted the growing of 
them, and with remarkable success. In five 
years they commenced to fruit, and are now 
bearing profusely. The shrub is of an orna- 
mental character, suitable for the lawn. The 
fruit or nuts are borne within two feet of the 
ground. Those who have had a favorable 
opportunity to judge of its character, predict 
its early adoption as a hedge plant, for which 
purpose it seems well adapted. In addition 
to its value as an ornamental hedge, it would 
undoubtedly prove valuable for its yield of 

Castille'ja. Painted-Cup. Nanied in honor of 
Dcm CaetUma, a Spanish botanist. Nat. Ord. 

This genus consists of about forty species, 
nearly all of which are American, a few being 
found in northern Asia. They are remarkable 
for their brightly colored fioral leaves or 
bracts, the mostof which are more showy than 
the flowers, which are commonly yellowish or 
greenish. C. indimsa, a beautiful perennial 
species, has recently been introduced into 
our gardens from Europe, although it is a 
native of Colorado. It is one of our most 
desirable hardy plants, producing its brilliant 
scarlet bracts in great profusion. This 
species is so entirely distinct from most other 
plants, and at tlie same timo so showy, and 
can be grown with as little difficulty as most 
other herbaceous plants, that we cannot but 
consider it a great acquisition. 

Castillo'a. A Mexican tree belonging to the 
Nat. Ord. Urticacece, and having male and 
female flowers alternating one with the other, 
on the same branch. C. elastica, contains a 
milky juice yielding Caoutchouc. 


Castor Oil Bean. See Bicimia. 

Casuari'na. Beef-wood. Supposed to be named 
from the resemblance the leaves bear to the 
feathers of the Cassowary. Nat. Ord. Caswri- 

A genus of very curious trees, constituting 
of themselves a distinct family. They have 
very much the appearance of gigantic Horse- 
tails (EquisetacecB), being trees with thread- 
like, jointed, furrowed branches, without 
leaves. The flowers are not of a sho^wy char- 
acter. These plants are met most abundantly 
in tropical Australia, and occasionally in the 
Indian Islands, New Caledonia, etc. In Aus- 
tralia, from their somber appearance, they 
are planted in cemeteries. The timber fur- 
nished by these trees is valuable for its ex- 
treme hardness and its red color, it is called 
in the islands Beef- wood. The several species 
are highly esteemed for their uses in the me- 
chanic and useful arts. A few of them have 
been introduced into green-houses for their 
singular appearance. 

Cata'lpa. Indian Bean. Cigar Tree. The 
Indian name of the first discovered species. 
Nat. Ord. Bignoniacem. 

A small genus of ornamental trees, natives 
of North America, the West Indies, Japan 
and China. C. bignonioides (syn. Syringafolia), 
a native of the Southern States, and one of the 
most beautiful shade trees, has bright, yellow- 
ish-green, heart-shaped leaves, and is remark- 
able for its numerous loose panicles of white 
flowers, spotted with orange and purple. C. 
b. aurea, a golden-leaved variety, is slower 
growing than the parent and is golden over the 
entire leaf on the young growths in June, and 
the second growth in August and September. 
O. specioaa, the Western Catalpa, cultivated 
and now widely naturalized in southern 
Arkansas, western Louisiana, and eastern 
Texas, has white flowers, in rather large pan- 
icles and in general appearance is similar to 
C. bignonioides, but may be easily distin- 
guished from that species by its much larger 
flower, fruit, and seed. G. Bungeii, generally 
known as C. Kmmpferi, is probably a small 
form of C. bignonioides, and is a remarkable 
shrub, growing from six to eight feet high, 
with a diameter from eight to ten feet. The 
trees when young make a rapid growth, and 
are particularly valuable for lawn or street 
decoration, being, so far, entirely exempt 
from the ravages of insects and caterpillars. 

Catana'nche. From katanangke, a strong in- 
centive; in reference to an ancient custom 
among the Greek women of using it in love 
potions. Nat. Ord. Compositce. 

A small genus of annuals and hardy her- 
baceous perennials. C. cmrulea, a perennial 
species, with slender stalks, long, narrow 
leaves, and large heads of sky-blue flowers, 
is a native of the south of Europe. From 
this species several varieties have been pro- 
duced with white and double flowers, all very 
desirable for the open border and for cuttings. 
They are increased by division or from seeds. 
C. lutea, an annual species with yellow flowers, 
is a native of Candla. 

Catase'tum. From kola, downward, and seta, a 
bristle ; referring to the position of the two 
horns of the column. Nat. Ord. Orchidacece. 

An extensive genus of strong and rapid 
growing, terrestrial orchids, common in the 




tropical portions of South America. The 
flowers of this genus are remarkable for sin- 
gularity of form, and some are very beautiful, 
and have a delicious fragrance. The same 
plant not unfrequently produces what would 
seemingly appear to be totally different 
flowers, It has a decided propensity to 
" sport." The singular shape of their flowers, 
and other marked characteristics, entitle 
them a place in every collection. "When at 
rest they should be kept cool and dry ; in a 
growing state, they require strong heat and 
copious waterings. Increased by division. 

Cat-brier. See SmUax. 


See SUene. 

See SiUne armeria. 

Ca'techu Tree. Acacia {Mimosa) Catechu. 

Caterpillars. Scorpiwnis vermiealataa. 

Catkin. A deciduous spike, consisting of uni- 
sexual apetalous flowers. The flowers of the 
Willow, Hazel, etc., are Catkins. 

Cat-Miut and Catnip. See Nepda. 

Cat'Tail. One of the popular names of Pearl 
Millet ; also applied to Equisetum, Hippv/ris, 
and a few other plants. 

Cat-Tail Flag. See Typha. 

Cat's Tail G-rass. One of the common names 
of the genus Phlewm, Timothy or Herd's 

Cattle-poison Plant. "W. Australia. Several 
species of Gastrolobiums. 

Cattle'ya. Named after Mr. Oattley, a dis- 
tinguished patron of botany. Nat. Ord. 

What the Eose and Carnation are among 
garden plants, the Cattleya is among Orchids, 
pre-eminently beautiful. Not a species but 
possesses claims of the strongest nature on 
the culturist's attention, either for its delicate 
loveliness or the rich and vivid coloring of its 
large and handsome flowers. They are na- 
tives of the temperate parts of South America, 
and in cultivation are found to succeed in a 
lower temperature than is necessary for the 
majority of plants of the same order. They 
will grow either on cork, blocks of wood, or 
in pots of sphagnum, carefully drained and 
moderately watered at all times ; indeed, the 
damp atmosphere of the house is nearly suffi- 
cient for them through the winter ; and if 
about fifty degrees of heat is steadily main- 
tained through this period, with an Increase 
of about ten degrees in summer, the plants 
will be found to grow vigorously, and conse- 
quently flower in perfection. The colors of 
the flowers run through all the shades of 
white, rose, rosy-lilac, crimson and carmine, 
nor is even yellow absent. Where all are 
beautiful it is scarcely necessary to select. The 
following, however, should be in every col- 
lection. C. citrina, crispa, Harrisonim, inter- 
media, labiata, Loddigesii. Pereivilleana, Skin- 
neri, Mo8sicea.nd Trianm, with their numerous 
varieties, and many others. All the Cattleyas 
are increased by division. See Orchids. 

Caudate. Tailed ; having a process like a tall. 

Caudez. The axis of a plant, consisting of the 
stem and root. Applied also to the trunk of 
Palms and Tree Perns. Caudex repena is a 
creeping stem, or what is now called a 
rhizome. Caudex dencendens is the root. 

Caulescent Acquiring a stem. 

Cauliflower. Brasaica oleracea ca/uliflora. The 
Cauliflower is tlie most delicate and delicious 
of the genus Brasaica. Its early history is 
entirely unknown, but it is supposed to have 
originated in Italy. It is mentioned by 
Gerarde in 1597, as then very rare in England, 
and it was not brought to any degree of per- 
fection, or grown for the market, until about 
1700. Prom that period until the present, 
there has been a slow, but marked and steady 
improvement in the size and quality of this 
vegetable. To the English and Dutch gar- 
deners we are chiefly indebted for the per- 
fection the Cauliflower has attained. Heads 
of immense size are now grown for the market ; 
it being by no means uncommon to see a head 
perfectly sound and smooth, fully ten inches 
in diameter, and, contrary to the usual rule, 
size is not obtained at the expense of quality, 
the larger, if differing at all, being more 
tender and delicious. The varieties of the 
Cauliflower are numerous. In this work we 
cannot point out the best, as locality and se- 
lection cause variations more marked than 
even the varieties. The most poi)ular in the 
United States at this time are Snowball and 
Erfurt for early, and Algiers for late. Por 
the perfection of the Cauliflower a deep, rich, 
loamy soil is required, a low, moist situation 
being preferable ; it will not succeed in dry 
ground. Where irrigation can be employed, 

. the greatest benefits will be derived ; in fact, 
a large crop will be secured with irrigation, 
when without it the result would be total fail- 
ure. Culture nearly the same as for cabbage, 
which see. 

Caulophy'llum. The generic name of the plant 
commonly known as Blue Cohosh, sometimes 
called Pappoose-root. 

Cayeime Pepper. See Capaicmn. 

Ceano'tbus. Bed Boot, New Jersey Tea. An 
obscure name in Theophrastus, probably, mis- 
spelled. Nat. Ord. Rhamnacem. 

A genus of low-growing shrubs, one of the 
most conspicuous and best known being C. 
Americamus, a species common in dry wood- 
lands. This shrub attained considerable 
notoriety during the American Eevolution, on 
account of its leaves being dried and used as 
a substitute for tea, a practice not yet wholly 
discontinued. The roots are used in dyeing 
wool of a Nankeen or cinnamon color. There 
are species from Mexico and South America, 
that have lately been introduced into the 
green-house, and regarded with favor. Their 
season of flowering is too short to warrant 
very general cultivation. 

Ceoro'pia. Snake wood. A genus of orna- 
mental, evergreen, soft-wooded, milky trees, 
natives of South America, and belonging to 
the Nat. Ord. UrticacecB. 

C. peltata, the Trumpet Tree of the West 
Indies and South America, so called be- 
cause its hollow branches are used for musi- 
cal Instruments, is the only species of 

Cedar. See Jv/mperus. 
Barbadoes and Bermuda. Juniperua Be/rrnvr 

Eed Californian. lAbocedrus decwrreue. 
Eed Virginian. S( 




Cedar-Apples. The Pennsylvanian name for 
the curious excrescences on Jwniipeirus Virgini- 
anus, caused by a fungus. 

Cedar of Lebanon. See Cedrua. 

Cedre'leee. Formerly regarded as a distinct 
order, now included as a tribe of the Nat. 
Ord. MeliaceoB. 

Cedrone'lla. Supposed to be derived from 
kedron, the cedar, because of its fragrant 
resinous scent. Nat. Ord. Labiaiw. 

A small genus of sweet-scented perennial 
herbs, rarely shrubs, with pale, purplish 
flowers in spikes or terminal racemes; 
natives of North America and the Canary 
Isles. . C. cordata, a neat little alpine plant 
with a leaf somewhat like the Ground Ivy, 
and a lilac, slightly dotted, Hower somewhat 
like that of the Salvia, is very dwarf and 
pretty, and will probably prove a desirable 
plant for rockwork. 

Cedrou Tree. See Simaba. 

Ce'drus. The Cedar. From Latin Cedrua, 
Greek Kedroa ; a name for a coniferous tree 
in the time of Homer. Nat. Ord. Comferm. 
This genus consists of a few species that 

' have been separated from Abiea and Jvmiper- 
ua, their characteristics being their evergreen 
leaves, disposed in bundles, or fasioles, and 
their upright cones. The Cedar of Lebanon 
Is one of the most prominent species, so often 
mentioned in Sacred History. It is one of the 
most beautiful evergreen trees for lawn 
decoration, though rarely met -with. There 
is a noble specimen on the grounds of W. F. D. 
Manioe, at Queens, L. I. It is upwards of thirty 
feet high, with a trunk four and a half feet in 
circumference. There was a still larger speci- 
men a few years since on the grounds of the 
late Geo. C. Thorbum, at Astoria, L. I. 
C. Deodara, the Deodar or Indian Cedar, is 
of vigorous pyramidal form with light silvery 
glaucous-green foliage, very graceful and 
drooping. It is a most charming everjgreen, 
not entirely hardy, north of Philadelphia, but 
one of the most beautiful ornamental trees in 
the Southern States. 

Ce'Iandine. The popular name of the genus 
Chelidomiv/m, which see. 

Celastra'ceae. This natural order consists of 
shrubs, or small trees, natives of the warmer 
parts of Europe, Asia, and North America, 
and far more abundant beyond the tropics 
than within them. There are thirty-five 
known genera, and over two hundred and 
fifty species. Celaatrus, Euonymua, and 
Maodendron, are examples of this order. 

Cela'strus. StafC Tree, Bitter Sweet. From 
kelas, tlio latter season ; referring to the fruit 
hanging on the trees all winter. Nat. Ord. 

This genus, consists of trees, shrubs, and 
climbers. One native species, C. acandens. 
Is a handsome twining shrub, remarkable for 
its orange-colored capsules, and the scarlet 
coating of the fruit. It is planted as an 
ornamental climber, and is known by its pop- 
ular name of Bitter Sweet. Propagated by 
seeds and suckers. 

Celeiiac or Turnip-Rooted Celery. Apium 
graweolena var. rapaceum. A very distinct 
variety of Celery, the pecjiliarity of which 
consists in the root, which closely resembles 


that of a turnip, and Is the part eaten. It is 
more hardy than the common Celery, and 
can be preserved for use much later in the 
spring. It is but little grown except in 
France and Germany, where it is employed 
as a vegetable and as a salad. It is usually 
boiled until tender, and then slightly pickled 
in vinegar. 

Ce'lery. Apiwm grcmeolena. Celery is a native 
of England, and is found in its wild state in 
marshy places and ditches near the coast. It 
is a biennial. There are in its wild state two 
kinds, the red and the white-stalked, of both 
of which there are numerous garden varieties, 
the cultivation of which is carried on to a very 
great extent, both here and in Europe. As it is 
a crop of vast importance we give in a con- 
densed form such information regarding its 
cultivation, as will enable anyone to succeed 
in its cultivation. 

The seeds are sown on a well-pulverized, 
rich border, in the open ground, as early in 
the season as the ground can be worked. (Foj 
instructions in sowing, see article headed 
"Sowing and Planting, Use of the Feet in.") 
The bed is kept clear of weeds until July, 
when the plants are set out for the crop. 
But as the seedling plants are rather trouble- 
some to raise, when for private use only, and 
as they can usually be purchased cheaper 
than they can be raised on a small scale, it is 
scarcely worth while to sow the seed. But 
when wanted in quantity, the plants should al- 
ways be raised by the grower, as Celery plants 
are not only difficult to transplant, but are 
usually too expensive to buy when the crop is 
grown to sell. The European plan is, to make 
a trench six or eight inches deep in which to 
plant Celery ; but our violent rain storms 
in summer soon showed us that this plan was 
not a good one here, so we set about 
planting on the level surface of the ground, 
just as we do with all vegetables. Celery re- 
quires an abundance of manure, which, as 
usual with all other crops, must be well 
mixed and incorporated with the soil before 
the Celery is set out. When the ground is 
well prepared, we stretch a line to the dis- 
tance required, and beat it slightly with a 
spade, so that it leaves a mark to show where 
to place the plants. These are set out at 
distances of six inches between the plants, and 
usually four feet between the rows, when the 
Celery is to bo " banked" up for early or fall 
use; but when grown for winter use, from 
two to three feet between the rows is suffi- 
cient. Great care must be taken, in putting 
out the Celery to see that the plant is set just 
to the depth of the roots ; if much deeper, the 
" heart " might be too much covered up which 
would impede the growth. It is also important 
that the soil be well packed to the roots in 
planting, and this we do by returning on each 
row, after planting, and pressing the soil 
against each plant firmly with the feet ; and if 
the operation can be done in the evening, and 
the plants copiously watered, no further at- 
tention will be required. 

Planting may be done any time from the 
15th of June to the first week in August. 
After planting, nothing is to be done but keep 
the crop clear of weeds until September ; by 
that time the handling process is to be begun, 
which consists in drawing the earth to each 



^vl-V-V.. ^ 















side of the Celery, and pressing it tightly to 
It, so as to give the leaves an upward growth 
preparatory to blanching for use. Supposing 
this handling process is done by the middle 
of September, by the first week in October it 
is ready for " banking up," which is done by 
digging the soil from between the rows, and 
laying or banking it up with the spade on 
each side of the row of Celery. After being 
60 banked up in October, it will be ready for 
use in three or four weeks, it wanted at that 
time. But if, as in most cases, it is needed 
for winter use only, and is to be put away in 
trenches, or in the cellar, as will hereafter be 
described, all that it requires is the operation 
of " handling." If the Celery is to be left in 
the open ground where it was grown, then a 
heavy bank must be made on each side of the 
rows, and as cold weather approaches — say in 
this latitude by the middle of November — an 
additional covering of at least a foot of leaves 
or litter must be closely packed against the 
bank, to protect it from frost ; but it is not 
safe to leave it in the banks where it grows, 
in any section of the country where the tem- 
perature gets lower than 10 degrees above 

Perhaps the best way to keep Celery for 
family use is in a cool cellar. This can be 
done by storing it in narrow boxes, of a depth 
a little less than the height of the Celery. A 
few inches of sand or soil are placed in the 
bottom of the box, and the Celery is packed 
upright, the roots being placed on the sand at 
the bottom; but no sand or anything else 
must be put between the stalks of the Celery, 
all that is needed being the damp sand on the 
bottom of the box, the meaning of which is, 
that before Celery will blanch or whiten, it 
must first si;art at the root ; hence the neces- 
sity of placing the roots on an inch or so of 
damp sand. Boxes thus packed and placed in 
a cool cellar in. November, will be blanched fit 
for use during January, February, and March, 
though for succession it will be better to put 
It in the boxes, from the open ground, at three 
different times, say October 25th, November 
10th, and November 20th. Or if the boxes are 
not at hand, the Celery may be put away on 
the floor of the cellar, in strips of eight or 
nine inches wide, divided by boards of a 
width equal to the height of the Celery. That 
is, if the Celery is two feet high, the boards 
separating it must be about the same height. 
The reason for dividing the Celery in these 
narrow strips by boards Is to prevent heating, 
which would take place if placed together in 
too thick masses. The dates above given 
apply, of course, to the latitude of New York; 
if further south, do the work later ; if further 
north, earlier. If one has no suitable cellar, 
the Celery can be very readily preserved in 
the manner followed by market gardeners. 
Thus, afterithas been " handled " orstraight- 
ened up, as before described, what is intended 
lor use by Christmas should be dug up about 
October 25th ; that to be used in January and 
February, by November lOtti ; and that for 
Marph use, by November 20th, which latter 
date is as late as it can be risked here. Al- 
though it will stand quite a sharp frost, the 
weather by the efid of November is often 
severe enough to kill it, or so freeze it in the 
ground that it cannot be dug up. The ground 
In which it is to be preserved for winter use 


must be as dry as possible, and so arranged 
that no water can remain in the trench. Dig 
a trench as narrow as possible (if it should 
not be wider than ten inches), and of a depth 
equal to the height of the Celery; that is, if 
the plant of Celery be eighteen inches high, 
the trench should be dug eighteen inches 
deep. The Celery is then packed exactly in 
the. manner described for storing in boxes 
to be placed in the cellar; that is, stand 
it as near upright as possible, and pack as 
closely together as can be done without bruis- 
ing it ; no soil or sand must be put between 
the stalks. As the weather becomes cold, the 
trenches should be gradually covered with 
leaves or litter to the thickness of six or eight 
inches, which will be enough to prevent severe 
freezing, and enable the roots to be taken out 
easily when wanted. Another method now 
practised by the market gardeners of New 
Jersey is as follows : before the approach of 
very cold weather — say the middle of Decem- 
ber — the Celery in the trenches is pressed 
somewhat closely together by passing a spade 
down deeply alongside of the trench on each 
side, but about three or four inches from the 
Celery. It is best done by two men, so that 
they press against each other, thus firming 
the top of the Celery in the trench until it is 
compact enough to sustain a weight of three 
or four inches of soil, which is taken from the 
sides of the trench and spread over the Celery. 
This earth covering keeps it rather fresher 
than the covering of Jitter, though on the ap- 
proach of cold weather the earth covering is 
not suflScient, and a covering of six or seven 
inches of leaves must yet be placed over the 
earth covering. 

From 200 to 500 roots are usually required 
for the use of an ordinary family. The va,ri- 
eties we' recommend are the Golden Dwa,rf, 
Sandringham, Golden Self-blanching, White 
Walnut, White Plume, and London Bed. 

The peculiarity of the variety known as 
"White Plume" is that natwrcSly its stalks 
and portions of its inner leaves are white, so 
that by closing the stalks, either by tying 
them up with matting, or by simply drawing 
the soil up against the plants and pressing it 
together with the hands, and again drawing 
up the soil with the hoe or plough, so as to 
keep the soil that has been squeezed against 
the Celery in its place, completes the work of 
blanching ; while it is well-known that in all 
other kinds of Celery, in addition to this, the 
slow and troublesome process of "banking" 
with the spade is a necessity. Another great 
merit of the "White Plume" Celery is that, 
it far exceeds any known vegetable as an 
ornament for the table, the inner leaves being 
disposed somewhat like an ostrich feather, as 
to suggest the name we have given it of 
" White Plume." It is well known that one- 
half the value of a Celery, particularly in our 
best hotels and restaurants, is held to be its 
value as a table ornament, and for this purpose 
this new variety is admirably fitted. In 
addition to this, its eating qualities are equal 
to the very best of the older sorts, being crisp, 
solid and having a peculiar nutty flavor, 
peculiar to the "Walnut" and some of the 
red sorts; altogether we cannot find words 
sufficient to describe its many merits as it 
deserves. The great bugbear in the cultiva- 
tion of Celery, by those engaged in growing it 




for market, has been the labor entailed in the 
"banking" to whiten or blanch it; and with 
the unskilled amateur growing a few hundred 
for private use, the troublesome prpcess of 
"banking" has usually been detriment suffi- 
cient to prevent him from trying. In the first 
week of October, of 1882, the Celery banks in 
Hudson Co., N. J., must have cost at least 
$10,000 in labor to erect ; but a rain storm of 
twenty-four hour's duration washed the banks 
down and d^istroyed the work of weeks. Had 
this new Celery been under process of blanch- 
ing, no high banks would have been needed 
and the storm would have been nearly harm- 
less, as the "wash" would have done but a 
trifling injury. But absolute perfection is 
hardly to be expected in anything, and the 
"White Plume" Celery has one drawback; 
the very qualities that make its culture so 
simple in the fall and early winter months, 
unfits it for a late Celery that will keep until 
spring, as its tenderness of structure causes 
it to rot quicker than the old green kinds ; 
but, to be used during the months of 
October, November, December and the early 
part of January, we advise it to be grown, if 
quality and the saving of labor is a consider- 
ation. It is equally as hardy against frost as 
the other kinds; in size and weight it is 
very similar to those popular kinds: the 
" Golden Dwarf " and "Half Dwarf "—in fact 
it originated in what is known as a "sport" 
from the " Half Dwarf ; " that is, a single plant 
showed the whiteness of stem and peculiar 
feathery leaves, which fortunately, permanent- 
ly reproduced itself from seed and gave us 
this entirely new type of Celery. Its culture 
is in all respects the same as that directed for 
the other sorts, with the exception that we are 
saved the trouble of high "banking." It is 
also we think, the earliest Celery in cultivation, 
and though fit to use long before other sorts, 
is found to keep nearly as well as the best of 
the older kinds, except perhaps the red which 
though comparatively new in cultivation in 
this country is fully equal if not superior in 
flavor and crispness to the white, and is de- 
cidedly more hardy and a much better keeper. 

A new variety known as the "Bouquet" 
Celery, with beautiful feathery foliage, intro- 
duced in 1888, is very useful for table 
decoration, as well as for all purposes for 
which Celery is used, as it is equally as good 
as any of the others. 

We are often asked for the cause of and 
remedy for Celery rusting or burning. The 
cause, we think, is the condition of the 
weather, which destroys the tender fibers, or 
what are called the working roots of the plant, 
for we find it is usually worse in seasons of 
extreme drought or moisture, particularly in 
warm weather. 

We know of no remedy, nor do we believe 
there is any. We may say, however that it is 
less liable to appear on new, fresh soils, that 
are free from acids or sourness, than on old 
soils that have been surfeited with manure, 
and have had no rest. 

Although, under ordinary conditions, if 
proper varieties of Celery are used, the crop 
should never be pithy or hollow, yet we have 
found that now and then even the most solid 
kinds of Celery have become more or less 
hollow when planted in soft, loose soils, such as 
reclaimed peat bogs, where the soil is mostly 


composed of leaf mould. In fact, on heavy or 
clayey soils the Celery will be specifically 
heavier than on lighter soils. 
CeUs. Cavities in the interior of a plant. 
The cells of tissue are those which form the 
interior of the elementary vesicles. Cells of 
the stem, air-cells, etc., are spaces organically 
formed by a peculiar building up of tissue for 
various vital purposes. 

Cellular System. That part of the plant which 
consists of cells or elementary vesicles. 

Celo'sia. From kelos, burnt; in reference to the 
burnt-like appearance of the flowers of some 
of the species. Nat. Ord. Amaranthacece. 

These are ornamental or curious plants. 
Only one or two species, however, are 
regarded as sufficiently ornamental to be 
included in ordinary collections. One of these, 
C cristata, the common Cockscomb, is almost 
universally grown. To be grown well, the 
seed should be sown in March, in the green- 
house or hot-bed. As soon as the young 
plants can be handled safely, they should be 
placed singly in small pots, fllled with the 
same kind of soil in which they are started. 
In these they should remain until symptoms 
of flowering appear, when they may be 
changed into larger pots or turned out into 
the border, where they should have a rich 
soil, such as loam and rotten manure, in 
equal parts; then, with a liberal supply of 
liquid manure, flower-heads of enormous size 
will be obtained. It is on this account that 
small pots are recommended for the young 
plants up till the appearance of the flowers ; 
for if the roots be allowed much space at this 
period, the stem naturally increases in height 
without a compensating increase in the size 
of the " comb." This species was introduced 
from Asia in 1570, and from it florists have 
produced a great number of varieties. The 
other species differ from C. criataia in having 
large plumes of inflorescence, which form 
pyramidal masses of color. Many sorts have 
a graceful pendant habit, which renders them 
objects of great beauty. When well grown 
they are excellent subjects for table decora- 
tion, and also for the green-house, or for cut- 
ting during the autumn and early winter 

Ce'lsia. A small genus of Scrophulariads, con- 
sisting of hardy or half-hardy annuals or 
biennials. C. cretica. a hardy biennial, is the 
best known and by far the showiest of the 
species. As cultivated, it grows three to 
four feet in height, with a long terminal spike 
of large yellow blossoms, each of which arises 
from the axil of a small leaf or bract. A 
native of Crete. Introduced in 1752. 

Ce'ltis. Nettle Tree, Hack-berry, Sugar-berry. 
An ancient name for the Lotus. The fruit of 
the European Nettle Tree is supposed to have 
been the food of the Lotophagi. Nat. Ord. 

A genus of hardy deciduous, low, or medi- 
um-sized trees, of an ornamental character. 
Several of the species and their varieties are 
common in the Southern and Western States, 
where they have received the various popular 
names above given. • 

Ce'uohnis. Bur Grass, Hedge-hog Grass. From 
KegclvroH, the Oriental name of the Millet. 
Nat. Ord. Oraminacem. 




C. tribuloides, the only species, is common 
on the sandy hills on the coast, or near salt 
■water ; also near the great northern lakes. It 
Is regarded as a troublesome weed, on account 
of its prickly burrs. 

Centa'urea. The classical name of a plant 
fabled by Ovid to have cured a wound in the 
foot of Chiron made by the arrow of Hercules. 
Nat. Ord. Compositm. 

An extensive genus of hardy herbaceous 
perennial and annual plants, varying in height 
from one to five feet, and of nearly every 
shade of color from yellow to red, blue, or 
deep purple. As they continue to bloom for a 
long time, they are well suited for the margin 
of borders in the flower garden, and some of 
the dwarf species may be even admitted into 
beds. The perennial kinds grow in almost any 
description of soil, nor are the annuals more 
particular ; they merely require to be sown 
where they are to remain, being afterward 
thinned to the proper distances from each 
other. Centaiirea cyanus, a native of Britain, 
is the Blue Bottle or Kagged Sailor of our gar- 
dens. G. candidisaima and C. gymnocarpa are 
natives of the Levant, and are most valuable 
border plants, their leaves being heavily 
clothed on both sides with a white, downy 
covering, which gives them a striking aspect. 
Propagated by seed sown in January or Feb- 
ruary in a hot-bed. 

Centauri'dium. Origin of name unknown. Nat. 
Ord. Compositm. 

The only species of this is C Drummondi, a 
Texas plant, free-flowering, and succeeding 
well in a light soil. Color bright orange. A 
hardy annual, growing freely from seed. Syn. 
Xanthiama Texana. 

Ce'ntaury. Erythrma centaurium. 

Centaury. American. A common name for the 
genus Sabatlia. 

Centrade'nia. From kentron, a spur, and aden, 
a gland ; having spur-like glandular append- 
ages to its anthers, Nat. Ord. MelastomacecB. 
Tropical undershrubs and herbaceous per- 
ennials, G. rosea and grandifolia, natives of 
Mexico, are moderate-sized, dwarf, spreading 
plants of easy growth, producing freely in 
spring close heads of pinkish- white flowers. 
They require the pame treatment as the 
Fuchsia, and are increased from cuttings. 

Centra'nthus. Bed Valerian. Prom kentron, a 
spur, and anihos, a flower; referring to the 
spur-like process at the base of the flower. 
Nat. Ord. VaUrianacecB. 

A small genus of hardy annuals from Gre- 
nada, and herbaceous perennials from the 
south of Europe. They are mostly of com- 
pact habit, free-flowering, and very pretty. 
The annuals are well adapted for rock-work 
or ribbon borders, and grow freely in common 
garden soil. Introduced in 1849. 

Centroolinium. A synonym for Onoserw, which 

Cectropo'gon. From kentron, a spur, smdpogon, 
a beard; in reference to the fringe which 
envelops the stigma. Nat. Ord. Lobeliacea. 

A small genus of very handsome herbaceous 
perennials from Surinam and Guatemala. One 
of the species bears edible fruit. G. tovariensia 
is a very beautiful plant for the green-house, 
having rosy-crimson flowers, similar in form 


to the Lobelias, but of larger size, produced 
singly on short axillary peduncles. The most 
popular member of this genus is a hybrid 
between G. fasluoaua and Syphocampylos beta- 
Imfolius, and known as G. Lucyanvs. It has 
pretty rosy-carmine, tubular flowers, and 
from its flowering naturally during the dead 
of winter it is a most desirable plant. Eaised 
by M. Desponds, of Marseilles, in 1856. They 
are increased by division or from seed. 

Centrose'ma. Spurred Butterfly Pea. A genus 
of Leguminosm, consisting of hardy and green- 
house twining perennial plants, with one 
exception confined almost exclusively to South 
America, and mostly to Brazil. The leaves 
are made up of three leaflets, rarely five or 
seven, the leaflets opposite and the terminal 
one rather distant. Some of the species pro- 
duce large and elegant pea-like flowers, singly 
or in axillary racemes ; colors, white, violet, 
rose or blue. G. Virginianum is widely distrib- 
uted, the species being common in dry, 
sandy woods from Maryland southward, also 
in Brazil and West Africa. All the species are 
increased readily from seed. Included by 
many botanists with Kennedya. 

Centroste'mma. A genus of tropical climbing 
shrubs, closely allied to Hoya. 

Century-plant. See Agave Americana. 

Cephae'Iis. From kephale, a head ; in reference 
to the arrangement of the flowers. Nat. Ord. 

Shrubs, rarely perennial herbs, mostly na- 
tives of Tropical America. C. Ipecacuanha pro- 
ducing the true Ipecacuanha belongs to this 
genus, and is a native of Brazil. It is a most 
ornamental and deciduous shrub, the root 
of which has been long used in medicine. It 
is in cultivation, and was introduced in 1839. 

Cephala'nthus. Button Bush. From kephale, 
a head, and anthos, a flower ; The flowers are 
disposed in globular heads. Nat. Ord. Rubi- 

A small genus of hardy deciduous shrubs 
confined to North America, and common in 
marshy places from the Atlantic to the 
Pacific coasts, and from Maine to Florida. 
G. occidentalis, is a handsome bushy shrub, 
bearing numerous creamy white flowers, in 
round heads. 

Cephalota'xns. A small genus of Japanese 
Coniferee, resembling the Yew in general ap- 
pearance. G. Fortunei, the best known 
species, is a tree of medium size, rounded 
form, dark green foliage, and long, slender, 
drooping branches. Propagated by seeds or 

Cephalo'tus. New Holland Pitcher Plant. 
From kephaloiea, headed ; the filaments of its 
stamens are capitate. Nat. Ord. Saxifraga- 

C. follicularis, the only species, is a native 
of swampy places in King George's Sound. It 
has a very short or contracted stem, with 
spoon-shaped stalked leaves, among which 
are mingled small pitcher-like bodies, placed 
on short, stout stalks, and closed at the top 
with lid i like the true Pitcher Plants (Nepen- 
thes). These pitchers are of a green color, 
spotted with yellow or brown, and provided 
with hairs. The flowers are white, small, and 
produced on a long spike. Propagated by 
offsets. Introduced in 1822. 




Ceraceous. Wax-like. 

Cera'stium. Mouse-ear Chickweed. From 
keras, a horn ; because many of the species 
have capsules like an ox's horn. Nat. Ord. 

Of this somewhat extensive genus only a 
few of the species are worthy of cultivation, 
but none of the annuals. Some of the hardy 
trailing species are quite ornamental when 
used for edgings or rock- work. C. tomentosum 
has greyish-white foliage, and is largely em- 
ployed as an edging to summer flower beds, 
and as a ground-work in carpet bedding. Pro- 
pagated by division of the roots or by seeds. 

Cera'sus. Cherry. From Cerasus, a town of 
Pontus, in Asia, whence the Cherry was 
brought to Rome by Lucullus. Nat. Ord. 

A genus of hardy deciduous trees and 
shrubs, the species and varieties Including 
some of our most ornamental trees for the 
lawn, as well as highly prized fruit trees for 
the orchard. The numerous varieties of cul- 
tivated Cherries are supposed to have origin- 
ated from C. amv/m, and C. vulgaris. Those 
belonging to C. avium are best represented by 
the Bigarreau and Black Heart varieties; 
those of O. vulgaris by .the May Duke and 
Morello. Both of these species appear to be 
natives of Europe, although Pliny states that 
there were no Cherries in Italy before the 
victory obtained over Mithridates by Lucul- 
lus, who was, according to the above author, 
the first who brought them to Rome from 
Cerosante about sixty-eight years before the 
Christian era. It is also stated by the same 
authority, that " in less than 120 yea;?s after, 
other lands had Cherries, even as far as 
Britain beyond the ocean." Theophrastus, 
300 years B. C, mentions the Cherry as being 
common In Greece, from which some writers 
contend that the name of the city was de- 
rived from the tree, instead of the tree from 
the town or citj-. The Cherry-tree begins to 
bear usually in two or three years after plant- 
ing trees of the size sold at the nurseries, 
and continues to enlarge in growth and pro- 
ductiveness annually, until it often attains a 
larger size than most of our fruit-trees. It 
grows freely in almost any soil that is free 
from moisture, preferring, however, like most 
other fruits, a deep loamy soil. The tree may 
be trained as desired, either in pyramidal 
form or with a round top, by pruning and 
directing the shoots. They are now worked 
extensively on the Mahaleb stock. Many 
varieties being found to be more hardy on it, 
and it is adapted to a greater variety of soil. 
The following are good varieties (for descrip- 
tion see nursery catalogues) : Black Tartarian, 
Coe's Transparent, Downer's Late, May Duke, 
Kirtiand's Mary, Bockport, Yellow Spanish, 
Late Duke, and Morello. The well-known Wild 
Cherry of our woods is C. aerotina. The 
common double Cherry and the French 
double Cherry deserve a place in every 
garden ; and equally so do the Chinese Cherry, 
C pseudo-cerasua ; the All-Saints' Cherry, O. 
semperflorens ; the Bird Cherry, O. padus; 
and the Virginian Bird or Choke Cherry, O. 

Cerato'nia. Carob Tree. From keras, a horn ; 
in reference to the shape of the seed-pod. 

. Nat. Ord. Leguvmmosoe. 


0. siliqua, the only species. Is a tree of 
medium size, growing extensively in the south 
of Europe, particularly in some of the Spanish • 
provinces, and produces a fruit known as the 
Algoroba or Carob Bean, which is an import- 
ant article of commerce. It is chiefly used 
for the feeding of cattle, but is largely used 
by the poor for food when there is a scarcity 
of grain. This is generally considered the 
Locust Tree of Scripture ; and in Spain, where 
the seeds are eaten. It is called St. John's 
Bread. Under this name the pods are often 
sold on the streets in New York. It is now 
generally supposed that the shells of the 
Carob pod were the husks that the prodigal 
son desired to partake of with the swine. 

Cerato'pteris. A peculiar genus of tropical 
aquatic Ferns, found growing in quiet waters. 
The fronds are much divided, membranaceous, 
and succulent, the sterile ones being more 
foliaceous and less divided, with evident 
reticulated veins. C. thalictroidea is the only 
species, and when well grown in water, forms 
a handsome plant and is not inaptly called the 
Floating Stag's-horn Fern. 

Ceratoste'ma. From keras, a horn, and sterna, 
a stamen ; the anthers are spurred. Niit. Ord. 

A small genus of very pretty green-house 
evergreen shrubs, natives of Peru. The 
flowers are tubular, of orange, crimson, or 
scarlet color, produced in terminal clusters 
in May. Propagated by cuttings. Introduced 
in 18i6. 

Ceratosti'gma plumbaginoidea. This is now 
given as the correct name of Valoradia pTm/m,- 
baginoides, better known in cultivation as 
Plwmbago Larpentm. 

Ceratoza'mia. A genus of Cycadaceai, deriving 
its name from the presence of two horns on 
the scales of its Zamia-like fruit. C.fusco- 
viridis is a magnificent plant of recent intro- 
duction from Mexico. It is a tree of moderate 
size, with leaves from three to four feet long, 
broadly pinnate, and of a fine arching habit. 
"The young leaves are of a rich, bronzy, choco- 
late color, gradually changing to olive green, 
and ultimately developing into deep green. 
Young plants are obtained by suckers or 
from seed. 

Cercidiphy'llum Japonioum. A late and valu- 
able introduction from Japan. The leaves 
are medium sized, heart-shaped and purple 
when young, like those of the Judas Tree. 
The flowers are inconspicuous. The shape of 
the tree is pyramidal, bark smooth and as a 
whole, is a stately and beautiful object. 

Ce'rcis. Judas Tree. From kerkis, a shuttle- 
cock ; the name given by Theophrastus. Nat. 
Ord. Leguminosm. 

A genus of handsome, low-growing trees, 
with singular leaves and very showy flowers. 
The flowers have an agreeable acid taste, and 
are frequently used by the French in salads, or 
made into fritters with batter, and the flower 
buds are pickled in vinegar. It is an orna- 
meptaltree in spring as the flowers completely 
clothe the branches and even the upper part 
of the trunk with purple before the leaves 
appear. C. sUiquastrwm is a native of the 
south of Europe, and of which Gerarde, in com- 
pliance with the popular notions of his time, 
says : " This is the tree whereon Judas did 




hang himself ; and not upon the Elder Tree, 
as it is said." (Herbal, 1596.) C. Canadenaia, 
a native species, is common on the banks of 
streams from Canada to Louisiana. 0. Japon- 
ica, from Japan, is a very dwarf tree or shrub, 
with bright rosy-pink flowers, much larger 
than C. Canadensis, and exceedingly beautiful 
In early spring. 

Ce'reus. Torch Thistle. From cereus, waxy; 
referring to the shoots of some of the species 
being easily bent. Nat. Ord. Cactaceos. 

An extensive genus, the species of which 
are remarkable for their singularity of form, 
and for the beauty of their flowers. Few 
classes present greater contrasts. Some are 
round, some angular, some smooth, and 
others fluted. Some are climbers or creepers, 
while others grow like huge trees, attaining a 
height of sixty feet, with a diameter of two or 
three feet. The night-blooming section is 
very interesting and beautiful, C. grahdiflorus, 
the type, usually requires age to flower well. 
A strong plant will frequently have six to ten 
exceedingly large and beautiful sweet-scented 
flowers open in an evening. They are very 
transient, lasting only a few hours, neither do 
they open again when once closed. They 
begin to open between six and eight o'clock in 
the' evening, .are fully expanded by eleven, 
and by three or four in the morning they are 
closed; but during their short continu- 
ance there Is scarcely any flower of greater 
beauty, or that makes a more magniflcent 
appearance. The flowers of the night-bloom- 
ing section vary in size from six to fourteen 
inches in diameter, according to the species, 
C. MacDonaldi, being the largest, and some- 
times measuring fourteen to sixteen inches. 
The sepals in some are brown, in others 
brownish-yellow, and in others again pinkish- 
brown. The petals in some are pale, yellow- 
ish-white, and in others pure white. The 
stamen are usually a bright yellow. Some 
' are sweet-scented, others the reverse, while 
some are odorless, but all are beautiful. The 
flowers of the day-blooming section are 
usually small, but very bright and pretty. 
For other night-blooming kinds, see Phyllo- 

Ceriferous. Bearing, or producing wax. 

Ceri'nthe. Honeywort. From keros, wax, and 
amthos, a flower; referring to its being a 
favorite flower with bees. Nat. Ord. Boragin- 

A small geiius of hardy annuals, common in 
Central Europe. One species, a native of the 
south of France, is a hardy perennial. The 
annuals have long been cultivated in gardens, 
under the name of Honeywort. They have 
tubular, yellow flowers', in one-sided droop- 
ing racemes. They sow themselves when 
once planted, and require but little care. 

Cemuous. Inclining a little from the per- 
pendicular; generally applied to drooping 

Cerope'gia. A genus of Asclepediacea, contain- 
ing over flfty species, usually twining, some- 
times erect perennial plants, often with 
tuberous roots ; remarkable for the peculiar 
shape and marking of the flowers. C. ekgans, 
Jias been long in cultivation, but is surpassed 
by C OardmeHi, with creamy white and purple 
flowers, and C. Thwaiteaii, with yellow flowers 


beautifully sprinkled with dark blood-red 
spots. The two latter are comparatively late 
introductions from Ceylon, and are elegant 
green-house twiners. 
Cero'xylon. Wax Palm. From keroa, wax, and 
xylon, wood ; the trunk being coated with wax. 
Nat. Ord. Palmacem. 

A small genus of Palms, consisting of three 
species, two of which are handsome trees of 
great size. C. andicola, the Wax Palm of 
New Grenada, was discovered by the cele- 
brated traveler, Humboldt, who describes the 
tree as attaining the prodigious height of 
160 feet, while it differs from other species of 
Palms in flourishing under a much colder 
temperature, it being found on elevated moun- 
tains, extending as high as the lower limit of 
perpetual snow. Its tall trunk is covered 
with a thiii coating of a whitish waxy sub- 
stance, giving it a marbled appearance. This 
substance, which forms an article of com- 
merce, consists of two parts resin and one of 
wax and is obtained by scraping the trunk. It 
is mixed with tallow and made into candles, 
which are of superior quality. The trunk 
yields a valuable timber, used for building 
purposes, and the leaves are used for thatch- 
ing roofs. Propagated from seed. 
Ce'strum. From Keatron, an ancient Greek 
name. Nat. Ord. SolanacecB. 

Green-house shrubs, natives of the East 
Indies and South America. C. Parqui,' syn. 
G. noctvmwm, frequently called the Night- 
Blooming Jasmine, is a much esteemed 
species, which flowers abundantly all sum- 
mer, if planted in the open air in May, and 
fills the whole garden with its fragrance at 
night, though perfectly inodorous during the 
day. It should be taken up in autumn, and it 
kept in a box or pot, rather dry, may be easily 
preserved in a warm cellar until spring, C. 
aurantiacum, with large panicles of orange- 
colored flowers, is an excellent plant for early 
winter green-house decoration. Some au- 
thors include Habrothamnua under this genus. 
Ce'teraoh. Prom Chetherak, the Arabic name. 
Nat. Ord. PolypodiacecB. 

A small genus of Ferns, somewhat resem- 
bling the Aapkniuma. C. offidnarum, the 
Scale Fern, is an interesting species, suitable 
for rock- work, but impatient of much water, 
as are all of the species. Both the hardy and 
green-house species are valuable in collec- 
tions. They are natives of Great Britain and 
the Canary Islands. 

Chceno'stoma. A considerable genus of herbs 
and under-shrubs, belonging to Scrophula- 
riacecB, and natives of South Africa. C. hiapida 
is a dwarf shrubby species with white axillary 
flowers produced in great abundance all the 
season. Propagated by seeds or cuttings. 

Chaerophy'llum Bulbosum. Bulbous rooted 
Chervil. See Anthriaeus. 

Chserophy'llum Sativum. A synonym of An- 
thriaeus cerefoliwm (Chervil). 

Chain Fern. See Woodwardia. 

Chamaeba'tia. From ehamai, on the ground, 
dwarf, and hatoa, a bramble ; referring to its 
low growth and bramble-like flowers. Nat. 
Ord. RoaaceoB. 

G. folioaa, the only representative of this 
genus, is a beautiful Californian shrub, about 
three feet high. The leaves are very finely 




divided, resembling those of the Millfoil 
(Achillea), but of a much harsher texture, 
and having a pleasant balsamic odor. The 
flowers are white, in terminal cymes, very 
much like those of the Hawthorn. 
Chamsecla'don. From chamai, dwarf, and kladon, 
a branch ; in allusion to the habit of the species. 
Nat. Ord. Aroidece. 

A genus of stove-house plants, natives of 
tropical Asia, and the Malayan Archipelago. 
C. metallicum, the only species yet in cultiva- 
tion is a grand arad, of close tufted growth, 
with ovate leaves of a rich, deep bronzy-green 
color. Introduced from Borneo in 1884. 

Chamsecy'paris. From chamai, dwarf, and 
Icuparissos, Cypress ; The Bastard, or Dwarf 
Cypress. White Cedars. Nat. Ord. Coniferm. 
A genus ranking extremely close to Cu- 
pressus, the principal distinction between the 
two, being the more numerous ovules beneath 
the fei-tUe scales of the latter. Like most of 
the other genera belonging to this order this 
one is overloaded with synonyms, scarcely 
any two authorities agreeing as to the correct 
generic name. Many species of Cupressus, 
and Retinospora, are placed under this genus 
by some botanists. 

Chamaedo'rea. From chamai, dwarf, and dorea, 
a gift; referring to the nuts of this Palm being 
easily reached. Nat. Ord. PalmaceoB. 

A genus of Palms containing about forty 
species, common in Mexico and South 
America. C. Emesti-Augusti is a small species, 
a native of New Grenada. It grows from 
four to five feet high, with wedge-shaped 
leaves about two feet long. The female 
flower spikes of this species, which are very 
beautiful, are about a foot long, cylindrical, 
and undivided. At first they are of a dark 
green color, studded with red, bead-like 
flowers. After these fall away, the spike be- 
comes a bright coral- red color. Several of the 
species are interesting green-house plants, 
and are readily grown from seed. 

Chamaeli'rlum. Devils-bit. C. lutewm, the only 
species, is a Liliaceous plant, nearly allied to. 
Heloniaa, and is not uncommon in low grounds 
from western New York to Illinois. It is a 
smooth herb with a bitter, thick, and ab- 
ruptly-tuberous root-stock, and a tall, erect 
stem, terminated by a long spiked raceme of 
small white bractless flowers. Known popu- 
larly as Blazing Star. 

Chamsepe'uce. From chamai, dwarf, andpeuke, 
a pine ; resemblance. Nat. Ord. Compositce. 

A genus of uninteresting plants, annuals, 
perennials, and biennials, common through - 
out Europe. Of the entire genus, the only 
two deserving attention are O. Casabonce, and 
C. diacantha. Both of these are effective for 
sub-tropical gardening, growing in compact 
rosette-like patches and not producing flower 
stems until the second year. 

Chamae'rops. From chamai, dwarf, and rhops, 
a twig ; most of the species being dwarf. Nat. 
Ord. PaVnmcexB. 

A genus of low-growing Palms, including 
several species, some growing as far north as 
the Carolinas. The Palmetto State furnishes 
C. Palmetto, hence the name. Many of the 
species are half-hardy, and all make beautiful 
plants for lawn decoration. They make a 
rapid growth in summer if given a rich loam. 


and liberal applications of liquid manure. 
They are increased by seed. 

Chamisso'a. A genus of AmaramthaceiE, now 
included in Achyranthes, which see. 

Chamomile. The popular name of Anthemia 

Chara'ceee. A small natural order of Acrogens, 
consisting ot two, or at most three, genera. 
The species are all aquatic, and are found in 
almost all parts of the world, but they are 
most common in temperate countries. , The 
species are either monceoious or dicecious, the 
two kinds of fruit being often seated close to 
each other. 

Cha'ries Heterophylla. Given by some authors 
as the correct name of Kaulfusaia amsUoides. 

Charlock. The common name of Sinapia arvenv- 
sis, a well-known weed. 

Cheat, or Chess. See Bromua. 

Cheokerberry. See GauUheria. 

Cbeila'nthes. Lip Fern. From cheilos, a lip, 
and anthos, a flower ; in reference to the form 
of the indusium. Nat. Ord. Polypodiaeem. 

An extensive genus of Ferns, found scat- 
tered over nearly all parts of the world. There 
are several species found in most parts of the 
United States. Some of the tropical species 
are exceedingly pretty, among which C. fari- 

^ 7M8a, a native of the Island of Luzon, has 

\' ivory-black stems, the fronds being dark green 
above, and of a pure white beneath, caused by 
a powdery substance, which has given this 
species the popular name of Silver Fern. 
Many other species are in cultivation ; C. hirta, 
lanuginosa, viscosa, Ellisii, and many others 
being particularly desirable. They are prop- 
agated from spores, or by division of the 
roots when just commencing to grow. 

Cheira'uthus. Wallflower. From cheir, the 
hand, and anthos, a flower ; in reference to the 
custom of carrying the Wallflower in the hand 
for a nosegay. Nat. Ord. Crudferce. 

Well-known herbaceous plants, much prized 
for the delightful odor of their flowers, which 
are produced from April to July. C. Cheiri, 
the common Wallflower, is generally grown, 
and is a great favorite in English gardens, 
where it flowers freely. Our climate does not 
suit it so well as that of England, as it delights 
in a moist atmosphere. The fine double 
varieties are increased by cuttings, and should 
be grown in a cool house, in a strong, rich 
loam. Most of the species are from southern 
Europe, and have been grown for centuries. 
Chelido'nium. Celandine, Swallow-wort. From 
Chelidon, a swallow ; it is said that the plant 
flowers at the time of the arrival ot the swal- 
lows, and dries their departure. Nat. 
Ord. Papaveracew. 

C. majvis, the only species, is a perennial 
herb, abounding in an acrid, saffron-colored 
juice. It is a common plant in waste places. 
Chelo'ne. Shell-flower. From chdone, a tor- 
toise ; the back of the helmet of the flower 
being fancifully compared to a tortoise. Nat. 
Ord. ScrophularioiCem. 

Most of the genus are hardy herbaceous 
perennial plants, common in moist places 
westward. The flowers are white, rose-color, 
or purple, their singular beauty entitling 
them to a place in every collection. They 
succeed well in ordinary garden soil, and are 




propagated by division of the roots and by- 

Chenopodia'ceae. A natural order of herbs or 
under-shrubs, generally inconspicuous plants, 
but including some valuable species used as 
pot-herbs. Spinach, Spinada oleracea, and 
Beet, Beta vulgaris, are examples. There are 
seventy-four known genera, and over 500 
species in this order. 

Chenopodium. From chen, a goose, and pous, 
a foot ; in allusion to the shape of the leaves. 
Nat. Ord. GhenopodiacecB. An extensive genus, 
many of the species being troublesome weeds, 
the more common being 0. album, the Pig- 
weed ; C. glaucum. Goose-foot ; and C. Ambro- 
soidea, Mexican Tea. The stems of che Mercury 
Goose-foot or Good King Henry, are still used 
in some parts of England as a substitute for 
Asparagus, while the leaves are. used while 
young instead of Spinach. 

Cherimoyer. See Anona Cherimolia. 

Cherokee Rose. See Rosa laevigata. 

Cherry. See Ceraaus. 
Barbadoes. Malphigia glabra. 
Bird. Cerasvs padus. 
Choke. CerosMS Virginiana. 
Cornelian. Cornus maa. 
Laurel. Pninus Lauroceraaus. 
Plum. Prunua cerasifera. 
"Winter. Phyaalis Alkekengi. 

Cherry-Pepper. Capaicwm cerasiforme. 

Chervil. See Anthriscua. 

Chervil. Tuberous rooted, or Turnip. Chmro- 
phyllum bulboaum. 

Chess. See Bromus. 

Chestnut. The common name for Caatcmea 
Earth. Bunium flexuosum and Conopodium 

Horse. JEsculiia Hippocaatanum. 
Spanish or Sweet. Castanea vesca. 
Water. Trapa nutans. 

Chestnut-oak. Quercas Prinua, and Q. Caatcmea. 

Chick Pea. See Cicer. 

Chick Weed. Stellaria media. 
Mouse-ear. Cerastium vulgatwm. 
Water. Mcmtia fontana. 

Chicory. See Cichorium, Intybus. 

Chili Pepper. A common name for Capaieum 

Chilo'psis. From cheiloa, a lip, and opsis, like ; 
referring to the irregular lobes of the corolla. 
Nat. Ord. Bignoniaoem. 

C. linearis, the only species, is a native of 
Mexico ; it is an erect branching shrub, with 
long alternate leaves, producing beautiful 
rose-colored flowers in terminal dense spicate 
racemes. It is but rarely met in green-house 
collections. It was introduced in 1825, and is 
propagated by cuttings. 

Chinia'phila. From cheima, winter, and phileo, 
to love ; these little plants remaining green 
all winter. Nat. Ord. Ericacem. 

A small genus of pretty little native, hardy, 
trailing, evergreen plants, commonly known 
as Pipaisaewa and Spotted Wintergreen, the 
latter name being applied to C. maculaia, one 
of our most beautiful native plants with varie- 
gated foliage. /It is "common in dry woods 


throughout the Middle States, but is very diffi- 
cult of cultivation in the garden. 

Chimona'nthus. Japan Allspice. From cfteimore, 
winter, and anthoa, a flower ; referring to the 
time of flowering. Nat. Ord. Calycanthacem. 

C. fragrana, the only species is a native of 
Japan, and is remarkable for the fragrance of 
its flowers, which appear in early spring, be- 
fore the leaves begin to unfold. It is a slen- 
der, much branched shrub, with flowers 
about an inch in diameter, made up of a large 
number of pale yellow waxy petals, arranged 
in several rows, either yellowish-red or choco- 
late-colored, and which last for a long time. 
In this latitude it requires a sheltered position. 

China Aster. See Calliatephus. 

Chinese Bell-flower. See Abutilon. 

Chinese G-rass-cloth Plant. See Boehmeria. 

Chinese Hawthorn. See JPlwtina. 

Chinese Primrose. See Primula. 

Chinese Rose. Hibiacua roaa-ainenais. 

Chinese Sugar-cane. See Sorghum. 

Chi'uquapin. Caatanea pwmila, the most palat- 
able of all the Chestnut family ; indigenous 
to the Middle Atlantic States. 
Water. See Nelwmbium luteum. 

Chiona'nthus. Fringe Tree. From chion, snow, 
and amthoa, a flower ; in reference to its long 
racemes of pure white flowers. Nat. Ord. 

A genus of hardy deciduous shrubs. O. 
Virginica, one of the best known, and com- 
monly grown under the popular name of 
Fringe Tree, is a very ornamental shrub of 
easy cultivation, particularly adapted for the 
lawn, not only for its showy flowers in spring, 
but for its deep green glossy foliage, which, 
under favorable circumstances, will equal in 
size that of the Magnolia grandiflora, retain- 
ing its freshness until late in the autumn. 
This species is a native of Pennsylvania and 
southward, and is readily propagated from 
seeds or cuttings. It succeeds best when 
grafted on the common ash, being much more 
vigorous, and will attain a height of twenty- 
five feet. 

Chio'nodo'za. Glory of the Snow. From chkm, 
snow, and doxa, glory ; in reference to the 
plants flowering among the melting snows of 
their native habitats. A small genus of hardy 
LUiaceoB. C. LucillcB, which has lately been 
reintroduced, is praised by all as one of the 
most exquisite of spring flowering plants. It 
is also valuable for winter blooming in the 
house and for cut flowers. Native of Asia 
Minor and Crete. 

Chionogra'phis. From chion, snow, and graphia, 
a pencil ; the flower spike being like a brush 
of snow. Nat. Ord. LiliacecB. 

A very ornamental herbaceous perennial, 
with pure white flowers. Introduced from 
Japan, in 1880. It requires a slight protec- 
tion outside in winter, and is propagated by 
seeds or divisions of the roots. 

Chiri'ta. A small genus of Geaneracem, natives 
of tropical Asia, The flowers of O. lilacina 
are very beautiful and are produced in great 
abundance; color pale blue with a white 
throat, ornamented with a large yellow blotch 
at the base. O. ainenaia is also a very flne 
species. Culture similar to Gloxinia. 




Chiro'nia. A classical name, after Chiron, one 
of the Centaurs, fabled to be the father of 
medicine. Nat. Ord. GentianaoRm. 

Green-house plants of short duration, and, 
consequently, requiring to be frequently 
raised from cuttings, which strike freely in 
sand. C. floribwnda, with rose-colored flowers, 
and its variety, with white flowers, are the 
most desirable, and, with other species, 
are frequently raised from Cape seeds, the 
plants being all indigenous to the Cape of 
Good Hope. Introduced in 1756. 

Chives. The popular name of Alliwm Schmno- 
prasum, the smallest of the Onion family, 
though one of the finest flavored. It is a 
-hardy herbaceous perennial, native of Siberia, 
and of the easiest culture, growing freely in 
almost any soil or situation. Propagated by 
division, either in spring or autumn. 

Chlida'nthus. From chlideios, delicate, and 
anthos, a flower ; alluding to the delicate tex- 
ture of the flowers. Nat. Ord. Amaryllidacem. 
C. fragrana, the only species, a pretty, 
bulbous-rooted plant, which may be grown in 
the flower garden during the summer, when 
its bright yellow flowers are highly interest- 
ing. In winter it requires the same treatment 
as the Gladiolus. It is propagated freely by 
offsets, which should all be removed before 
planting, to enable the bulb to flower well. 
Introduced from Buenos Ayres in 1820. 

Chlo'iis. From chloroa, green ; alluding to the 
color of the herbage. Nat. Ord. Oraminac&B. 
A very extensive genus of grasses, including 
a few desirable species for the green-house. 
Among them is O. radiata, a pretty little 
annual species, with beautiful one-sided spikes 
of silky flowers, wnich give it a very curious 
appearance. There are several other species 
under cultivation, all useful for basket and 
similar work. 

CUoro'galum. Soap-plant. From chloroa, 
green, and gaUt, milk ; referring to their green 
juice. Nat. Ord. lAliacem. , 

A genus of distinct, hardy bulbs, containing 
three species, all natives of California. C. 
pomeridianum has branched, panicled stems, 
with white, purplish-veined flowers, opening 
only after mid-day, whence its specific name, 
meaning " afternoon." The bulbs are some- 
times used in California as a substitute for 
soap. Syns. Phalangium pomeridianum, and 
Omithogalwm, divaricatum. 

Cbloro'phora. From chloroa, greenish, and 
phoreo. to bear; alluding to the economic 
properties of C. tincloria. Nat. Ord. Urti- 

A small genus of milky trees, consisting of 
two ■species, one native of tropical Asia, and 
the other of tropical Africa. C. tinctoria, the 
Fustic Tree, yields yellow, brown, olive, and 
green dyes. Syn. Madura tincloria. 

Clilo'rosis. A disease to which plants are sub- 
ject, and often admitting no cure. It consists 
in a pallid condition of the plant, in which the 
tissues are weak and unable to contend against 
severe changes, and the cells are more or less 
destitute of chlorophyl. It is distinct from 
blanching, as it is also from the white color 
in ornamental-leaved plants, of which, how- 
ever, it may be a modification. Plants may 
be affected by chlorosis as soon as the cotyl- 
edons make their appearance. The best cul- 


ture will not always restore such plants to 
health. The most promising remedy is to 
water them with a very weak solution of sul- 
phate of iron. An example of this condition 
is to be found in cases where the variegated 
leaves of Pelargoniums, etc., run to pure 
white without any green. In all such cases 
death is certain to ensue, unless the leaves 
again become more or less green. 

Chloro'xylon. Satin-wood. From chloroa, 
greenish-yellow, and xylon, wood. Nat. Ord. 

C. Sviietenia, the Satin-wood tree of the East 
Indies, attains a large size, and is a valuable 
timber tree. The wood is very handsome, 
light-colored, with a satin-like lustre, and 
sometimes beautifully mottled or curled in 
the grain, bearing some resemblance to box- 
wood, but rather deeper in color. The best 
kind of satin-wood, however, comes from the 
West Indies, and is the produce of a different 
tree, of which we have no description. 

Chocolate. See Theobroma. 

Choi'sya. Named after M. Choiay, a botanist 
of Geneva. Nat. Ord. Rutaoem. 

O. temata, the only species, is a handsome 
white-fiowered, sweet-scented shrub, growing 
about six feet high, quite hardy in the Southern 
States. It is a native of Mexico, an evergreen, 
and will succeed well with ordinary green- 
house treatment. It is increased by cuttings. 
Introduced in 1825. 

Choke-Berry. The popular name of the fruit 
of the Pyrus arbutifolia, a common shrub from 
two to ten feet high, found in damp thickets. 

Choke Cherry. See Gerasua Virginiana. 

Choko. See Sechivm,. 

Chondri'lla. From chondroa, a lump ; the plants 
bear lumps of gummy matter on the stems. 
Nat. Ord. Compoaitm. 

A genus of mostly uninteresting plants al- 
lied to Ladiica (Lettuce). G.jwncea, a native 
of southern Europe, has escaped from the 
garden and become naturalized in some of the 
Southern States. It is a straggling, many- 
branched plant, and almost destitute of leaves 
when in fiower. There are more than twenty 
species included in this genus, mostly weedy 

Chore'tis. From choroa, to unite in chorus ; 
this genus being an intermediate link between 
Hymenocallia and lamene. Nat. Ord. AmarylU- 

An interesting genus of half-hardy bulbs 
from Texas and Mexico, requiring a rest from 
November until May. They grow freely in a 
light, sandy soil in the open border, or they 
may be grown in pots in the green-house, and 
for this purpose they should be started in 
March in a cool house, heat and water to be 
increased with their growth. The flowers are 
very beautiful, pure white, with a green eye 
and a greenish stripe. Propagated by division 
of the bulbs. 

Chori'zema. Nat. Ord. Leguminosm. 

This interesting green-house plant was first 
discovered in Western Australia by Labillar- 
diere. This botanist was attached to the ex- 
pedition sent by the French Government in 
search of the lost La Perouse, and on one of 
his excursions suffered much, with his party, 
for the want of watet. At last they met with 












springs that furnished an ample supply, near 
■which he found this plant, which he named 
Chorizema, from chores, a dance, and eema, a 
drink ; in allusion to the joyful feelings of the 
party on meeting with a supply of water. Of 
this really beautiful genus there are many 
species; the one most commonly met is O. 
varium, a rapid-growing and free-flowering 
kind. The flowers are of a bright orange red 
color, in long terminal racemes, flowering 
through the winter months. It is readily 
propagated by cuttings, which should be 
taken in February, and grown in small pots 
Until the weather is suitable for planting out, 
as they should be grown in the border during 
summer. Before there is danger from frost, 
take up and pot in five-inch pots, in good rich 
loam and sand. Cut well back, and give it a 
warm, sunny situation, with liberal watering 
as soon as the new growth commences. It 
will begin to bloom in eight to ten weeks. 

Christmas Rose. Helleboms niger. 

Christopher Herb. Actcea^icata and Osmwnda 

Christ's Thorn. CratoBgus Pyraca/ntha and 
Paliurua aeuleaiua. 

Chrysa'nthemum. From chrysos, gold, and 
anthos, a flower ; alluding to the color of some 
of the flowers being yellow. Nat. Ord. 

A large and important genus of herbaceous 
or slightly shrubby plants, of which the Ox- 
eye Daisy of our fields is a well known repre- 
sentative. Many species have been introduced 
from various countries of which C, grandi- 
Jlorum from the Canary Islands, and C. pin- 
natifidum from Madiera, are of a shrubby 
habit, and flower during a large portion of the 
year. C. frutescena is " the Marguerite " or 
Paris Daisy of the florists, the flowers of 
which and others of a similar description are 
largely used in floral decorations. The variety 
"Etoile d' Or," and the double yellow sort 
called the '-Golden Marguerite," are also 
very popular and are good subjects for the 
flower border in summer. O. coronarium from 
the Levant and C. carinatwm called also C. 
tricolor, from Barbary, and their many va- 
rieties, are very ornamental border annuals. 
The species, however, which holds so high a 
rank, and with reason, among florists' flowers 
is C. ainense the Chinese Chryaanthemiwm, the 
value of which as an ornament of the flower- 
garden, the green-house or conservatory in 
the autumnal months, is well known and duly 
appreciated. Their cultivation is exceedingly 

If wanted to flower only in the open ground, 
all that is necessary is to plant them in the 
open border in any good ground, well enriched 
with manure. If possible, plant them in a warm 
sheltered spot, particularly in any section 
north of Baltimore, as, being the latest of all 
flowers of autumn, a better development will 
be had if planted in a place sheltered by a 
fence, hill or shrubbery. As they are usually 
grown Inpots, they can be planted out any time 
from April to July, though preference may be 
given to May. They form an average width 
■by October of two feet in diameter, if the tops 
are pinched off so as to make them bushy ; 
they should be set out at about two feet apart 
each way. The "topping" or "pinching" 
back, as it is called, should not be done 


later than 1st of August, it much later it 
might destroy the flowering to some extent. 
When wanted to be grown for green-house 
or house culture, the best plan for amateurs is 
to put each plant when received in a fiower 
pot six, seven or eight inches wide and deep ; 
plunge these pots to the rims in the open 
ground, level with the soil, treating exactly 
the same as recommended for planting in the 
open border, by pinching, etc. Care should, 
however, be taken to turn the fiower pots 
round every eight or ten days, so as to prevent 
the roots getting through the bottom of the 
pot, the object being to confine the whole roots 
within the pot. This same plan is the best 
for amateurs who cultivate any kind of plant 
to grow in the house or green-house in winter. 
The large fiowers which are seen at the 
exhibitions are obtained by pinching off all 
the buds but one on each shoot, just as 
soon as the buds can be seen; "disbudded," 
as it is called, in this way, many kinds of 
Chrysanthemum flowers can be obtained six 
to nine in6hes in diameter. This is the 
method used to obtain all the fine flowers 
seen at the Exhibitions. It is deceiving, how- 
ever, to those unacquainted with the plan, 
because a. flower so obtained showing six or 
seven inches in diameter, if grown with half 
a dozen flowers on the same spray, would not 
be half the size. Hence amateurs who have 
selected special kinds from the cut flower 
tables at Exhibitions, must not be disappoint- 
ed at finding them half the size when they 
flower, unless they use the same process of 
disbudding to obtain large flowers. 

The Chrysanthemum is classed by growers 
into the following sections : Incurved, Ra- 
nunculus flowered or Exhibition, Recurved or 
Reflex-flowered, Anemone or Quilled-Aster 
flowered, Pompone, Small Reflexed or Chusan, 
Daisy-flowered, Quilled or Pin-feathered Jap- 
anese, and Large-flowered Japanese, in all of 
which there are many beautiful varieties. 

Chrysanthns. Yellow flowered. 

Chryse'is. A name sometimes given to Each- 

Chrysoba'otron. From chryaoa, gold, and too- 
iron, a wand; alluding to the magnificent 
racemes of 0. Roasii. Nat. Ord. lAliacem. 

This is a small genus from the Auckland 
and Campbell Islands, New Zealand, closely 
allied to Ardhericwm,. They are found growing 
in marshy places, and Will only succeed well 
with pot culture. The soil should be a fibrous 
loam, and the pots in which they are grown 
should be partly immersed in water. The 
flowers are bright yellow, produced in 
racemes, and'are very beautiful. Propagated 
by division of the roots. Introduced in 1848. 

Chrysoba'lanus. From chryaoa, gold, and 
halcmos, an acorn ; in reference to the yellow 
fruit of some of the species. Nat. Ord. Roacu- 

A genus of stove or green-house shrubs, 
with simple leaves and white flowers borne in 
panicles ; fruit edible. Natives of Florida. 

Chryso'gouum. From chryaoa, gold, and g<ytm, 
a knee, or joint; the flowers are generally 
produced at the joints of the stem. Nat. Ord. 

C. Virginianum, the typical species and 
probably the only one in cultivation, is found 
in the Western States from Illinois south- 




•ward. It is a very pretty, hardy perennial, 
■with yellow flowers, well worth a place in 
every herbaceous border. 

Chrysophy'Uum. Star Apple. From chryaos, 
gold, and phyllon, a leaf ; referring to the color 
of the underside of the leaves. Nat. Ord. 

A genus of ornamental leaved evergreen 
trees. C. imperiale, a very showy and desirar 
ble species, is best known in cultivation as 
Theophrasta imperialis. 

Chryso'psis. From chryaoa, gold, and opsia, 
aspect; in allusion to the golden blossoms. 
Nat. Ord. CompoaUm. 

A genus of hardy annual or perennial North 
American plants, a greater portion of the 
species having all their parts covered with 
villous or &ilky hairs. C. Mariana grows 
about two feet idigh, and is quite ornamental 
when in flower. C. villoaa, with numerous 
yellow flower heads half an inch in diameter, 
is said to be one of the commonest plants on 
the prairies of the Saskatchawan. 

Chiysu'rus. From chryaoa, gold, and oura, a 
tail ; alluding to the compact heads of flowers. 
Nat. Ord. Graminacece. 

A small genus of annual grasses, natives of 
the south of Europe and north of Africa. C. 
aurea, the only species of interest, is a veiy 
ornamental border plant of free growth, and 
is very useful for cutting. Native of the south 
of Europe and north of Africa. Syn. Lamarkia. 

Chufa, or Barth Almond. Cyperua eaculentua. 
A species of earth-nut used to fatten hogs, 
not to be confounded with Cocoa or Nut-grass, 
for though it belongs to the same class, Chufa 
Is eradicated with great ease, and is never a 
post. The nuts or tubers are larger and more 
elongated, and are very sweet and nutritious. 

Chy'sis. From chyaia, melting ; in reference to 
the fused appearance of the pollen masses. 
Nat. Ord. OrchidacecB. 

A genus of very handsome Orchids, natives 
of Central America. The flowers are mostly 
white, or ereamy white, heavily tipped with 
pink, the lip being beautifully marked with 
carmine and yellow. C. aurea macidata, has 
golden yellow flowers, with a large orange 
spot ; lip white, with violet rays. When in a 
growing state they require liberal heat and 
moisture, and a cool, dry house when at rest. 
They are increased by division just as they 
commence a new growth. Introduced in 

Cibo'tium. From Mbotion, a small box ; refer- 
ring to the form of the spore vessels. Nat. 
Ord. PolypoMacece. 

A small genus of very interesting Ferns re- 
lated to Dickaonia. They are large and very 
handsome, and in some cases arborescent. 
The fronds are bi-pinnate, and often glaucous 
beneath. C. Baromele is believed to be the 
Tartarian Lamb, about which travelers have 
told so wonderful a tale. This " Lamb " con- 
sists merely of the decumbent, shaggy caudex 
of a kind of Fern, which is unquestionably this 
species. The " traveler's tale " is. that on an 
uncultivated salt plain of vast extent, west of 
the Volga, grows a wonderful plant, with the 
appearance of a lamb, having feet, head, and 
tail distinctly formed, and its skin covered 
with soft down. The lamb grows upon a stalk 
about three feet high, the part by which it is 


sustained being a kind of navel. It turns 
about and bends to the herbage, which serves 
for its food, and pines away when the grass 
dries up and fails. The fact on which this 
tale is based appears to be, that thecaudex of 
this plant njay be made to present a rude ap- 
pearance ol an animal covered with silky, 
hair-like scales, and if cut into is found to 
have a soft inside of a reddish, flesh-colored 
appearance. When the herbage of its native 
haunts fails through drought, its leaves no 
doubt die, and both perish from the same 
cause, and independently of each other. 
From these appearances, the common people 
believe that in the deserts of Scythia there 
exist creatures half animal and half plant. 
The species are very interesting plants 
for the green-house, the fructification on 
the large bi-pinnate fronds being remarkably 
pretty. They are propagated by division, 
and by spores. Introduced in 1824. 

Ci'cer. Chick-pea. Egyptian Pea. 'Eiom.kykia, 
force or strength ; in reference to. its qualities. 
Nat. Ord. Legwnimoam. 

A genus of leguminous plants, consisting of 
annuals, perennials and undershrubs, form- 
ing one portion of the "Vetch tribe. Some of the 
species are included in the genus Aatragalua, 
by some botanists. 

C. arietinum, commonly known as Chick, 
pea or Egyptian pea, is an annual plant- 
growing about a foot or more in height, 
a native of the south of Europe and India, 
where it is extensively cultivated for its seeds 
which form one of the pulses known under 
the name of " Gram," and which are greatly 
used by the natives as an article of food, 
being ground into meal, and either eaten in 
puddings or made into cakes. The leaves of 
this species consist of from three to seven 
pairs of leaflets with an odd one at the end, 
the leaflets being egg-shaped, and having 
their edges cut into very sharp teeth. Both 
leaves and stems are covered with glandular 
hairs containing oxalic acid, which exudes 
from them in hot weather and hangs in drops, 
ultimately forming crystals. 

In Mysore the natives collect the dew from 
the " Gram " plants by means of muslin cloths, 
which become saturated with it. The liquid 
thus obtained, which is very acid, is preserved 
in bottles tot use, and is regarded as a sure 
medicine in cases of indigestion, being admin- 
istered in water. It is stated that the boots 
of a person walking through a dewy Gram 
field will be entirely destroyed by the pun- 
gency of this acid given out by the leaves. 

Cichc'rium. Chicory or Succory. An ancient 
Egyptian name. Nat. Ord. CompoaitcB. 

C. Intybua, the plant so extensively cultivated 
in Europe as a substitute for coffee, or for Its 
adulteration, is commonly known as Wild 
Endive, and is found growing wild in most 
parts of Europe, being by far the most com- 
mon in England. It is . also naturalized in 

^ this country, and Is common in neglected fields 
and along roadsides in neighborhoods long 
settled. Its flowers are bright blue, produced 
in great profusion in August and September. 
'The plant grows in its wild state from one to 
three feet high, but under cultivation it often 
reaches six feet. The roots are fleshy, not 
unlike the Dandelion, to which family it 
belongs. For the adulteration of coffee, the 




root is dried and ground, in whicli state it 
closely resembles ground coffee. Tlje use of 
Cliicory is common and undisguised, and 
many consider a mixture preferable to pure 
coffee, and buy tiie two, and mix to suit tlieir 
own tastes. So great is the demand for it for 
this purpose, that, notwithstanding its cheap- 
ness and ease of culture, it is often adulterated 
by roasted wheat, rye, acorns, carrots, and 
other articles of a similar nature. The plants 
are largely cultivated in France for their 
leaves, which are blanched and used as a salad. 
A large-leaved variety, called the " Witloof," 
is much cultivated in Belgium, the plants 
being taken up in autumn, forced and blanched 
in a warm, dark place, and used either cooked 
or as a salad, forming what is called by the 
French " Barbe de Oapucin." C. Edivia is the 
Endive, which see. 

Cicu'ta. Cowbane, Water Hemlock. The 
ancient Latin name of the Hemlock. Nat. 
Ord. UmbelUfercB. 

A. small genus of biennial plants, very com- 
mon in moist waste places. C. maculata, com- 
monly known as Spotted Cowbane, somewhat 
resembles Sweet Cicely, and is often mistaken 
for it. The root is an active poison in its 
green state, but loses its virulent qualities 
when "dried. It is a dangerous pest to the 
farmer, the herbage often proving destructive 
to cattle, when eaten by them, and many 
children have lost their lives by eating the 
roots, which they have mistaken for Cicely. 
C. virosa, a species common throughout 
Europe, furnished the poison given to Phoolon 
and Socrates. 

Cienko'wskia. Named in honor of Professor L. 
Oienkowsky, a Russian botanist. Nat. Ord. 

O. Kirkii, the only described species, is a 
handsome and interesting plant, a native of 
eastern tropical Africa. Its blossoms, which 
are exceedingly attractive, are produced on a 
many-flowered scape, and are of a purplish- 
rose color, with a bifid golden spot in the 
center. It was introduced from Zanzibar in 
1872. Syn. Kmmpferia. 

Ciliee. Somewhat stifflsh hairs, which form a 
fringe on the margin of an organ, as those on 
the leaf of Sempervwwm tectorum. 

Ciliate. Fringed with hairs. 

/ Cimici'fuga. Bug-bane. A genus of Ranun- 
/ cidacecB, allied to Actsea G. racemosa, Black 
I Snake-root. The most showy and best known 

I species is common in rich woods, from 

I Maine to Wisconsin. It has tri-ternate 

1 leaves, and a stem three to eight feet high, 

\ bearing white flowers in elongated wand-like 
V racemes. Several of the species, also, are 
\.^ative8 of eastern Europe and Siberia. 

Cincho'na. Named after the Covmiesa of Cin- 
chon, Vice-Queen of Peru, who was cured of a 
fever in 1638 by this remedy. Nat. Ord. Citir 

This genus yields the well-known Peruvian 
bark of commerce. It requires the protection 
of a warm green-house to preserve it in even 
moderate vigor. It is the type of an extensive 
and highly interesting order. 
Cinchona'cese. A large and important order of 
trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants, now re- 
garded as a division or sub-order of RubiacecB, 
which see. 


Cinera'ria. From cineres, ashes ; in reference to 
the gray down covering the surface of the 
leaves. Nat. Ord. ComposiloB. 

There are upward of fifty species of this 
genus enumerated, varying in habit from the 
dwarf herbaceous plant, not rising more than 
half a foot, to the tall, soft-wooded, suffruti- 
cose species with a stature of five or six feet. 
The flowers of most of them are of a pale 
greenish yellow, though some have white, red, 
or purple flowers. O. amenta, introduced 
from the Canary Islands in 1777, is the species 
from which all the florist's varieties have 
originated and which are among the most 
ornamental and useful plants that can be 
grown for green-house or conservatory deco- 
ration. A packet of seeds of a good strain 
will produce a great variety of colors, and as 
the plants are of easy culture, and do not re- 
quire much heat, they should be grown by 
every one possessing a green-house where 
frost is excluded during winter; the plants 
flourishing best in a cool, rather moist atmos- 
phere. The seeds may be sown from July 
till September, and potted off separately in a 
light rich soil, and are best grown in an ordi- 
nary garden frame or cold pit, facing north, 
till the advent of frost, when they should be 
brought into the green-house and repotted at 
different times, according to their size and 
forwardness, thus insuring a succession of 
bloom during the late winter and spring 
months. Asthe old plants are very difficult 
to keep over summer, and seedlings make 
much more vigorous plants than those sum- 
mered over, it is better to sow a succession 
annually of a good strain, and when the plants 
have flowered throw them away. Through- 
out the entire existence of the plants they 
should be guarded from drought, and the at- 
tacks of green fly, to which they are very sub- 
ject. Tobacco stems, cut up flne, and placed 
among the pots on the bench, form an excel- 
lent preventive for the latter. They should 
also be fumigated frequently, Ijut not strongly, 
as although the fly may not be detected at 
first the plants may be infested beneath the 
young leaves. AU Cinerarias are benefitted by 
applications of manure water, from the time 
the flower-heads are formed until they open. 
C. MarUima, a native of the south of Europe, 
has silvery gray foliage, downy beneath ; it 
is much used for vases and hanging-baskets, 
as well as in ribtion gardening, etc. 

Cinnabar. Scarlet touched with orange. 

Cinnamo'mum. Cinnamon. Derived from the 
Arabic kinamon, oinnamtm. Nat. Ord. Lawron 

A genus of evergreen trees, well known as 
furnishing the Cinnamon of commerce. G. 
Zeylanicum is largely cultivated in Ceylon for 
its bark, which furnishes the best Cinnamon. 
The bark is stripped off the branches, when it 
rolls up into quills, the smaller of which are 
introduced within the larger, and then dried 
in the sun. The thinner the bark is, as a rule, 
the finer the quality. G. Cassia furnishes 
the Cassia bark, which is much like Cinnamon, 
but thicker, coarser, stronger, less delicate in 
flavor, and cheaper. It is commonly used in 
the adulteration of Cinnamon. Both species 
furnish what are known as Cassia buds, which 
are something like cloves, and, like them, 
consist of the unexpanded flower buds. 




They possess properties similar to those of 
the bark. There are several other species of 
this genus that furnish aromatic barks, which 
are used iu flavoring and in medicine. 

Cinnamon Fern. The popular name of one of 
our native Ferns, Osmunda Cirmamomea. 

Ciunamon Root. A common name for Inula 

Cinnamon Tree. See Cinnamomwm. 

Cinnamon Vine, A name given to Dioscorea 

Cinque-foil, or Pive-Pinger. One of the popu- 
lar names of Potentilla, which see. 

Circae'a. Enchanter's Nightshade. A classical 
name, after Circe, a celebrated enchantress, 
skilled in poisonous herbs. Nat. Ord. Ona- 

A small genus of hardy herbaceous peren- 
nials, of but little interest ; natives of Europe, 
and naturalized in many parts of this country. 

Circinal. Eesembling a circle. 

Circulate. Bent like the head of a crosier, as in 
the young leaf of a Fern when it begins to 

Cirrhope'talum. From cirrhua, a tendril, and 
petaXon, a flower leaf; in reference to the 
strap-shaped petals. Nat. Ord. Orchidacecs. 

An extensive genus of small, very curious 
epiphytal Orchids, natives of tropical Asia 
and the South Sea Islands. Their flowers are 
remarkable for having the lateral sepals pro- 
longed into narrow streamers. From this 
peculiar feature, and the fact that they occupy 
but little room, a few of the species have been 
introduced into the more general collection 
of Orchids. Propagated by division. 

Cirrhose. Either furnished with a tendril, as the 
G-rape-vine or the leaves of Gloriosa aviperba ; 
or assuming the form and functions of a ten- 
dril, as the peduncles of Clematis cirrhoaa; or 
where the tendrils are in some way remark- 
able, as the Nepenthes. 

Ci'rsium. Common or Plumed Thistle. From 
kirsos, a swollen vein ; in reference to being 
pricked by the spines. Nat Ord. Compositm. 

The Thistle family is too well known to 
need special mention. Two of the more 
troublesome species, C. lanceolatum, the com- 
mon Thistle, and C. arven8e,the Canada Thistle, 
are both natives of Europe, though perfectly 
naturalized in this country. There are many 
native species, the most conspicuous being C. 
muliaim. Swamp Thistle, a perennial, common 
in moist woods and swamps, often growing as 
high as eight feet. This genus is now placed 
under Onicus by some botanists. 

Cissa'mpelos. A genus of Menispermaeem, with 
the climbing character of the Ivy, kissos of 
the Greeks, and the clustered fruit of the vine 
Ampelos. The most important plant of the 
genus is the Velvet-leaf, or Caapeba, C. 
Pareira, a native of the West Indies, Central 
America, and India. The root of this plant 
furnishes the "Pareira brava" of the drug- 
gists, much used in medicine. 

Ci'ssua. From kissos, ivy ; in reference to their 
scrambling habit. Nat. Ord. VUacece. 

A genus of climbing plants, allied to VUis. 

With a few exceptions, they are plants of but 

little interest to the florist. One of the species, 

however, C. discolor, is a plant remarkable for 



the beauty of its foliage, and its adaptation to 
the hot-house. This species is a native of 
Java, and was introduced into England in 1854 
by Messrs Boliison and Sons, of Tooting, and 
is described by Mr. Lowe as follows : " The 
leaves, which are six inches long and two 
and a half broad, are colored on the upper 
surface in the richest manner conceivable, the 
plant rivaling, in its beautiful foliage, the 
finest of the AnoB(^chUvs family; the color 
being a rich green, clouded with white, peach, 
and dark purplish crimson, and covered with 
a metallic luster. The under side of the leaf 
is a rich brownish crimson. No description 
or painting can do justice to the beauty of 
these superb leaves when in perfection." This 
plant is a rapid grower, requiring a very rich 
soil and humid atmosphere, together with a 
high temperature, to bring it to perfection. It 
should be grown in a shaded house, and care 
should be taken not to syringe the plant, as 
water on the leaves destroys the metallic 
luster. It is readily increased by cuttings. 
The leaves are much valued by florists for 
their various work in baskets, designs, etc. 

Cista'ceae. A natural order of shrubs or herbs, 
often viscid, with simple entire leaves and 
showy flowers, found chiefly in the south of 
Europe and the north of Africa, and rarely in 
North or South America. They are usually 
resinous, and have a balsamic fragrance. 
Helianthemum vulgare, the common Book Kose 
of England, has remarkably irritable stamens, 
which in sunny weather move on being 
touched. There are eight genera and about 
190 species in this order ; the best known of 
which are Oistvs, Helianthemum and Hudsonia. 

Cisterns. The superior value of rain-water for 
plant cultivation and general garden purposes 
is often overlooked when building green- 
houses, as it is frequently conducted to drains 
when accommodation for its reception should 
be provided in the shape of cisterns. These 
are generally constructed with stones or brick, 
and coated inside with cement. Where the 
ground will admit of it, an excellent and 
cheap method is to have the sides of the cis- 
tern sloped as much as the soil will allow, and 
coat it one inch thick with a mixture of one 
part cement to three of gravel, finishing with 
a thin coating of pure cement. This forms a 
wall which when dry becomes as hard as iron, 
and will last for years. The size of cisterns 
should vary according to their intended use. 
If they are to furnish a daily supply of water, 
they need not be so large as for keeping a sup- 
ply for summer only. The average depth of 
rain which falls in this latitude rarely exceeds 
six to seven inches for two months. The size 
of the cistern therefore need not exceed that 
of a body of water on the whole roof of the 
building seven inches deep. To ascertain this 
amount multiply the length by the breadth of 
the building, reduce this to inches, and divide 
the product by 231, and the quotient will be 
gallons for each inch of depth. Multiplying 
by seven will give the full amount 'for two 
months' rain falling upon the roof; divide by 
31 J^, the quotient will be barrels. Cisterns 
intended only for drawing from in times of 
drought, to hold all the water that may fall, 
should be about three times the preceding 

Ci'stus. Bock Bose. From Mate, a box ; In ref- 




erenoe to the form of the seed vessel. Nat. 
Ord OistaeecB. 

A genus of handsome shrubs, few of which 
are in cultivation. They are natives of south- 
ern and western Europe, north Africa, and 
the Canary Islands. Some of the species are 
elegant shrubs, having terminal flower stalks 
bearing one or more flowers, resembling in 
appearance those of the Dog Rose. They sel- 
dom last more than a few hours after expand- 
ing, and do not open except in sunny weather. 
The flowers are either white or rose-colored, 
with yellow or purplish marks at their base. 
Some of the species furnish a gum that is used 
in Turkey as a perfume and for fumigation ; 
also supposed to be a specific for the plague. 
Propagated by seeds, layers, or cuttings. 

Cithare'xylum. Fiddle-wood. From kithara, 
a lyre, and xylon, wood ; in reference to the 
supposed fitness of the wood for musical 
instruments. Nat. Ord. VerbenacecB. 

A genus of tall-growing trees, common from 
Florida to Brazil. It furnishes a hard, dur- 
able wood, suited for various purposes in the 
mechanic arts. Its supposed use in the man- 
ufacture of musical instruments is a mistake. 
One of the species is called by the French 
Fidele, for its durability in building. The 
English have corrupted the name to Fiddle- 
wood, by which name it is popularly known. 

Citrinous. Lemon-colored. 

Citron. (Citrus medica.) This is by some sup- 
posed to be the same species as the Lemon ; 
it is a native of the forests of the north of 
India, but is extensively cultivated in south- 
ern Europe. In its wild state the tree grows 
to the height of about eight feet, erect and 
prickly, with long reclining branches, in gen- 
eral appearance resembling the Lemon. The 
fruit is from six to nine inches in length, 
ovate, with a protuberance at the top. There 
are two rinds, the outer thin, with innumera- 
ble glands, full of a most fragrant oil; the 
inner thick, white and fungous ; it is this inner 
rind which is preserved and much used in 
confections, cake, etc. 

Citrone'lla. Oil Plant. Andropogon eitratum. 

Cltru'IIus. From Citrus, in allusion to the 
Orange-like fruits. Nat. Ord. CucwrbitacecB. 

A small genus of trailing annual or peren- 
nial herbs. C. colocynthis furnishes the cathar- 
tic drug Golooynth, or. Bitter Apple. C. vul- 
garia is the well-known Water Melon, which 

Ci'trus. Orange Tree. Derivation of name 
unknown. Supposed to refer to Citron, a town 
in Judea. Nat. Ord. Rutacew. 

The genus Citrus includes the Orange, 
Lemon, Lime, Citron, Shaddock, etc., all well 
deserving cultivation, both for their fiowers 
and their fruit, but of which only a few kinds 
of Oranges and Lemons are generally grown. 
When grown for ornamental purposes in 
green-house or rooms, they all thrive well In 
a mixture of rich loam with a little rotted 
dung ; but great care is necessary not to over- 
pot them, or give them too much water when 
not in a growing state. The different species 
and varieties are generally propagated by bud- 
ding, grafting and inarching on the common 
Lemon, which grows readily from seed. 
Oranges are also frequently raised from seed ; 
but unless they are budded or grafted when 


about two years old, it will be many years 
before they flower. Orange Trees may also 
be propagated by cuttings, which are best 
from the old wood, struck In sand in a gentle 
bottom heat, and shaded. Plants raised in 
this manner flower and fruit much sooner than 
any others, but they scarcely ever attain a 
large size. Both the Orange and Lemon are 
such favorites in this country that scarcely a 
cottage, where a flower-pot or tub can be put 
into requisition. Is without one or the other 
of these plants. When placed in unsuitable 
soil and carelessly watered, they seldom 
remain long in a good state of health. When 
they become sickly and yellow they should be 
turned out of the pots, a large portion of the 
old soil should be shaken from the roots, and 
they should be repotted in a mixture of fine 
loamy soil and rotted manure, with about one- 
fourth of charcoal dust, or powdered charcoal. 
There are numerous varieties of Oranges and 
Lemons grown for the fruit. Our markets 
were formerly supplied from the south of 
' Europe, the Azores and the West Indies. 
Until within a few years the "Havana" was 
the most highly esteemed, but the Florida 
Orange is now the leading variety in the mar- 
kets. The cultivation of the Orange in Flor- 
ida commenced previous to 1820, but was 
carried on only to a limited extent for 
some years thereafter. From 1830 to 1835 
many large groves were planted, nearty all of 
which were destroyed by the extraordinary 
frost of the latter year. The previous year 
there were trees at St. Augustine that pro- 
duced each 14,000 oranges — a handsome rev- 
enue from a single tree. The dreaded effeuts 
of a frost almost entirely discouraged further 
plantings for a number of years. The culti- 
vation of the Orange is now attracting greater 
attention in Florida than ever before. The 
Indian River country abounds in plantations 
that are yielding large and profltable crops. 
Some of the more scientific growers, from 
careful experiments and close observation, 
hold the opinion that frosts as severe as those 
of 1835 will not injure the trees if the precau- 
tion be taken to shade the trunks from the 
sun a short time, until the circulation of the 
sap is fully restored. Lemons, Limes and 
Shaddocks are also largely grown In Florida. 
In some parts of Texas and in California the 
cultivation of these fruits is being rapidly 
Cladra'stia Yellow Wood. Name of obscure 
derivation. Nat. Ord. Legvminosm. 

This genus includes several species, none of 
which are of special interest, excepting C. 
tinctoria better known, perhaps, as Virgilia 
hUea, a native species indigenous in eastern 
Kentucky and southward. It is a small and 
handsome tree, with a compact, broadly 
rounded head, leaves compound like those of 
the Locust, of a light, pleasing green color, 
changing in autumn to a warm yellow. The 
flowers appear in June in pendulous racemes of 
great beauty, pea-shaped, white and fragrant, 
and are produced in such profusion as almost 
to clothe the tree, making it a beautiful object 
for the lawn. It is perfectly hardy, though of 
slow growth, and commences to flower when 
only a small shrub. Propagated by cuttings 
of the roots or by seeds. G. amurensia, the 
East Indian representative of the foregoing, 
is a tree reaching the height of forty feet, 




bearing pinnate leaves and long, dense 
racemes of whitish flowers. It is a very orna- 
mental tree, flowering freely in August, and 
being quite hardy, is a decidedly useful addi- 
tion to the shrubbery or lawn. It was intro- 
duced from the Amoor Valley in 1880. 
Clammy. Viscid, sticky. 

Cla'rkia. In honor of Captain Clarke, who 
accompanied Captain Lewis in his journey to 
the Eocky Mountains. Nat. Ord. Onagraceoe. 
A genus of hardy annuals, mostly from Cal- 
ifornia. The whole of the species are indis- 
pensable to every flower garden where annuals 
are grown. The first sowing should take place 
in September ; a few will survive the winter, 
and afford an early bloom in the following 
season. The next and principal sowing should 
be done in March, and a few more put in about 
the end of April, together with those trans- 
planted, wUl continue a fine display through 
the whole summer. They grow in any soil, 
so that the situation is open or free from the 
drip of trees, and merely require to be thinned 
to about a foot from each other. This rule 
will apply to nearly all those that are known 
as "tender annuals." 

Clary. Salvia Sclarea. A biennial plant of 
the order LabiahB, a native of the south of 
France, Switzerland and of Italy. It has been 
under cultivation as a pot-herb, for seasoning 
soups, since early in the sixteenth century. 
It is grown in the same manner as the common 
sage, Sahia officinalis. 

Clavate. Club-shaped, as where any organ, 
slender at the base, gradually enlarges to- 
wards the apex, as the filaments of Thalictrwm 

Cla-w. The long, narrow base of some petals, 
analogous to the footstalk of leaves, as in 

Clayto'nia. Spring Beauty. Named after Dr. 
John Clayton, an early American botanist. 
Nat. Ord. Portulacacece. 

A genus of very pretty, hardy plants, of 
either annual or perennial duration. The for- 
mer only require to be sown where they are to 
remain, and the latter succeed when planted 
in loam without further trouble. Their 
flowers are either white or pink of various 
shades. Several tuberous-rooted perennial 
species are found in moist woods in this 
country from Virginia westward to California. 
They do not differ materially from the annual 
species in flowering, and are worthy of 

Cleavers or Clivers. See Oalium. 

Cleiso'stoma. From Meio, to close, and stoma, 
a mouth ; in allusion to the mouth of the spur 
being closed. Nat. Ord. Orchidacew. 

A genus of East Indian epiphytal orchids, 
the several species of which, are beautiful 
plants, although most of them have small 
flowers, a fact that renders them unpopular 
with orchid growers. They require the same 
treatment as the Aeridea. 

Cle'matis. Virgin's Bower. From klema, a 
vine-branch; in reference to their climbing 
like a vine. Nat. Ord. Bammcukuxce. 

An extensive genus of handsome twining 
shrubs, natives of North America, Europe, 
Japan, and occasionally met with in Australia, 
Asia, and Africa. C. Virginiama is the well- 


known Virgin's Bower, a species common in 
the woods and roadsides of New York south- 
ward. There are several other species com- 
mon in this country. C. fiarnimula, the sweet- 
scented Virgin's Bower, is much admired for 
its gracefulness, delicious fragrance, and poeti- 
cal associations. For the many large-flowering 
varieties we are indebted to Sieboldt and For- 
tune, who discovered them in Japan. From 
the several species introduced by them very 
many varieties have been produced, among 
which is C. Jackmanii.a. variety with large pur- 
ple flowers, very showy, and deservedly popu- 
lar. Some of the varieties are pure white, with 
both double and single flowers. The whole 
of them are quite hardy, though the young 
growth should be protected the first winter. 
They delight in a strong, rich soil, and for 
climbing up stumps of old trees, training to 
trellises, covering arbors or verandas, or 
planting to droop over amongst rock-work, no 
plants are more suitable or will make a more 
gorgeous display. Not only are they well 
adapted for running up all kinds of supports, 
festooning, etc., but many of the grand hy- 
brid varieties, are equally suitable for 
trailing over the surface of the ground, and 
covering beds, either alone or associated with 
a few distinct foliaged plants. They are pro- 
pagated by layering the young shoots in sum- 
mer or by root grafting on some of our stronger 
growing native varieties. The shoots of the 
half-ripened young wood can also be freely 
rooted by cuttings during the summer 
months. C. crispa, a native species, is very 
popular, and deservedly so. The flowers, of 
medium size, are of beautiful purple, and 
deliciously fragrant ; a characteristic absent 
from most of the class. C. cocdnea, a. recent 
introduction from Texas, presents us with a 
new and desirable color. 
Cleo'me. From kleio, to shut ; in reference to 
the parts of the flower. Nat. Ord. Cappari- 

An extensive genus, consisting of tropical 
shrubs, annuals and biennials, which are not 
suitable for general cultivation. This genus, 
however, contains several very curious and 
pretty indigenous annuals, with white, rose, 
and purple flowers, natives of the Southern 
and Western States. They are all easy of 
cultivation. They should be started in a hot- 
bed, and the plants put out in the open border 
at the proper season for tender annuals. 

Clerode'ndron. From kleros, a chancCj and 
dendron, a tree; said to be owing to the 
uncertainty of the medicinal qualities. Nat. 
Ord. Verbenacem. 

It is difficult to conceive more beautiful 
objects than several members of this genus 
when well cultivated. Cuttings taken off any 
time during summer root readily, or in winter 
in gentle heat, and should be kept in small 
pots through the succeeding winter, on a" 
shelf or underneath a bench in the green- 
house. About the first of February repot 
them, giving them a liberal shift. The soil 
should be light and very rich. To flower 
freely, they require frequent shiftings from 
smaller into larger pots. With this treatment 
they can be made to bloom continually during, 
the entire season. <,)ld plants can be grown 
on with occasional shiftings, and make splen- 
did plants for garden decoration during sum- 




mer. They must, however, be grown in the 
shade. Alter flowering, water freely, in order 
that they may make a good growth ; after 
which they should have partial sun to ripen 
the wood. If not wanted for winter flowering, 
remove the plants in the fall to a light cellar, 
free from frost, giving them through the 
winter just enough water to sustain life. In 
the spring, when all danger from frost is over, 
remove the plants to any desired position in 
the garden or on the veranda for another sea- 
son of bloom. C. Thompsonm, known also as 
C Balfourii, introduced from Old Calabar in 
1861, has bright crimson flowers disposed in 
large panicles, with pure white calyxes, is the 
best and most showy variety, and one we 
have seen in full bloom a number of years 
in succession, with the above treatment. It 
makes a valuable climbing plant for the green- 
house when so desired. 

Cle'thra. White Alder, Sweet Pepperbush. 
From klethra, the Greek name of the Alder, 
which this genus somewhat resembles in foli- 
age. Nat. Ord. EricacecB. 

A genus of deciduous shrubs, several species 
of which are common in swamps and low 
places along our southern coast. C. alnifolia 
is common in the Middle States, and is 
remarkable for its sweet-scented flowers, 
which are borne in terminal racemes in July 
and August. Like many other of our native 
plants, it improves by cultivation, and will 
succeed well in a shrubbery border, however 
dry. It should be transplanted in early 

Cleye'ra. Named after Andrew Cleyer, M.D., a 
Dutch botanist of Batavia. Nat. Ord. Tem- 

A genus comprising a few Indian and Jap- 
anese evergreen shrubs with Camellia-like 
leaves, and small axillary white or yellowish 
flowers, sometimes sweet-scented. C. Jap- 
onica tricolor is a very handsome variegated 
plant, with leathery, obovate, dark-green 
leaves, obliquely marked with bands of 
greyish-green, the broad, creamy-white mar- 
gin, tinged of a origtit rose-color, being very 
conspicuous in the younger foliage. Propa- 
gated by cuttings of the half-ripened shoots. 

Clia'uthus. Glory Pea. From kleios, glory, and 
anthoa, a flower. Nat. Ord. Leguminosce. 

A genus of magnificent, half-hardy shrubs 
from Australia, remarkable for their showy 
flowers, which are borne in terminal or axil- 
lary racemes. C. puniceus, the Parrot's Bill, 
is a magnificent, half-hardy, shrubby climber, 
with bright crimson flowers, a native of New 
Zealand. It grows very freely in rich loam if 
its roots are allowed sufficient room ; aud it 
generally thrives best when planted against 
the back wall of a conservatory. Cuttings 
planted in pots in the autumn, and kept in the 
shady part of the green-house, will be rooted 
by spring, when they may be planted in the 
open border. It is a plant that rarely flowers 
well in a pot, as it requires abundance of room 
for its roots, and grows rapidly, with rather 
succulent shoots, requiring abundance of 
water during the growing season, and very 
little at any other time. When grown in the 
open ground the juicy nature of its roots ren- 
ders it a favorite food for snails, and when 
kept in the conservatory or green-house it is 
very apt to be attacked by the red spider. If 


these enemies be kept away, and the plant be 
grown in rich soil, composed of equal parts of 
loam and thoroughly rotted manure, and well 
supplied with air, light, and water, with 
abundance of room for its roots, the rapidity 
of its growth and the splendor of its flowers 
will almost surpass belief ; but unless these 
points are attended to, the plant is scarcely 
worth growing. C. Dampieri, Glory Pea, a 
species from the desert regions of Australia, 
is by far the most beautiful of the genus, 
either for the green-house or the border. Its 
cultivation is rather difficult. It does not 
grow to such dimensions as the former, but is 
of the same habit, and succeeds best when 
treated as an annual. The flowers are brilliant 
scarlet, and marked with a black blotch in the 
center. If the seeds are planted in May in 
the open border where they are to grow, in a 
rich, sandy loam, they will make magnificent 
plants, and flower freely from August until 
killed by frost. Five degrees of frost will not 
injure either the plants or the flowers. They 
will not at any time bear transplanting. Intro- 
duced in 1852. 
Climber. A plant that grows upright upon 
trees, walls, etc., and supports itself by ten- 
drils or by air-roots ; an example of the for- 
mer being the Grape Vine (Vitis), and of the 
latter the Virginia Creeper (Ampelopaia). 

Climbing Pern. See Lygodium acandens. 
Climbing Fumatory. See Adlumia drrhoaa. 
Climbiag G-entian. The genus Crawfardia. 
Climbing Hempweed. See Mikania scandena. 
Climbing Hydrangea. See Hydrangea acandena. 

The name is also applied to Sehizophragma 


Clinto'nia. Named in honor of De Witt Clin- 
ton, at one time governor of the State of 
New Tork. Nat. Ord. lAliacem. 

Very beautiful and Interesting stemless 
perennials, with creeping root-stocks, admir- 
ably adapted for the herbaceous border. 
They are found in rich woods from New York, 
southward, along the AUeghanies; one 
species, with deep rose-colored flowers is 
found in California. The genus very com- 
monly known as Clintonia (Douglas), belonging 
to Lobeliacem, is more properly called Dow- 
ningia, as the Clintonia of Rafinesque has 
priority over that of Douglas. See Downingia. 

Clito'ria. Blue Pea, Butterfly Pea. Prom kleio, 
to shut up ; in reference to its seeding within 
the flower long before the flower drops off. 
Nat. Ord. LeguminoacB. 

Very handsome hot-house climbers, of 
graceful habit, the majority producing large, 
highly-colored flowers. O. tematea, Syn. 
Tematea vulgaris, introduced from India in 
1739, is perhaps the finest, its lovely blue 
flowers receiving universal admiration. The 
whole of the peretinial species succeed in 
rich loam, the annual kinds require the ordi- 
nary treatment of tender annuals. C. Mariana 
has a curious distribution, being found in the 
Southern States and Mexico, and appearing 
again in the Khasia Mountains in India, 
without being found in any intervening place. 
Propagated by cuttings or seeds. 

Cli'via. Named after a Ducheaa of Northumber- 
land, a member of the Clive family. Nat. 
Ord. Amaryllidacew. 




Clivia nobilis, the only species, Is a robust 
growing plant, which, once established, is 
very prolific of flowers. It grows well in 
sandy loam, if allowed the warmest part of 
the green-house, or a cool shelf in the hot- 
house. Its flowers, which are produced in a 
pendulous umbel, are of a delicate flesh color 
throughout the greater part of the tube, 
heightening to a deep red over the limb, the 
segments of which are bright green. It is 
increased by division of the roots. Native 
of the Cape of Good Hope. Introduced in. 
1823. Syn. Imantophyllum Aitoni. 
Cloud-Berry. See Rulms CliamcBmorus. 

Cloud Grass. A common name for Agroatia 

Clover. The common name for Trifolium, 
especially applied to the kinds cultivated for 
hay and pasture. 

Cloves. The small bulbs formed within the 
mother-bulb of certain plants; such as 

Clove Tree. Oaryophyllus aromaiicua. The 
Gloves of commerce are the dried unexpanded 
flower buds. 

Club-moss. The common name of I/ycopodiv/m 

Club Root. A disease of the most destructive 
character, which frequently attacks Cabbage, 
Cauliflower, and other plants of the Brassica 
tribe. There is a great deal of misconception 
as to what is the cause of Club Boot, it being 
attributed variously to wetland, dry land, hog 
manure, and several other causes that have 
got nothing to do with it whatever. All observ- 
ing horticulturists who have had experience 
in the cultivation of Cabbage or Cauliflower, 
in any vicinity where there is an oyster shell 
deposit, know that the Club Boot is never 
seen in any soil wherein there is an admixture 
of oyster shells. Thousands of acres on the 
shores of the Atlantic coast, on Long Island 
and in New Jersey, have just such soils, and 
there Cabbage crops have been grown for 
upward of fifty years successively without a 
sign of this disease ; while in other soils only 
a few hundred yards distant, but having no 
mixture of oyster shell in the soil, it is found 
that Cabbages cannot be grown successively on 
the same soil without being attacked by Club 
Boot. The inference is, therefore, plain, that 
the insect causing the disease caUed Club 
Boot cannot exist in contact with the lime of 
the oyster shell ; for that the disease is caused 
by an insect is well proven, as it is found that 
the excrescence known as Club Boot, when 
examined, is found to contain a small, whitish, 
grub-like larva. It is evident that the grow- 
ing crop of Cabbage invites in some way the 
perfect insect; for it is found, that if Cabbage 
is planted for the first time on new soil, it is 
rarely attacked by Club Boot, while if planted 
the next year on the same soil, it lime is not 
present, it is almost certain to be attacked ; 
and for this reason it is fair to presume that 
the perfect insect, allured by the Cabbage 
crop, deposits its eggs in the soil, which re- 
main undeveloped until the next season, 
when they are hatched and attack the roota of 
the Cabbage plants, and thus bring on the 
disease. As an evidence of the correctness of 
this belief, we never fail to find, for example. 
If we plant alongside of each other, a crop of 


Cabbage and a crop of Potatoes or Beets, 
that if the succeeding year we plant the 
whole with Cabbage, the part only that was 
planted with Cabbage the year before will be af- 
fected by Club Boot, and the parts planted with 
Potatoes or Beets will escape. Prom our ex- 
perience that Cabbage planted in soils mixed 
with oyster shells is exempt from Club Boot, 
it is evident that the lime in the oyster shells 
is the agent destructive to the insect ; there- 
fore, in soils having no oyster shells, we have 
found if air-slacked lime is put on at the rate 
of 150 bushels to the acre after plowing, and 
well harrowed in, so as to mix it with the soil, 
that it in most cases will destroy the larvse 
which causes Club Boot. We have also found, 
from its containing large quantities of lime, 
that Bone Dust, used as a fertilizer at the rate 
of one to two tons per acre, is another almost 
certain antidote against Club Boot. We 
would advise the use of lime after all plowing, 
but the Bone Dust should only be put on be- 
fore the crop is planted in spring. 

Club-rush or Bulrush. The common name of 
the genus Sdrpus, a common marsh plant; 
also applied to Typha lalifolia. 

Clu'sia. Balsam Tree. Named in honor of 
Cluaivs of Atrois, author of Hiatoria Plan- 
tarium, and many other works, 1526-1609. 
Nat. Ord. Chdtiferm. 

A genus of evergreen trees or shrubs, often 
epiphytal, peculiar to tropical America, and 
growing in very humid hot places. Nearly 
sixty species are enumerated, many of which 
yield resin from the flowers-, as well as from 
the trunks and branches. 

Clustered, Where numerous similar parts are 
collected in a close, compact manner, as in 
the flowers of Cuaeuta. 

Cni'cus Benediotus. Blessed Thistle. An 
annual herb, with smoothish, clasping, 
scarcely pinnatifid cut leaves, and large 
bracted heads of yellow flowers. Native of 
Europe, scarcely naturalized southwards. 
The genus Ciraivm, is included in the genus 
by some botanists. 

Cobse'a. Named in honor of B. Coho, a Spanish 
botanist. Nat. Ord. PoUmoniouxoB. 

The two known species of these plants 
are elegant, fast-growing climbers, which 
may be grown in the green-house, the 
conservatory, or the garden in summer, 
where, from their rapid development, they 
are particularly desirable for covering walls, 
arbors, or other objects of a similar nature. 
It is preferable to treat them as annuals. The 
seed should be sown in March, in light, rich 
soil, on a gentle heat. The young plants 
should be potted separately into small pots, 
as soon as they can be handled with safety, 
using the same kind of soil, and, after being 
gradually inured to the temperature they are 
likely to be subject to in their after growth, 
may finally, when about a foot in height, be 
placed where, they are to remain. It is sel- 
dom that seed is matured in the open air, but 
in a green-house or conservatory it is pro- 
duced abundantly. C. acandena, the species 
in general cultivation, is a native of Mexico, 
and was introduced in 1792. A white flowered 
variety of C. acamdena originated here in 1872, 
and one with variegated leaves in 1874. 













Cobu'rgia. Named after Prince Leopold of Saxe- 
Coburg, now King of Belgium. Nat. Ord. 

An interesting genus of lialf-iiardy bulbs 
from South America, (mostly from Peru), 
requiring the same treament as Sprekelia 
formosissima. The flowers are mostly scarlet 
and very showy. They require a strong, rich 
soil. Propagated by offsets. Introduced in 
1826, but rarely seen except in botanical col- 

Coca. See Erythroxylon. 

Copci'neus. A pure carmine color, slightly 
tinged with yellow. 

Cocci'nia. Derivation of name not given. Nat. 
Ord. Cucurhitacece. 

O. Indica, the only species and formerly called 
Momordiaa monadelphia, is a climbing shrub, 
common in the hedges of India. It has large 
white flowers. The fruit is oblong, marked 
with ten white lines. When ripe it is of a red 
color, and is used by the natives in their 
sauces. The leaves and other parts of the 
plants are used in medicine. 

Coooooy'pselum. From Icokkoa, fruit, and 
ki/psele, a vase ; referring to the form of the 
berries. Nat. Ord. Riibicuxce. 

A small genus of soft- wooded trailing plants 
from the West Indies and Central America. 
C. repena is interesting from its bluish-purple 
berries. As a genus, they do not occupy a 
prominent place either as ornamental or use- 
ful plants. 

Cocoolo'ba. Sea-side Grape. From hokhos, a 
berry, and lobos, a lobe ; in reference to the 
fruit. Nat. Ord. Polygonacem. 

Most of this genus are tropical evergreen 
trees, interesting and beautiful, but too large 
for ordinary green-house culture. C. platy- 
clada is a dwarf species, with curious flat 
stems, growing from five to ten feet high. 
It succeeds well planted in an ordinary flower 
border, and is useful in filling large vases and 
rustic tubs, or for planting in rock-work. It 
is propagated freely by cuttings. The flowers 
are small and white, produced at the axils of 
the leaves. The correct name of this plant is 
now given as Muehlenbeckia plcUyclada, which 

Co'cculus. Derived from kokkoa, the systematic 
name of the Cochineal ; given to this genus 
because most of the species bear scarlet 
berries. Na^ Ord. Menispermacecs. 

An extensive genus of climbing shrubs, re- 
markable for their medicinal properties. 
With one exception the species are all natives 
of the East Indies. G. Carolmua, common in 
woods and thickets from North Carolina to 
Florida, is a very handsome climber, remarka- 
ble for its racemes of white flowers, which are 
succeeded by clusters of bright scarlet ber- 
ries, that remain on the vine all winter. This 
is one of the most beautiful climbers under 
cultivation, and will succeed well where there 
Is not more than' ten or twelve degrees of 
frost. It is increased by cuttings or from 
seeds. Syn. WendUmdia. 

Co'cculus Indicus, Plant. See Anamirta (Jfe- 
niapermvm) cocculua. 

Co'chlearia. Prom cochlear, a spoon ; the 
leaves of most species are hollowed, like the 
bowl of a spoon. Nat. Ord. CrudfercE. 


A genus of annual or perennial herbs, usu- 
ally smooth and fleshy. There are about 
twenty-five species widely distributed over 
the temperate and cold regions of the northern 
hemisphere. 0. officinalis is the Scurvy Grass, 
valuable as an anti-scorbutic. C. Armoracea 
is the Horse Badish, which see. 

Cochleate. Twisted in a short spire, resem- 
bling the convolutions of a snail-shell, as 
the pod of Medicago cochleata, or the seed of 

Cochlioste'iaa. From oochlioa, spiral, and 
atema, a stamen. Nat. Ord. Commelynacece. 

A genus of green-house perennials allied to 
Tra^cantia, natives of Brazil. They are 
rather curious in form, having contracted 
stems and tufted leaves, like those of a 
Bromelia. The flowers are blue, and borne 
on branched clusters. Of the two species in 
cultivation, one is small and the other, O. 
Jacobiamim, is very large and showy, equally 
valuable from a horticultural point of view, 
as it is interesting from its peculiar structure. 
They are increased by division. Introduced 
in 1866. 

Cockle. The common name of Lychnis Oithago, 
a troublesome weed in grain fields. Intro- 
duced from Europe. 

Cocklebur or Clotbur. The popular name of 
Xanthiimi, a coarse annual weed, common on 
the sea-coast, especially southward. 

Cockscomb. See Celoaia. 
Cook's-Foot G-rass. Dactylis glomerata. 
Cock's-Spur Thorn. . Cratmgua Crus-galU. 
Cocoanut. The nut of Cocoa rmcifera, which 

Cocos. Cocoanut Tree. From the Portuguese 
word, coco, a monkey ; in reference to the end 
of the nut resembling the head of the monkey. 
Nat. Ord. Pahnacem. 

C. nucifera, the well-known Cocoanut Tree, 
is the type of this genus of Palms, to which, 
in addition, about a dozen other species be- 
long. They mostly form tall, graceful trees, 
and the majority of them are natives of the 
tropical regions of America, one only, the 
common Cocoanut, being found in Asia or 
Africa. The trees grow to a great height, 
with a straight trunk, and, like almost every 
species of the Palm tribe, without branches. 
The leaves are from twelve to fifteen feet 
long. The flowers come out round the top of 
the trunk in large clusters, inclosed in a 
aheath, and the nuts succeed them, commonly 
ten or twelve together. There are few trees 
more extensively or variously useful. The 
leaves are employed as thatch to cover houses, 
and to make mats either for sitting or lying 
upon. The leaf, when reduced to fine fibers, 
is the material of which beautiful and costly 
carpets are made for those in the higher 
ranks 5 the coarse fibers are made into brooms. 
After these useful materials are taken from 
this leaf, the stem still remains, which is 
about three inches thick, and furnishes fire- 
wood. The wood of this Palm, when fresh 
cut, is spongy, but becomes hard after being 
seasoned, and assumes a dark brown color. 
On the top of the tree a large shoot is pro- 
duced, which, when boiled, resembles Broc- 
coli, but is said to be of a more delicate taste ; 
and though much liked, is seldom used by 




the natives, because, on cutting it off, the pith 
is exposed, and the tree dies. Between this 
cabbage'like shoot and the leaves there spring 
several buds, from which, on making an in- 
cision, there distills a juice differing but little 
from water, either in color or consistence. It 
is the employment of a certain class of men 
to climb to the top of the trees in the evening, 
with earthen pots tied to their waists, which 
they fix there to receive the juice, which is 
regularly carried away before the sun has had 
any influence upon it. This liquid is sold at 
the bazaars by the natives under the name of 
toddy. After being kept a fe w hours it begins 
to ferment, acquires a sharp taste, and a 
slightly intoxicating quality, in which state it 
is drank by the natives and poorer classes 
with avidity. It is also used as yeast, for 
which it forms an excellent substitute. By 
boiling it a coarse kind of sugar is obtained ; 
and by distillation it yields a strong, ardent 
spirit, which is sold at a low price, constitut- 
ing it a most pernicious beverage. The outside 
rind or husk of the fruit yields the fiber from 
which the well-knoiyn Cocoanut matting is 
manufactured. In order to obtain it the 
husks are soaked in salt water for six or 
twelve months, when the fibre is easily sepa- 
r'ated by beating, and is made up into a coarse 
kind of a yam called coir. Besides its use for 
matting, it is extensively used in the manu- 
faetuie of heavy cordage for ship's cables. It 
is also used for various kinds of brushes, and 
for stuflng mattresses, cushions, etc. The 
next impoi-tant product of the fruit is the oil, 
which is procured by boiling and pressing the 
white kernel or albumen of the nut. It is 
liquid at the ordinary temperature in tropical 
countries, and while fresh is used in cooking. 
By the time the nuts reach this country the 
albumen is solid, and has frequently a rancid 
smell or taste. When green, orfirst gathered, 
this substance is easily separated by pressure 
into what is termed stearine, which is made 
into candles, and a very good oil, used for 
burning in lamps. As an article of food the 
kernel is of the greatest importance to the in- 
habitants of the tropics. In the Laccadives it 
forms the chief food, each person consuming 
four nuts per day, and the fluid, commonly 
called milk, affords them an agreeable be- 
verage. While young they yield a delicious 
substance resembling blano-mange. As the 
nut ripens, the milk is gradually absorbed, or 
hardens into the white, fleshy substance that 
we find when we receive them. The Cocoa- 
nuts brought to this market are chiefly from 
Central America, where they are gathered 
from the interior by the natives, brought to 
the coast, and sold to dealers who make that 
trade a specialty. Coeos Weddelliana, intro- 
duced from South America, is the most orna- 
mental of this group, and one of the most 
graceful Palms in cultivation. Por dinner- 
table decoration there is no Palm to compare 
with it. It is very dwarf, with finely-divided 
foliage, which is recurved with exquisite 
grace. It deserves a place in the smallest 
collection of plants. The Cocos are all pro- 
pagated from seed, and require a temperature 
of about 70" for the germination of the seed 
and the growth of the plants. 
Codise'um. From Codebo, the Malayan name 
for one of the species. Nat. Ord. Ewphorbir 


By a number of authorities, the greater part 
of the plants known and described as Orotons, 
are placed under this genus. They have 
doubtless all originated from two or three 
species, and though popularly known as Oro- 
tons, belonging, as they do, to a different sec- 
tion of Ewphorbiacem, they should come under 
this genus. 

Codlins and Cream. A popular name of the 
flowers of the Nairdsaus Incomparabilis ; also 
for Epilobium, hirsvtv/m. 

Cc^lia. From koilos, hoUow ; in allusion to the 
pollen masses. Nat. Ord. Orchidacece. 

A genus of very curious and pretty stove- 
house orchids, natives of the West Indies and 
Guatemala. C. Baueriana has pretty, sweet- 
scented white flowers, and has been in culti- 
vation since 1790. 

Ccelo'gyne. Prom koilos, hollow, and gyne, a 
female ; in reference to the female organ or 
pistil. Nat. Ord. OrchidacecB. 

An extensive genus of very beautiful Orchids, 
natives of sub-tropical Asia. Most of the 
species are great favorites with Orchid grow- 
ers, on account of their remarkable flowers, 
which are produced in great numbers with but 
very little care or trouble. C. cristata, one 
of the finest of the genus, has beautiful ivory- 
white flowers with a blotch of yellow on the lip. 
" This is a magnificent species, which any one 
having a green-house can grow. Of late years 
it has been grown in great perfection, and it 
is as easy to have plants a foot or more in 
diameter, producing hundreds of flowers, as 
it is to grow Verbenas. Give plenty of water 
when growing, free circulation of warm air, 
and not too much heat." — Rand. It may be 
grown in moss in pots, and is propagated by 
division. Introduced in 1837. 

Cofife'a. Coffee Tree. From Coffee, the name 
of a province in Narea, in Africa, where it 
grows in abundance. Nat. Ord. Rubiacem. 

The coffee of commerce is the fruit of an 
evergreen shrub, or low-growing tree, rarely 
attaining a height of twenty feet, which it will 
only acquire under the most favorable con- 
ditions of soil and climate, the usual height 
being from ten to twelve feet. All of our 
coffee is the fruit of one species. Some 
botanists, however, claim there are two; but 
the opinion that the different sorts are merely 
varieties, resulting from toil, climate, and 
mode of culture, is the one generally enter- 
tained. C Arabica, the paren(|p)f the numer- 
ous varieties in cultivation, is a native of 
Arabia Felix and Ethiopia, and was first intro- 
duced to the notice of Europeans by Kan- 
wolfius in 1573 ; but Alpinus, in 1591, was the 
first one who scientifically described it. The 
Dutch were the first to introduce the plant 
into Europe.. Having procured some berries 
at Mocha, which were carried to Batavia, and 
there planted, a specimen was sent to Amster- 
dam, in the year 1690, by Governor Wilson, 
where it bore fruit, and produced many young 
plants. From these the East Indies, and most 
of the gardens of Europe, were furnished. In 
1714 a plant was presented by the magistrates 
of Amsterdam to the French King, Louis XIV. 
This plant was placed at Marley, imder the 

. care of the celebrated Jussieu, who afterward 
gave a plant to Desclieux, a young officer in 
the French navy, who took- it to Martinique, 
from which the extensive plantations of the 

AND GENERAIj horticulture. 



French West Indies were established, and 
•whence were also derived all the coffee plants 
in Mexico and South America. The use of 
coffee was known in Arabia, where the plant 
is supposed to have been indigenous, long , 
before the periods mentioned. All authorities 
agree in ascribing its introduction to Megal- 
leddin, a Turkish doctor of divinity, of Aden, in 
Arabia Felix, who had become acqiiainted 
with it in Persia, and had recourse to it 
medicinally when he returned to his own 
country. The progress which it made was by 
no means rapid at first, and it was not until 
the year 1554 that coffee was publicly sold in 
Constantinople. Its use had, in the mean- 
while, been much checked by authority of the 
Syrian government, on the ground of its 
alleged intoxicating qualities ; but more prob- 
ably because of its leading to social and fes- 
tive meetings incompatible with the strictness 
of the Mahommedan discipline. A similar 
persecution attended the use of coffee soon 
after its introduction into the capital of Tur- 
key, where the ministers of religion, having 
made it the subject of solemn complaint that 
the mosques were deserted while the coffee- 
houses were crowded, these latter were shut 
up by order of the mufti, who employed the 
police of the city to prevent any one from 
drinking coffee. This provision it was found 
impossible to establish, so that the govern- 
ment, with a strict eye to business, laid a tax 
upon the sale of the beverage, which produced 
a large revenue. The Turks are most invet- 
erate coffee-drinkers, a fact that may in a 
great measure be accounted for by the strict 
prohibition which the Moslem religion lays 
against the use of wine and spirituous liquors. 
So necessary was coffee at one time considered 
among the Turks, that the refusal to supply it 
in moderate quantities to a wife was reckoned 
among the legal causes for divorce. Coffee 
cannot be cultivated to advantage in a cli- 
mate where the temperature at any time 
descends below flfty-five degrees of Fahren- 
heit. The trees thrive best in new soils on a 
gentle slope, where water will not lodge 
about the roots. In exposed situations it is 
necessary to plant rows of tall trees, at proper 
intervals, to moderate the scorching heat of 
the sun. From Ellis' History of Coffee we 
learn the following facts : " It is well known 
that coffee raised in the West Indies does not 
equal in flavor that produced in Arabia and 
other parts of the East ; and it is commonly 
imagined that this inferiority is principally 
owing to local causes, and is, therefore, inca- 
pable of being remedied. The seed of the West 
Indian coffee, from growing in a richer soil 
and more humid atmosphere, is larger than 
that of Arabia; though there is reason for 
believing that the superior quality of Turkey 
and East Indian coffee is not altogether to be 
referred to the influences of soil and climate, 
but depends, in part at least, upon the age 
to which the seeds are kept before they are 
brought into consumption. Trees planted in 
a light soil, and in a dry situation, produce 
smaller berries, which have a better flavor 
than those grown in rich, flat, and moist soUs. 
The weight of produce yielded by the latter is, 
however, double that obtained from the for- 
mer. The drier the soil and the warmer the' 
situation, the better will be the coffee pro- 
duced, and the sooner it will acquire a flavor." 


He says further: "The more common or 
poorest quality of South American coffee will, 
in the course of ten or flfteen years, be as 
good, and have as high a flavor, as the best 
we now have from Turkey; but due care 
should be taken to keep it in a dry place, and 
to preserve it properly. Small-grained coffee, 
produced in a dry soil and warm situation, 
will be matured in three years. The trees 
begin bearing when they are two years old ; 
in their third year they are in their full bear- 
ing. The produce of a good tree is from one 
and a half to two pounds. The aspect of a 
coffee plantation during the period of flower- 
ing is very interesting. In one night the 
blossoms expand so profusely as to give the 
trees the appearance of being covered with • 
snow. This period lasts but one or two days." 
The amount of labor required to secure a crop 
of coffee is very great, and is chiefly performed 
by negroes. When the trees are in full bear- 
ing, an industrious man will pick three bushels 
of berries in a day, and each bushel of ripe 
berries will yield ten pounds of merchantable 
coffee. Two systems are employed in curing 
coffee : A common plan is to expose the ber- 
ries to the sun in layers of from five to six 
inches deep, which will cause the pulp to fer- 
ment in a few days, after which it takes about 
three weeks to dry sufficiently for the husks 
to be separated from the seeds by a mill. 
Other planters remove the pulp as soon as 
gathered, by a mill constructed for the pur- 
pose, which bruises the berries and separates 
the pulp by washing, after which it is dried in 
the sun, and the husks removed, as in the for- 
mer process. 

Cohering. Connected. 

Cohosh. A popular name for ActcBa spicata. 

Cohosh. Blue. A name applied to Cau2op%2ton 

Coiz. Job's Tears. A name applied by Theo- 
phrastus to a reed-leaved plant. Nat. Ord. 

A genus of perennial grasses that succeed 
well under ordinary cultivation in the garden. 
C. lachryma, a native of the East Indies, from 
whence introduced in 1596, will do well treated 
as an annual. It is considerably grown for its 
seeds, which are popularly known as Job's 
Tears. Mothers, in the last century, thought 
their children could not be safely carried 
through teething without a string of Job's 
Tears around their necks. 

Cola. The native name. Nat. Ord. StereuUacew. 
C. acuminata, the only cultivated species, 
was introduced from tropical Africa in 1868, 
under the name of Cola, Kola or Goora nuts. 
The seeds of this tree are universally used as 
a condiment by the natives of western and cen- 
tral tropical Af rica,and likewise by the negroes 
in the West Indies and Brazil,-by whom the tree 
has been introduced into those countries. , 
They are also used in medicine, and to render 
putrid water wholesome. At the present writ- 
ing (1889) much interest is exhibited in this nut 
as an ingredient in a new condensed form of 
rations for military purposes, combining, it 
is claimed, two special advantages of great 
importance. First, its bulk and weight being 
very much less than those of ordinary rations, 
it is much more easy to carry on a forced 
march, thus relieving the marching force of 




the impediment of a food-supply train, and 
secondly, that It greatly increased both the 
muscular strength and wind of the soldier so 
that he could march more rapidly and steadily 
and not become so easily tired out or dis- 
couraged. It has also been ascertained that 
horses like it, which is a very important 
point, and that its alimentary power is equal 
to that of twice its weight in oats, and that it 
plainly exerts an exciting action on the nerves 
and muscles of the horses. 

M. Elisee Keclus, in several parts of his 
" Nouvelle Geographie TTniverselle," mentions 
the Kola nut. He states that the tree is held 
sacred by the natives, who, by using it, are 
enabled "to stand hunger and thirst for a 
long while, and be shielded against fevers." 
There are two kinds of the tree. One bears 
white and the other red nuts. If the former 
are sent by a chief they mean peace, if the 
latter, war and the shedding of blood. When 
in 1879, two French explorers, Moustier and 
Zerafel, who were trying to find the head- 
waters of the Niger, arrived in sight of the 
hills from which this great Soudanese river 
emerges, and were within four miles of the 
main source, they had to come to a halt. The 
negro sovereign of that region forbade them 
to advance any nearer and sent them a red 
Kola nut, as a token that if they disregarded 
his notification to stop, blood would flow. 

The French Alpine Club uses the Kola nut, 
and recommends it to mountain climbers. 
No doubt it might often be made to serve a 
good purpose in our country. 

Colax. From Colax, a parasite. Nat. Ord. 

A t-mall genus of very beautiful Orchids, 
taken from Maxillaria. They are natives of 
Brazil and may be grown in moss and in mod- 
erate heat. Jjycaste was formerly included in 
this genus. 

Co'lohicum. Meadow Saffron. Named after 
Colchis, its native country, in Asia Minor. 
Nat. Ord. Melanthaceoe. 

A hardy bulbous-rooted plant, which will 
gro\£.wellin the border. The flowers come 
up through the ground without the leaves in 
autumn, and closely resemble those of the 
Crocus. The leaves do not appear till the 
following spring, and great care should be 
taken of them, as, if they should be injured 
. so as to prevent thera from exercising their 
proper functions in maturing the sap, the bulb 
will not flower the next autumn. The genus 
is universally poisonous and is valued for its 
medicinal properties. 

Cold Frame. This is the term used for the 
low glass structure in use for protecting such 
plants as are not sufficiently hardy to with- 
stand the winter in the Northern States. They 
are used to protect Cabbage, Cauliflower, Let- 
tuce, Parsley, etc., among vegetables, and 
Violets, Pansies, Daisies, Primroses, Cama^ 
tions, Auriculas, etc., among flowers. The 
boxes or frames used are simply two boards, 
running parallel with each other, and nailed 
to posts to secure them in line, the one at the 
back or north side being ten to twelve inches 
in height, and that for the front, or south side, 
being seven or eight inches, which gives pitch 
enough to carry off the rain and to catch the 
sun's rays. The width between these lines of 
boards should be enough to take the length of 


a six-foot sash, which is the most convenient 
size. All the plants of the character above- 
named can be protected in the district of New 
York, where the thermometer rarely falls 
lower than 8" below zero, with the glass alone ; 
but in colder sections the protection of light 
shutters in -addition, over the glass, will be 
necessary. In the Southern States, in dis- 
tricts where the thermometer never falls 
lower than 15° above zero, many of the har- 
dier green-house plants, such as Fuchsias, 
Geraniums, Azaleas, Camellias, Verbenas, 
Abutilons, etc., may be kept equally well in 
cold frames, as our so-called hardy plants are 
kept at the north. 
Cold Grapery. See VUis. 

Cold Pits. Are Identical with cold frames, 
except than an excavation of from two to four 
feet is made below the general level of the 
ground, so as to admit of larger plants being 
placed in them. The sunken pit, however, is 
a better protection than the cold frame on the 
surface ; for, when sunk to the depth of two 
or three feet, and covered with glass, it will 
resist a much heavier frost than the frames on 
the surface. Care must be taken that both cold 
frames and cold pits are well di-ained, either 
from the nature of the soil, or otherwise, as 
water standing in them would be destructive 
to the plants, whether planted in the soil or 
growing in pots. 

Co'lea. Named after General Cole, Governor of 
the Mauritius. Nat. Ord. Bignoniacem. 

There is but one species of this genus, 
which is found in Madagascar, Mauritius, and 
the adjacent islands. It is an exceedingly 
ornamental green-house shrub, producing 
large clusters of bright yellow flowers in 
August and September. Propagated by cut- 
tings. Introduced in 1839. 

Coleone'ma. A beautiful genus of RviacecE, 
from the Cape of Good Hope, related to 
Diosma, and consisting of very ornamental 
heath-like shrubs with sharp linear leaves and 
white flowers. Of the four known species C. 
Albwm is the most showy and best known. 

Coleus. From kokos, a sheath; referring to 
the way the bottom of the stamens 'or anther 
threads are combined. Nat. Ord. Labiatm. 

This somewhat extensive genus are natives 
of Asia and Africa. It consists of annuals, 
sometimes perennials, and rarely shrubs, but 
none of value as flowering plants but of gen- 
eral use in ribbon gardening, massing, or any 
situation where striking effect is wanted. 
From the original species many varieties, 
remarkable for their beautiful foliage, have 
been produced by florists. They are readily 
propagated by cuttings. The species were 
introduced about 1825. 

Colewort. A name applied to varieties of the 
Cabbage before the hearts become solid. 

Colic Root. See Aletria. 

Coliseum Ivy. See lAruwia. 

Colla'nia. Derivation of name unknown. Nat. 
Ord. Ammryllidacea. 

A beautiful free-flowering green-house per- 
ennial, allied to Alstrameria, which it resem- 
bles. The species are natives of Peru and 
will do well in this climate with the protection 
of a frame. The flower stems are eieot, some- 
what rigid, slightly curved at the top, and 




terminated with an umbel of large, pendulous 
flowers, upward of two inches long; sepals 
orange red, tipped with black ; petals yellow, 
tipped with green. Propagated by offsets. 

Collar. The ring upon the stipe of an Agaric. 
Also applied to the neck or line of junction 
between the root and stem of a tree, etc. 

Collards. (Brasaieaoleracea.) This is a curled- 
leafed variety of Cabbage grown for " greens," 
but mostly in the Southern States. It attains 
a height of from six to eight feet. This stem 
is an inch and a half to two inches in diameter, 
and is used to a considerable extent in 
Europe for making light walking canes. 

Colle'tia. Named after M. Collet, a French 
botanical writer. Nat Ord. Rhamnacece. 

A genus of singular shrubs inhabiting Chili, 
Peru and Mexico. They are much branched, 
and scantily furnished with minute leaves, 
having spines which stand at right angles 
with the stem in alternate pairs. The flowers 
are yeUow or white, and are produced in axill- 
ary clusters. The species are but half-hardy 
in this latitude. 

CoUi'nsia. In honor of Z. Collins, Vice-Presi- 
■dent of the Academy of Natural Sciences, 
Philadelphia. Nat. Ord. Scrophulariacem. 

A genus of free-flowering CaJiforniah annu- 
als of great beauty, and deserving of culti- 
vation, being well adapted for massing and 
for mixed borders. For massing, the seed 
should be sown thick, so as to thin out to four 
inches apart, which will give the bed an ap- 
pearance of a solid mass. For this purpose 
the dwarf species are to be preferred, the 
taller ones being more suitable for mixed 
borders. There is a great variety of color, 
white, purple and crimson predominating. 
First introduced in 1826. 

CoUinso'nia. Horsfe-Balm. Named in honor 
of Peter CoUmaon, a well-known patron of 
science and correspondent of Linneeus, who 
introduced it into England. Nat. Ord. Labia- 


A genus of strong-scented perennial herbs, 
common throughout the United States. 
None of the species has any special merit that 
would warrant its cultivation. 

CoUo'mia. From kallo, glue ; referring to the 
glue which surrounds the seeds. Nat. Ord. 

A genus of hardy annuals from California. 
They are showy plants, but too coarse and 
weedy in appearance to entitle them to a 
place in choice collections. They grow 
readily from seed, and when once planted 
need no care except to exterminate the sur- 
plus quantity. 

Coloca'sia. Elephant's Ear. From kolokasia, 
the Greek for the root of an Egyptian plant. 
Nat. Ord. Aroidem. 

An interesting genus closely allied to the 
Caladium, most of the species being known 
under that name. C. macrorhiza is a beautiful 
green-house plant, remarkable for the bold 
and distinct markings of the foliage, consist- 
ing of light green and pure white. C. odorala 
has large cordate leaves, with rounded lobes, 
and forms a stem-like root, and a stock often 
two feet or more in height. It is an excellent 
plant for summer decoration. C. eaculenta is a 
favorite plant for single specimens on the 
lawn, or for borders of a sub-tropical group, in 


a deep, rich soil. If freely watered, the leaves 
will sometimes grow four feet in length by 
three feet in width. This species and C. om- 
tiquorum are grown extensively in the Sand- 
wich Islands for food, and are called by the 
natives Taro, the root being eaten Like Pota- 
toes, and the leaves cooked like Spinach. The 
roots are also eaten by the negroes in the 
Southern States, and are called by them Tan- 
yah. See Taro. 

Co'locynth. Cuawmis {CitruMua) Colocyntlma. 
This is one of the gourd family inhabiting 
various parts of Turkey, although it is not 
well ascertained in what country it is indigen- 
ous. It is an annual trailing and climbing plant, 
like the garden cucumber. The fruit is a 
round gourd, about the size of an orange, 
divided into three cells, abounding with a 
pulpy matter, and containing numerous seeds. 
The pulp is exceedingly bitter ; a decoction of 
this pulp in water, and then evaporated, forms 
the well-known extract of Colocynth. 

Cologa'nia. In honor of the family of M. 
Cologan, of Port Oratavo, in Teneriffe, from 
whom the men of science, visiting that island, 
experienced the greatest hospitality. Nat. Ord. 

A small genus of evergreen climbers, allied 
to the Clitoria, and requiring the same treat- 
ment. The flowers are of a lively purple, 
generally in pairs at the axils of the leaves. 
They are natives of Mexico. Introduced in 

Color, Colored. Botanically, this term is used 
to denote any color except green. In technical 
botany white is regarded as a color, but green 
is not. 

Color in Flovwers, The Law of. This matter 
is referred to in the hope that it may be the 
means of saving some readers, not only from 
being duped and swindled by a class of 
itinerant venders who annually reap a rich 
harvest in disposing of impossibilities in' 
flowers, but that they may be assured of the 
utter improbability of their ever seeing such 
wonders as these fellows offer, thereby saving 
them from parting with money for worthless 
objects, and from the ridicule of their friends 
who are already better advised. This subject 
cannot .be too often brought before our 
amateur horticulturists. Warnings are given 
year after year in leading agricultural and 
other journals devoted to gardening, yet a 
new crop of dupes is always coming up, who 
readily fall victims to the scoundrels who live 
upon their credulity. Not a season passes but 
some of these swindling dealers have the 
audacity to plant themselves right in the 
business centres of our large cities, and hun- 
dreds of our sharp business men glide 
smoothly into their nets. The very men who 
will chuckle at the misfortunes of a poor 
rustic when he falls into the hands of a mock 
auctioneer, or pocketbook dropper, will freely 
pay ten dollars for a rose plant of which a 
picture has been shown them as having, a 
blue flower-; the chance of its coming blue 
being about equal to the chance that the 
watch of the mock auctioneer will be gold. 
It has long been known among the best ob- 
servers of such matters, that in certain 
families of plants particular colors prevail, 
and that in no single instance can we ever ex- 
pect to see blue, yellow, and scarlet colors in 




varieties of the same species. If anyone at all 
conversant with plants will bring any family 
of them to mind, it will at once be seen how 
undeviating is this law. In the Dahlia we 
have scarlet and yellow, but no approach to 
blue, and so in the Eose, Hollyhock, etc. 
Again, in the Verbena, Salvia, etc., we have 
scarlet and blue, but no yellow! In the 
Hyacinth we have blue and a fairly good 
yellow, but no scarlet. Some have contended 
that in this family we have the combination, 
for of course we have crimson ; but crimson 
is not scarlet any more than blue is purple. 
If we reflect it will be seen that there is 
nothing out of the order of Nature in this ar- 
rangement. We never expect to see among 
our poultry, with their varied but sombre 
plumage, any assume the azure hues of our 
spring Blue-bird or the dazzling tints of the 
Oriole ; why, then, should we expect Nature 
to step out of what seems her fixed laws, and 
give us a blue Kose, a blue Dahlia, or a yellow 

Colt's Foot. See Tussilago. 
Columbine. See AqvMegia. 
Columbo. American. See Prasera. 
Column. The combined stamens and styles 
forming a solid central body, as in Orchids, etc. 

Colu'mnea. Named after Fahius Colvmna, an 
Italian nobleman. Nat. Ord. Gesneraceoe. 

A small genus of curious and beautiful green- 
house plants, natives of New Grenada. The 
species are divided between climbers and 
shrubs. The flowers of the climbers are 
mostly yellow and orange ; of the shrubs, rose 
and purple. They are propagated by cuttings, 
and should be carefully watered. They will 
grow on blocks of wood, with moss, sus- 
pended in the green-house. Introduced in 

Colu'tea. Bladder-senna. From kolovtea, a 
name adopted from Theophrastus. Nat. Ord. 

C. arborescens, the common bladder-senna, 
is a hardy deciduous shrub, with delicate 
Acacia-like leaves of a warm light-green 
color. Its flowers are small, butterfly-shaped, 
and yellow, produced in July or August, and 
are followed by large bladder-like pods, of a 
reddish tinge when ripe, which explode with 
a slight pressure. It is a native of the south 
of Europe, and is said to grow on the crater 
of Vesuvius, where there is little other vege- 
tation. It is increased by suckers or from 

Combreta'ceae. A natural order of trees or 
shrubs, with alternate or opposite entire 
leaves without stipules. They are natives of 
the tropical parts of Asia, Africa, and America. 
Some of the plants are cultivated for orna- 
ment, and others furnish timber. They have 
astringent qualities, Terminalia Bellerica and 
T. Chebula yielding the astringent fruit called 
Myrobalan. The bark of Bueida Buceras is 
used for tanning. There are twenty-three 
known genera and upward of 200 species. 
Combretwm, Terminalia, and Gyrocarpiis illus- 
trate the order. 

Combre'tum. An ancient name adopted from 
Pliny. Nat. Ord. Combreta,cecB. 

This genus contains several species, all re- 
markable for the elegance and brilliant colors 


of the flowers, which are produced in large 
panicles. They are desirable for covering the 
roof or columns of an extensive hot-house, 
and they grow well in a mixture of leaf mould 
and loam, requiring to be pruned back closely 
every winter, as it is on the young wood only 
that flowers are produced. Most of the species 
are from South America and Africa. Propa- 
gated by cuttings of weU-ripened wood. The 
plant known as C.purpwrevm, is now placed 
under Poivrea, which see. 

Comespe'rma. Prom home, hair, and sperma, a 
seed ; in reference to the seeds being enveloped 
with hairs. Nat. Ord. PolygalacecB. 

A small genus of green-house evergreen 
herbs or shrubs, natives of Australia. Their 
handsome flowers of yellow, white, or purple, 
borne on terminal or axillary racemes, make 
them desirable plants. They are easily grown 
in an ordinary green-house. Propagated by 

Comfrey. See Symphytum. 

Commeli'na. Day Flower. Named after J. and 
O. Commelin, famous Dutch botanists. Nat. 
Ord. CommeUnacem. 

An extensive genus of annuals and peren- 
nials, hardy and green-house trailers, found 
throughout the Southern States and in South 
America. It is only the hardier species that 
can now be considered worth cultivation. C. 
ccelestis forms an excellent border plant. Its 
flowers are. blue, of a brighter shade than 
perhaps is to be found elsewhere in the whole 
range of vegetable forms. The tubers of this 
plant should be taken up in winter, and, in- 
deed, receive the treatment of Dahlias, except 
that they do not require to be placed in any 
elevated temperature to induce them to start 
into growth. The annual species should be 
sown in March where they are to remain. 

Commelina'ceae. An extensive, widely dis- 
persed order of herbaceous plants, with usually 
flat leaves sheathing at the base. Flowers with 
the outer perianth of three segments,, the 
inner also of three and colored. They are 
natives of New HoUand, the East dnd West 
Indies, and a few are found in North America, 
but none in northern Asia or Europe. The 
underground stems of many yield starch and 
are used for food. The filaments of the 
Tradescavtias have jointed hairs, in which a 
granular movement is seen under the micro- 
scope. There are sixteen known genera, and 
260 species. Commelina, Tradescantia, and 
Cyanotis are examples of the order. 

Common Petiole. The first and principal leaf- 
stalk in compound leaves ; the secondary pet- 
ioles are called partial. 

Compare'ttia. Named after Compairetti, an Ital- 
ian botanist. Nat. Ord. OrchidacetB. 

A genus of epiphytal Orchids, with small 
rose, purple, or scarlet flowers, produced in 
small bunches on long stalks. They are 
natives of Mexico and South America, and 
succeed best when grown on cork, with a 
little moss, in a shaded house. The flowers 
retain their beauty a long time. Introduced 
in 1838. 

Compass Plant. Se 

Compo'sitae, including Astera'cese. This is 
the largest natural order of plants, the species 
occurring in all parts of the world, and in all 




places, and forming a total of about equal to a 
tenth of the whole vegetable kingdom. They 
are recognized by their monopetalous flowers, 
growing in close heads (capUula), and having 
at once an inferior one-celled ovary, and sta- 
mens whose anthers cohere in a tube (that is, 
are syngenesious). De Candolle states, as the 
result of his examination of their natural 
habit, that out of 8,523, 1,229 were annuals, 
243 biennials, 2,491 perennials, 2,264 under- 
shrubs from one to three feet high, 366 shrubs 
from tour to fifteen feet high, 72 small trees, 
4 large trees above twenty-live feet high, 81 
woody plants, 126 twiners or climbers, and 
1,201 about which nothing certain could be as- 
certained. According to Mr. Bentham, the spe- 
cies are nearly equally divided between the 
New and the Old- World, there being linown 
about 430 genera with 4,700 species in the 
former, and 410 genera containing 4,400 spe- 
cies in the latter. There are about 75 genera 
common to the two divisions ; but the identi- 
cal species in the two, and those chiefly arc- 
tic or high northern, are not more than 70 out 
of at least 9,100. 

The uses of the order, real or imaginary, 
are very numerous and conflicting. Some are 
tonic and aromatic, like Wormwood {Artemisia 
abainthium), and others, or vermifuges, like 
those other Artemisias, known in foreign 
pharmacy as Semencontra, or Semencine. A 
fe'sv are powerful irritants, as the Pellitory of 
Spain {Anaq/clus Pyrethrum), and various kinds 
of Spiianthes, which excite salivation. Arnica 
montana is powerfully narcotic and acrid. 
Similar evil qualities belong to Ore.pia lacera, 
a most venomous species, said to be no infre- 
quent cause of fatal consequences to those 
who, in the south of Europe, incautiously use 
it as a salad ; nor are Hieraciii/m virosum and 
H. aabandum altogether free from suspicion. 
Some species of Pyrethrwm have the power of 
driving away fleas, and are largely used as 
insecticides, the Dalmatian and Persian In- 
sect Powders being from this genus. Many 
yield in abundance a bland oU when their 
seeds are crushed; such are the Sunflower 
(Helianthus annuus), the Til or Ehamtil (Fer-fee- 
sinia saliva), largely cultivated in India, and 
Madia saliva. A purgative resin is obtained 
from some allies of the Thistles ; others, as 
Aucklandia Costus, now referred to Aplotaxis 
Lappa, have aromatic roots. Finally, under 
the name of Artichoke, Succory, Scorzonera, 
Endive, Salsify, and Lettuce, we have some 
of our most nutritious and useful esculents. 
Botanists adopt various modes of classifying 
this immense mass of species; but all are 
subordinate to the four following groups, viz. : 
Cichoracea, florets all ligulate (strap shaped) ; 
Corymb if erce, florets tubular in the disk; 
Cynaracem, florets all tubular, with an articu- 
lation beneath the stigma ; and Labialiflorce, 
florets bilabate (two-lipped). 
Composts. This term Is applied to any mix- 
ture of soils and manures, either for potting 
purposes, or for top dressing plants in pots, 
or in the open ground. It may consist of dif- 
ferent ingredients according to the habit, or 
suitable to the requirement of the plants for 
which it is intended. Manures that by their 
strength would prove destructive, if applied 
directly to any plant, may prove beneficial 
when mixed to form a certain proportion of 
the compost. In all gardens the accumulating 


refuse of all kinds may be advantageously 
composted with soil and a liberal admixture 
of lime, which, when turned over several 
- times during winter, and thoroughly amalga- 
mated, will prove a valuable top-dressing in 
spring for lawns or other purposes. 

Compound, Composite. Formed of several 
parts united in one common whole ; as pin- 
nated leaves, and all kinds of inflorescence 
beyond that of the solitary flower. A com^ 
pound umbel is formed of several simple 
umbels, etc. 

Compto'nia. Sweet Fern. Named after jBis^^ 
Compton, an ardent cultivator of exotics and a 
great patron of botany. Nat. Ord. Myri- 

C. asplemifolia is a hardy deciduous shrub, 
common througho'ut the Northern States on 
poor soils. It is popularly known as Sweet 
Fern from its aromatic scent and the resem- 
blance of the leaves to the fronds of the Aspleni- 
wms. A decoction or tea made of the leaves 
is useful, applied externally, in cases of 
poisoning by the Poison Ivy. 

Conandron. From konos, a cone, and aner, 
andron, a male, an anther; the appendages to 
the anthers are united in a cone around the 
style. Nat. Ord. Gesneracew. 

C. rammidioides, the only described species, 
is a veiy pretty half-hardy herbaceous peren- 
nial, introduced from Japan in 1879. The 
flowers are white or pink, with a purple eye, 
and are borne on leafless scapes in a forked or 
corymbose cyme, which is at first drooping. 
It is closely allied to Ramiondia, and may be 
increased by seeds or division. 

Cona'nthera. From konos, a cone, and anthera, 
an anther, or pollen bag ; in reference to the 
six anthers forming a cone in the early stage 
of the flower. Nat. Ord. lAlixuxm. 

This is a small genus of Chilian bulbs, but 
little known because of the difficulty of pre- 
serving them. They produce beautiful blue 
flowers in panicles on a stalk about one foot 
high, and require, like all Chilian bulbs, a 
light, dry soil. They will endure our climate 
with but little protection, if kept nearly dry 
during winter. They are rapidly increased by 
offsets. Introduced in 1823. 

Concave. Hollow. 

Concentric. Points or lines at equal distances 
from a common center. 

Condor-Vine. A common name for Gonobolus 

Cone. A dense aggregation of scale-like car- 
pels, arranged symmetrically round an axis, 
as in the Pine tribe. 

Cone Plovsrer. See Rudbeckia. 

Conferva'ceas. A division of the green-spored 
Al§CB. Found in all parts of the world, 
but most numerous in temperate regions. 
They are sometimes so abundant that, after 
floods, they form a thick coat like paper on 
the ground, to which the name meteoric paper 
has been given. 

Confluent. The fastening together oif homo- 
geneous parts ; gradually uniting organically. 

Congo Pea. See Cajanus. 

Coni'feree. A large and important natural 
order consisting of trees or shrubs, mostly 
with resinous secretions. The leaves are 




stiff, sometimes linear or needle-shaped, some- 
times short and scale-like, or more rarely 
broad, lobed, or divided. The flowers are uni- 
sexual, either in cylindrical or short catkins 
with closely packed scales, or the females are 
solitary. There are nearly 200 known species, 
distributed over a great part of the globe, 
several of them forming large forests in tem- 
perate climates, or, more rarely, within the 
tropics ; while some of them extend almost to 
the limits of woody vegetation in liigh lati- 
tudes, or at great elevations. Bentham and 
Hooker, divide this large family into six 
tribes, viz. : Abetineue, containing Abiea, 
Cedrus, Larix, Picea, Pinus, Pseudotsuga and 
Tsuga; Araucariee, containing Agathis, Arau- 
caria and Cunninghamia ; Capressineee, con- 
taining Arctinostrobus, Callilris, Cupressus, 
FUzroya, Juniperus, Libocedms and Thuja; 
Podocarpese, containing Microcachrys, Podo- 
carpus and Saxegothea; Taxcse, containing 
Dacrydium, Ginkgo, Pherosphmra, Phyllocladim, 
Taxnis and Torreya; Taxodiese, containing 
Athrotaxus, Cephahtaxua, Cryptomeria, Sequoia 
and Taomdium. 

The ConifersB are very useful and important, 
yielding valuable timber and resin, oil, pitch 
and turpentine. Some attain a vast height, 
as Sequoia gigantea in California, specimens 
having been measured more than 450 feet 
high and 116 feet in circumference at the 
base. Taxodium sempervirens also attains a 
very great size. The Pines have their leaves 
in clusters of two, three, four, five or six, 
surrounded by a membraneous sheath at the 
base. Pinua sylmestris, the common Scotch 
Fir, abounds in cold climates, and supplies 
timber, turpentine and pitch, as well as a 
hemp-like fiber from Its leaves, which is used 
for stufflng pillows and cushions under the 
name of pine wool. Pinvs pinaster, or the 
Bordeaux Pine, thrives well on the seashore. 
Abies includes different species of Fir 
and Spruce, in all of which the leaves come 
off from the stem and branches singly. Abies 
excelsa is the Norway Spruce, and A. balsamea is 
the Balm of Gilead Fir ; Picea pectinata the 
Silver Fir; Pseudotsuga Canadensis is the 
Hemlock Spruce; Cedrus comprises those 
Cedars which have clustered persistent leaves. 
Cedrus lAbani is the Cedar of Lebanon, the 
Eres of the Bible; Cedrus Deodara is the 
sacred Cedar of India. Larix includes the 
species of Larch, which have clustered de- 
ciduous leaves. Larix Europea is the Euro- 
pean Larch ; L. Americana is the American 
Larch, commonly called Hackmatack; L. 
Griffithii is the Himalayan Larch. The 
Araucarias have single-seeded scales, with ad- 
Jierent seeds and many-celled anthers. Arav,- 
carta imbricata is a Chilian species ; A. Bid- 
willii is from Moreton Bay ; both have edible 
seeds ; A. excelsa, which yields valuable wood, 
is the Norfolk Island Pine. Cryptomeria 
Japonica is the Japan Cedar, of which there 
are several beautiful forms. Cupressus semper- 
virens is the common Cypress. The Junipei's 
have a peculiar succulent fruit. Juniperus 
Bermudiama and J. Virginiana furnish the 
Cedar for lead pencils. The species of Thuja 
are known by the name of Arbor Vltss. 
Co'nium. Poison Hemlock. From konao to 
whirl around; in reference to the giddiness 
caused by eating the leaves. Nat. Ord. Um- 



This genus is almost identical with Cieuta, 
or Water Hemlock. C. maculatimi is a strong- 
growing, branching herb, the juices pf which 
are very poisonous. Common in marshy 
places. Naturalized from Europe. 

Connate. When the bases of two opposite 
leaves are united together. Also when any 
parts, originally distinct, become united in 

Connivent. Converging; having a gradually 
inward direction. 

Conocli'nium. Mist-Flower. From konos, a. 
cone, and kline, a bed ; from the conical 
receptacle. Nat. Ord. Compositm. 

C. ccelestinum, the only species of much in- 
terest, is a hardy herbaceous perennial, with 
terminal corymbs of violet purple or blue 
flowers, common in the Southern and Western 
States. It is commonly called Eupatorium, 
from which it differs only in the receptacle, 
and is rapidly increased by division or from 

Cono'pholis. Squaw Root, Cancer Root. From 
konos, a cone, and pholis, a scale ; resembling 
a fir cone. Nat. Ord. drobanchacece. 

C. Atnericana is a very singular little plant, 
common in oak woods, growing in clusters 
among fallen leaves. The plant is a fleshy 
herb, chestnut-colored or yellowish through- 
Qut, and as thick as a man's thumb. The stem 
is without leaves, scaly and generally simple. 
The flowers are in terminal spikes, and not 
showy. In this country it is popularly known 
as Cancer Boot, from its. supposed-medicinal 

Conoste'phium. From konos, a cone, and 
stpphanos, a crown ; referring to the disposi- 
tion of the flowers. Nat. Or I. JUpaaridacem. 

A genus of fruit bearing Epacridacem. val- 
ued for its beautiful flowers by gardeners who 
delight in growing plants that can only be 
grown with tiie greatest difficulty; to which 
class this plant belongs. The fruit, though 
wholesome, is not generally liked. Tlie Na- 
tive Currant of New Holland belongs to this 
section. Propagated by cuttings. Introduced 
from Swan River in 1836. 

Cono'stylis. From konos, a cone, and stylos, a 
style ; the stylo, or femalo organ, grows in the 
shape of a cone at the bottom. Nat. Ord. 

A small genus of green-house herbaceous 
perennials from New Holland, rather orna- 
mental, but not of sufficient merit for general 
cultivation. Propagated by division of the 

Conservatory. The term usually applied to a 
green-house structure when attaclied to the 
dwelling-house, or when it is used as a house 
wherein specimen plants are {^rown or dis- 
played ; it is usually of an ornamental char- 
acter and of various sizes. When d.rtached, a 
convenient size is twenty feet wide by fifty 
feet in length, with side siishes and curvili- 
near roofs sloping equally to east and west at 
an angle of about 35 degrees. The height 
from the floor to the ridge may bo from twelve 
to fifteen feet, according to circumstances, 
The height of the front, including three feet 
of glass, from five to six feet. 

Constricted. Lightened, or contracted in some 
particular place. 











ooBDTLnn: (obapaita) lauivm . 



■ CON 

Contiguous. Where two neighboring parts 
are in contact through the whole length of 
their edges or surfaces; as the sepals of 
Raphanus and the cotyledons of many species 
of plants. 

Contorted. Twisted back upon itself ; arranged 
so as to overlap other parts. 

Convalla'ria. Lily of the Valley. From the 
Latin convallis, a valley, and rica, a mantle ; 
in reference to the dense covering formed by 
the leaves. Nat. Ord. LiHacem. 

The LUy of the Valley, C. majalis, is a plant 
so well known, and such a universal favorite, 
that little need be said by way of description, 
unless we add that of Gerarde in 1596, which 
is as follows: "The Lilly of the Vally hath 
many leaves like the smallest leaves of Water 
Plantaine, among which riseth vp a naked 
stalke, halfe a foot high, garnished with many 
white floures, like bels, with blunt and turned 
edges, of a strong savour, yet pleasant 
enoughf, which being past, there come small, 
red berries, much like the berries of aspara- 
gus, wherein the seed is contained." A mod- 
ern writer in the Treasury of Botany says : 
" Without poetical or fanciful conventional- 
ities, the Lily of the Valley is as perfect an 
emblem of purity, modesty and humility as 
the floral world can afford. It may seem idle 
to observe that a flower of this description 
cannot be that referred to in the sermon on 
the mount ; but as that opinion is frequently 
broached in popular works, it may simply be 
observed that it never grows in the open field, 
and that there is nothing in its array to which 
the term ' glory ' is applicable. Not a little 
unprofitable commentary might have been 
spared if the same general meaning had been 
attached to the term ' Lilies of the Field,' 
which has, by common consent, been ascribed 
to the parallel phrase, 'Fowls of the Air,' 
while the passage itself would have gained in 
force and dignity by being kept clear from 
botanical disquisitions." The flowers of the 
Lily of the Valley are used during the winter 
months in immense quantities, New York city 
alone probably using a million, the average 
price of which is about five cents each, so that 
for this flower alone $50,000 is annually paid 
by the bouquet makers to the florist, the con- 
sumer paying, no doubt, one-third more. The 
Lily of the Valley is nearly all imported from 
Germany and France, usually in single crowns 
or " pips." The method of culture is to place 
these thickly together in Shallow boxes as 
soon as i-eceived in November, placing them 
in a cold frame or in the open ground, cover- 
ing them up so that they do not get severely 
frozen. They should remain in this condition 
at least four weeks before they are brought in 
to force, which should be done gradually, 
beginning at 50° and running up to 65° or 70°. 
If taken every few weeks, a succession may 
be kept up from January until May. In fact, 
the flowers are now to be had all the year 
round, as some growers find it sufBciently 
profitable to keep the roots in refrigerators, 
and, thus retarded, they are forced to bloom 
at will at any time during the summer or fall 
months. This same system might be used 
with many other plants, but it is only in very 
valuable flowers such as this that the expense 
would be justifled. The plant does well in 
the garden, and may be put under the shade 


of trees; but wherever placed, the roots 
should not be disturbed for several years, if 
at all, as many clumps will not otherwise 
bloom. Propagated by division. 

Convex. Kising in a circular form. 

Convolute. When one part is wholly rolled up 
in another, as in the petals of the Wallflower, 
or the spathe of an Arum. 

Convolvula'ceae. A natural osder of herbs or 
shrubs, usually twining, and with a milky 
juice, having alternate leaves, without stip- 
ules, and regular flowers, the flower stalks 
(peduncles) bearing one or many flowers. 
They are abundant in tropical countries and 
rare in cold climates. They twine around other 
plants and creep among weeds, etc., along the 
seashore. The plants are characterized chiefly 
by their purgative qualities, and many of 
them are used medicinally. Jalap is produced 
from the root or underground stem of Exogo-, 
niwm {Ipomcea) purga, while the gum resin 
called Scammony is produced by Convohiulua 
scammonia. Ipomcea Boncu-nox, which pro- 
duces its pure white flowers at night, is the 
Moon-creeper of Ceylon and other warm coun- 
tries. Ipomcea (Calonyction) grwndiflora is the 
plant so widely known and distributed as the 
Moon-flower. Batatas eCkiXis, the Sweet Po- 
tato, or Batatas, is cultivated in the United 
States, Japan and China, and also in Spain 
and Portugal. In the Philippine Islands the 
Batatas or Camotes are used for making soup, 
as well as roasted. This order comprises 
forty-six known genera and nearly 700 species. 
Convolvulus, Ipomma, Calystegia, Exogonium, 
Batatas and Pharbiiis are illustrative genera. 

Convo'lvulus. From eonvohere, to entwine ; in 
reference to their twining habit. Nat. Ord. 

Well-known, splendid climbing plants, hardy 
and half-hardy, annual and perennial. They 
should be trained against stakes or trellis- 
work, as their stems are too feeble to support 
themselves. Most of the tender kinds of 
Convolvulus were separated from it by Lin- 
neeus,' and formed into the genus IpomoRa. AH 
the tender kinds may be made to flower in the 
open air during summer, and the more hardy 
species only require sowing in the open 
ground. C. Mauritanicus is a prostrate, twin- 
ing perennial species having blue flowers, 
with a white throat and yellow anthers. It is 
a most useful plant for hanging-baskets, etc. 
C. minor (tricolor), a dwarf-growing species, 
is a native of Spain and Portugal. The flowers 
are often pure white, but generally variegated 
with blue and yellow, or blue and white ; the 
more beautiful kind is a bright blue, gradually 
changing to a pure white in the center. The 
form of this flower is no less beautiful than 
the color. The plant spreads with much reg- 
ularity in every direction from the center, so 
that a bed of them, with the plants two feet 
apart each way, will form a compact mass 
resembling a single plant. It is scarcely 
exceeded in elegance by any plant in the bor- 
der when in full flower. The flowers continue 
open all day if pleasant, but close in case of 
rain. Seed should be sown as soon as the 
ground can be got in order in spring. If 
started in the green-house in pots it m&es a 
charming plant for hanging-baskets, rustic 
work, or the window. This species has been 
noticed for more than 250 years in Herbals. 




Cony'za. A genus of CompoaUoB, consisting of 
herbaceous or shrubby plants of little general 
interest. They were formerly supposed to 
have the power, when suspended in a room, 
of driving away fleas, hence the English name 
riea-bane, a name given also to an allied genus. 

Coope'ria. Named after Mr. Cooper, gardener 
for many years at Wentworth House, in York- 
shire, England. Nat. Ord. Amaryllidacem. 

A small genus of bulbous plants from Texas, 
allied to the Zephyrwnthea. C. Drummondi, 
typical of the species, has narrow, twisted 
leaves twelve to eighteen inches long, and a 
scape six to twelve inches high, bearing at the 
end a single flower, of which the tube is 
upward of four inches long, of a greenish 
color, and the limb upward of an inch long 
and pure white. The flower always expands 
in the evening, and is not usually perfect after 
the first night. The nocturnal flowering of 
this plant is an anomaly in the order, and the 
more remarkable because its nearest relatives 
require full sunshine to make them expand. 
The flower ias the fragrance of the Primrose. 
These bulbs are half-hardy, and will endure 
our winters with a slight protection if grown 
in a light, sandy soil, which is the one best 
suited to them. For effect they should be 
planted in clumps, and quite close together. 
Propagated by offsets. Introduced in 1835. 

Cooper's Wood. See Ponuiderris. 

Copaiba Balsam. The name of the balsam pro- 
duced by Copaifera officinalis. 

Copa'ifera. From the Brazilian name copaiba, 
and/ero, to bear. Nat. Ord. Leguminosw. 

A tender evergreen tree, native of Brazil, 
valuable only for the medicinal properties of 
the balsam it yields. 

Copro'sma. From copras, dung, and osme, a 
smell. The plants have a fetid smell. Nat. 
Ord. RvMacea. 

A small genus of green-house evergreen 
shrubs of easy culture, and of little interest 
except in their own country, where the leaves 
are used by the New Zealand priests -to dis- 
cover the will of the gods. The leaves are 
attached with a cord of flax to sticks, which 
are laid on the ground, each stick represent- 
ing a separate party. The priests retire to 
pray, and after a time the chiefs are sum- 
moned to examine the sticks, which are found 
to have been moved, and some have disap- 
peared entirely. This is considered a certain 
sign that one of the party will be destroyed. 
Others are found turned over. If the leaf be 
turned down the omen is bad; but if the 
reverse should occjir, it is a sign that the 
party represented>by the stick will prosper in 
his undertakings; C. Baueriana variegata is a 
strikingly beautiful plant for the green-house 
and conservatoi-y, or for a place on the lawn 
in summer. Propagated by cuttings. 

Co'ptis. Gold-thread. From kopto, to cut ; in 
reference to the division of the leaves. Nat. 
Ord. RanunculgfCetB. 

C. trifolia, the only species, is a beautiful 
little evergreen herb, with creeping root- 
stocks, common in boggy places from Mary- 
land Jiorthward. The long, bright yellow 
fibres of the root have caused it to receive the 
con/mon name of Gold-thread. The roots are 
vertf bitter, and are used in medicine as a 
tonic. It formerly held a prominent place 


among domestic remedies, and was consideied 
invaluable for sore mouths in children. 
Coral Bead Plant. Ahrua precaioriua. 
Coral Bush. See Templeionia. 
Coral Cactus. A popular name for RhipsaUs. 
Coral Honeysuckle. A local name of Lonicera 
sempervirens, which is also cailled Trumpet 
Corallorhi'za. Coral Eoot. Said to be from 
Varallion, a coral, and rhiza, a root. Nat. Ord. 

A genus of curious little Orchids, common 
in wet or boggy places throughout the United 
States. Their leaves are like small scales, of 
a yellowish color, like their stems ; the flow- 
ers are small, in a loose terminal spike. C. 
innata, one of the more common species, is a 
slender plant, from six to nine inches high, of 
a pale color, and remarkable for its root-stalk, 
which is formed of a number of short, thick, 
whitish fleshy fibres, divided into short, blunt 
branches, and densely interwoven, resembling 
coral; hence the popular name. All the spe- 
cies are incapable of cultivation, or, at least, 
they so rarely live when removed that it is 
considered a useless task to attempt it. 
Coral Root. See Corallorhiza. 
Coral Tree. See Erythrina. 
Corbula'rla. From corbula, a little basket ; in 
reference to the shape of the nectary. Nat. 
Ord. AmaryllidacecE. 

A small genus, commonly called Hoop Petti- 
coats, which has recently been separated from 
Narcissus. The species are quite ornamental 
and perfectly hardy, but, like most of what 
are usually termed "Dutch Bulbs," they do 
best with a slight protection of leaves or 
coarse manure. It is a native of Portugal, and 
is propagated by offsets. Introduced in 1629. 
Co'rchorus. From kore, a pupil, and koreo, to 
purge ; in allusion to the laxative qualities of 
some of the species. Nat. Ord. Tiliacem. 

An extensive genus of annuals and herbar 
ceous plants, inhabitants of both hemispheres. 
As ornamental or flowering plants they are of 
little value. C. capsularis is much grown in 
many sections of India for the exceedingly 
valuable fibre it yields, which is known under 
the name of Jute, and which forms an impor- 
tant article of commerce. 
Cordate. Heart-shaped in outline ; applied to 
a plane or flat body having two round lobes at 
the base. 
Cord Grass. See Spwrtina. 
Co'rdia. A genus of BorraginacecB, containing 
nearly two hundred species, scattered over 
the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the 
world. They are principally trees or shrubs, 
some of them of considerable beauty. Some 
species supply useful and ornamental timber ; 
the wood of G. Rumphi is brown, beautifully 
veined with black, and smells of musk. The 
wood of C. myxu is soft, and is reckoned one 
of the best kinds for kindling flre by friction, 
and it is said to be the wood which was used 
by the Egyptians in constructing their 
mummy oases. 
Cordyli'ne. Club Palm. From kordyle, a club. 
Nat. Ord. lAliacem. 

A genus of green-house evergreen shrubs, 
allied to Dracmna. The type, C. indivisa, has 
usually been sold in this country under the 




name of Draccena indiviaa. It is an exceed- 
ingly useful plant for large specimens upon 
the lawn, or for jardiniferes, baskets, or vases, 
as it will withstand some neglect and thrive 
where many other plants would perish. This 
species was introduced from New Zealand in 
1850, and is propagated from seed, which 
should be sown in boxes on bottom heat, or in 
the green-house. As soon as the plants are 
three inches high, prick out in small pots. 
The young plants require a high temperature 
and liberal waterings. Seedlings of this 
species vary very much in character, and 
mauy desirable varieties, such as C indiviaa 
Veitchii, cUropurpurea, Uneata, etc., are in culti- 
vation. G. Australia is also a most useful 
species, the leaves being broader and more 
drooping and graceful than the foregoing. A 
number of the species and varieties cultivated 
as Dracaenas, are placed under this genus by 
mauy botanists, they being nearly all varieties 
of G. terminalia {Draemna), a species cultivated 
everywhere throughout the tropics, and pro- 
ducing innumerable varieties from seed. 

Coreo'psis. From koris, a bug, and opsia, like ; 
referring to the appearance of the seeds. Nat. 
Ord. Gompositm. * 

Most of the showy annuals formerly known 
by this name are now called Calliopsis, while 
most of the perennial species are still left in 
this genus. The perennial kinds are quite 
hardy, the taller sorts requiring plenty of 
room, but such free-flowering, showy gems as 
G. auriculata, G. lanceolata, and G. tenuifolia 
should have prominent positions. They are 
valuable also for cutting, as the closer the 
blooms are cut, the more they flower. They 
are propagated by division of the roots, or 
from seed, which, if sown where it is to re- 
main, as soon as ripe, will flower early the fol- 
lowing summer. The many species are 
found from South Carolina southward to 

Coriaceous. Having the consistence of leather. 

Coria'ndrum. Coriander. From koria, a bug ; 
referring to the smell of the leaves. Nat. Ord. 

G. aativvm, the only species, is a hardy 
annual, and a native of the south of Europe. 
It is a plant of little beauty, and of the easiest 
culture. It is grown only for its seeds, which 
are quite aromatic, and much used in flavor- 
ing. The odor and taste depend upon a volatile 

Co'ris Monspeliensis. The only species of the 
genus, a native of the western coasts of the 
Mediterranean is a lowly-branching herbaceous 
plant, bearing beautiful bright lilac flowers in 
dense terminal spicate racemes. It belongs 
to the Primrose family, and is an excellent 
plant for the rock-garden. Increased by seed, 
sown as soon as ripe. 

Corlc Tree. Common. Quercua auber. 
E. Indian. Adanaonia dlgitata. 

Cork Wood. Hibiscua HMaceua. 
West Indian. Ochroma Lagopua, and Anona 
paluatria, which see. 

Corm. A fleshy, solid underground stem, hav- 
ing the appearance of and often called a bulb, 
and from which it is distinguished by its not 
being scaly. The Gladiolus, Crocus, Babiana, 
Sparaxis, etc., are Corms. 

Corn. See Zea. 


Corna'ceae. A small natural order of trees and 
shrubs, rarely herbs, natives of the temperate 
parts of Europe, Asia, and America. The 
plants are used as tonics and in agues. Prom 
the wood of C. maacula, the Turks obtain 
the dye for their red fez. Some species are 
grown as ornamental plants, and the common 
Dogwood, which is very heavy and solid, is 
much too commonly used in the United States 
for baling hay, those who buy the hay very 
properly esteeming it a fraudulent practice. 
There are nine known genera and forty spe- 
cies. Comua, Aueuba, and Benthamia are 
illustrative genera. 

Corn Flag. Gladiolua aegetum. 

Corn-flower. Blue. Gentawrea Cyanua. 

Corn-Lily. Gonvolvulua arvenaia and C Sa- 

Corn-Marigold. Chryaanthemum aegelvmi. 
Corn Fink and Corn Cockle. Lychnia Githago. 
Corn Poppy. Papaver Rhceaji. 
Corn Salad. See Valerianella, 
Corn Thistle. Carduua arvenaia. 
Cornel. Gomvs aamgwinea. 

Dwarf. Gamua auecica and G. Ganadenaia. 

Corniculate. Terminating in a process resem- 
bling a horn, as the fruit of Trapa bicornia. 
It there are two horns the word bicornia is 
used ; if three horns, tricomia, and so on. 

Co'rnus. Dogwood. From cortm, a horn; in 
reference to the hardness of the wood. Nat. 
Ord. Comacece. 

A genus consisting principally of trees and 
shrubs. Some of the latter are very orna- 
mental, the bark of the branches being of a 
brilliant, glossy red in winter, and the leaves 
of an intense purplish red in autumn. G. 
florida, or Flowering Dogwood, is a tree grow- 
ing from twelve to thirty feet high, and is 
common in rocky woods from New York south- 
ward. It is an interesting species, not only 
for its symmetrical growth, but for its large 
showy flowers, or rather the involucres which 
surround the flowers (which are pure white 
inside and tinged with violet on the outside), 
and the showy fruit which succeeds them. It 
is an appropriate and popular tree for ceme- 
teries and a fine ornament for the lawn. G. 
Canadensis, Bunch Beray, or Dwarf Cornel, is 
a small herbaceous species, growing about six 
inches high, from a creeping subterranean 
root-stock, the upper leaves crowded into an 
apparent whorl in sixes and fours, surround- 
ing the clear white floral involucres — one of 
the neatest and most interesting plants for 
the rock-garden. It is common in damp, cold 
woods northward. 

Corolla. That part of a flower which intervenes 
between the calyx and the stamens. Its 
parts, which are called petals, are almost 
always colored. 

Corolliflo'rae. A sub-class of Dicotyledons or 
Exogens, characterized by the petals being 
united, so as to form a monopetalous corolla, 
inserted below the ovary, and by the stamens 
being usually attached to the corolla, but 
sometimes inserted separately below the 
ovary. Such orders as the Heath family, the 
Gentians and the Labiates may serve as illus- 




Corona. A coronet; literally a crown. Any 
appendage that intervenes between the corolla 
and stamens, as the cup of a Daffodil or the 
rays of a Passion Flower, or the crown-like 
cup which is found at the orifice of the tube 
of the corolla of the Narcissus, etc. Corona 
staminea, is a coronet formed from trans- 
formed stamens. 

Coroni'Ua. From corona, a crown or garland ; 
in reference to the arrangement of the flow- 
ers. Nat. Ord. Leguminosm. 

A genus of pretty annual and perennial 
plants found in Europe, Asia Minor and north 
Africa, but In the greatest abundance in coun- 
tries bordering on the Mediterranean Sea. 
Several of the green-house species are very 
pretty flowering shrubs of easy culture. C. 
glauca produces its bright yellow, pea-shaped 
flowers in abundance during the winter, and 
with Its beautiful variegated variety is invalu- 
able for winter green-house decoration. Prop- 
agated by cuttings or from seeds, which ripen 

Corpse Plant. One of the popular names of 
the Monotropa tmiflora, a low-growing para- 
site on roots, or growing on decomposing 
vegetable matter, like a fungus. It is also 
called Indian Pipe. 

Co'rrea. Named after Joseph Correa, a Portu- 
guese botanist. Nat. Ord. Rutacece. 

A genus of green-house evergreen shrubs, 
natives of New South Wales, New Holland 
and Australia, where they are sometimes 
called Fuchsias, from the slight resemblance 
the flowers have to the Fuchsia. Several of 
the species have long been grown in green- 
houses for the beauty of their flowers, which 
are white, scarlet or green ; produced in June. 
The leaves of O. alba are said to be a very 
good substitute for tea. They are increased 
by cuttings. Introduced in 1793. 

Corrugated. When the parts are crumpled up 
irregularly, as the petals of the Poppy or the 
skin of some seeds. 

Cortex. The bark or cortical layer. 

Corticate. Like bark ; harder externally than 
Internally ; having a rind, as the orange. 

Corya'nthes. Helmet Flower. From korys, a 
helmet, a,nd anthos, a flower; in reference to 
the shape of the lip or labellum. Nat. Ord. 

A genus of epiphytal Orchids found in Mex- 
ico and South America. Among the many 
curious forms peculiar to this genus, perhaps 
the most singular is that of C macrantha, 
which is thus described in the Botanical Reg- 
ister : ' ' The plant has the habit of a Stanhopea, 
and pushes forth from the base of its pseudo- 
bulbs a pendulous scape, on which two or 
three flowers are developed. Each flower is 
placed at the end of a long, stiff, cylindrical- 
furrowed ovary, and when expanded measures 
something more than six inches from the tip 
of one sepal to that of the opposite one. The 
sepals and petals are nearly of the same color, 
being of an ochrey yellow, spotted irregularly 
with dull purple. The lip is as fleshy and 
solid in its texture as the sepals and petals are 
delicate. It is seated on a deep purple stalk, 
nearly an Inch long ; this stalk terminates in a 
hemispherical, greenish-purple cup or cap; 
and the latter, contracting at its front edge, 
extends forward into a sort of second stalk of 


a very vivid blood-color, the sides of which 
are thinner than the center, turned back, and 
marked with four or five very deep, solid, 
sharp-edged plaits. These edges again expand 
and form a second cup, less lobed than the 
first, thinning away very much to the edges, 
of a broadly conical figure, with a diameter 
of at least two inches at the orifice; this 
second cup is of an ochrey yellow, streaked 
and spotted with pale crimson, and seems 
intended to catch a watery secretion, which 
drips into it from the succulent horns, taking 
their origin in the base of the column, and 
hanging over the center of the cup." There 
are several species of the genus, all of which 
must be grown in a hot; house. Propagated 
by division. They flower in June and July. 

Cory'dalis. From korydalos, a lark; the spur 
of the flower resembling that of the lark. Nat. 
Ord. Fumariacem. 

A handsome genus of hardy tuberous root- 
ed, herbaceous plants. Their flowers are 
showy, and of many shades of color. They 
need an open exposure. The perennial kinds 
may be increased by division of the tubers 
about every three years. C nobilis, a native 
of Siberia, is one of the most beautiful and 
early flowering of light yellow colored hardy 
border plants. The annual species require to 
be sown in March where they are to remain. 
Several of the species are indigenous, grow- 
ing in rocky places, and grow from one to 
three feet high, bearing flowers of various 
colors. They are easily propagated by seeds, 
and are very pretty plants for rock-work. 

Coryla'ceae. This order founded by Lindley, 
of which the principal genera are Carpinua, 
Corylus, Castanea, Pagus, and Q^ercus, is now 
included under Owpuliferm. 

Corylo'psis. From, korylos, the Hazel tree, and 
apsis, like; nut-like. Nat. Ord. Hamameli- 

Very ornamental and interesting, hardy 
deciduous shrubs ; in habit, leaves and inflor- 
escence resembling Hazels. Flowers appearing 
before the leaves in pendulous racemes, each 
flower nearly sessile with a large sheathing 
yellow bract. Natives of the Himalayas and 

Co'rylus. Hazel-nut, Filbert. From korys, a 
hood or helmet; in reference to the calyx 
covering the nut. Nat. Ord. Corylaeece. 

This well-known deciduous shrub, is com- 
mon throughout this country and Europe. 
The species that yields the Filbert of com- 
merce, C. Avellama, is found growing in great 
abundance near Avellana, a city of Naples, 
whence the speciflc name. It is a strong grow- 
ing shrub from ten to flfteen fact high. 
The Filbert is monoecious; the male 
catkins make their appearance in Sep- 
tember, on the previous year's growth, 
but are not fully developed or expanded until 
the succeeding season, when the female 
flowers appear about the first of February, 
and In April they are in full flower. The 
flowers are small and of a beautiful red color. 
The fruit of this species forms an important 
article of export from Naples. C Colurna, a 
native of Turkey and Asia, is a tall-growing 
tree, often reaching a height of sixty feet The ' 
nuts are larger than those of the preceding 
species, and are of excellent quality. This 
country Is represented by two species, C. 




Americana being bur common Hazel-nut. The 
fruit is smaller and thicker-shelled than the 
European species. 

Corymb. A raceme whose pedicels grow grad- 
ually shorter as they approach the summit, so 

• that the result is a flat-headed inflorescence or 
flower head, as in Candytuft, etc. A Com- 
pound corymb is a branched corymb, each of 
whose divisions is corymbose. «» 

Corymbi'ferae. Corymb - bearing composite 
plants, a sub-order of the natural order Com- 
positm, containing plants with numerous 
flowers on a common receptacle, forming a 
head surrounded by a set of floral leaves or 
bracts called an involucre. Such plants as 
Chamomile, Ox-eye Daisy, Dahlia, Sunflower, 
Cineraria, Ragwort, Groundsel, etc., belong 
to this sub-order. 

Coryno'stylis. From koryne, a club, and stylos, 
a column ; alluding to the club-shaped style. 
Nat. Ord. Violacem. 

A small genus of very handsome clinibing 
shrubs, inhabiting tropical America. C. albi- 
flora, is a beautiful green-house plant 
of a trailing or climbing habit, producing 
white, trumpet-shaped flowers, about two 
inches in length, suspended on long thread- 
like peduncles. These interesting flowers, 
taken in profile, present the appearance of 
some long spurred Tropeeolum, while on the 
front view they bear a resemblance to those 
of a gigantic Violet. Increased by cuttings of 
the young wood, or by seeds. Introduced 
from Para, in 1870. 

Co'rypha. Fan Palm. From Jeoryphe, the sum- 
mit; in reference to the leaves growing in 
tufts on the top of this Palm. Nat. Ord. PaU 

A noble genus of Palms, growing from fif- 
teen to one hundred and fifty feet high. They 
are chiefly natives of tropical Asia. The 
Talipot Palm, C. umhraculifera, is a native of 
Ceylon and the Malabar coast, where it 
usually grows sixty to seventy feet high. 
The leaves have prickly stalks six or seven 
feet long, and when fully expanded they form 
a nearly complete circle of thirteen feet in 
diameter. Large fans are made of these 
leaves, which are carried before people of 
rank among the Cingalese. They are also 
commonly used as umbrellas, and tents are 
made by neatly joining them together, being 
the only ones in use for the soldiers of that 
country. It bears no fruit until the last year 
of its life, when it throws out great branches 
of beautiful yellow flowers that emit a most 
disagreeable odor. The fruit is borne in great 
abundance, is very hard and round, and about 
the size of a large cherry. Prom these the 
plant is propagated, and requires great heat 
and a humid atmosphere to grow it success- 
fully. This species was introduced in 1742. 
C. australis is synonymous with Livistona 

Corysa'nthus. From koryos, a helmet, and 
anthos, a flower ; flowers helmet-shaped. Nat. 
Ord. Orchidaceee. 

A genus of small but pretty terrestrial 
swamp orchids, inhabiting Australia and 
Java, but little seen in cultivation. 

Cosma'nthus. A genus now merged in Phacelia, 
which see. 


Cosme'lia. Prom kosmeo, to adorn ; in reference 
to the beauty of the flowers. Nat. Ord. Epacri- 

The only species, C. rubra, is a beautiful 
dwarf green-house plant, with bright red 
flowers resembling those of an Epacris, but 
larger and more swollen in the middle of the 
tube. It requires to have plenty of air, and 
is improved by frequent stopping while young. 
Propagated freely from cuttings. 

Cosmidi'um. A genus of hardy annuals, re- 
cently formed from Calliopsis, having the 
same general character, and .under which it 
is usually described. Syn. Thelesperma. 

Co'smos. From kosmos, beautiful ; in reference 
to the ornamental flowers. Nat. Ord. Com- 

Mexican plants, generally grown as annuals, 
but which mostly have tuberous roots like the 
Dahlia, and may be treated like that plant. 
The flowers are very showy, and of a reddish 
purple ; the seeds, when the plants are grown 
as annuals, should be sown in March or April, 
in a frame or green-house ; or in autumn, if 
the young plants can be protected during 
winter. The plants will grow four or five 
feet high in any garden soil. The beautiful 
annual species C. bipinnatua, has very finely 
cut featherly foliage, and large single Dahlia- 
like flowers, ranging in color from white, to 
deep rose. An .excellent autumn blooming 
sort, and valuable for cutting. If grown in 
pots, and housed by the end of September, 
it will give a succession of flowers all winter. 
Introduced in 1799. 

Cossi'gnia. Named after M. Cossigny, a French 
naturalist. Nat. Ord. Sapindacem. 

There are but two known species in this 
genus, both small evergreen trees, with pin- 
nate leaves, with from one to three pairs of 
oblong leaflets and an odd one. The upper 
surface of the leaves is richly veined with 
golden yellow, the under surface covered with 
short white down. The flowers are small, 
white, and are arranged in terminal panicles. 
They were introduced from the Mauritius in 
1824. Propagated by cuttings. 

Costa. The midrib of a leaf ; that part which is 
a direct extension of the petiole, and whence 
the veins arise ; a leaf may have several eoste. 

Costmary, or Alecost. Tana^tum Balaamita. 

Co'stus. An ancient name adopted from Pliny. 
Nat. Ord. Scitaminacece. 

A genus of tropical herbaceous perennials, 
having tuberous roots, somewhat fleshy 
leaves, and flowers in spikes with over-lapping 
bracts. C. speciosua is a very ornamental 
warm green-house plant, with white flowers, 
and leaves silky beneath. Its roots are used 
by the natives in India to make a kind of 
preserve. They are of easy culture and are 
propagated by division of the roots. 

Cotonea'ster. Prom Cotonea. Pliny's name for 
the quince, in reference to the downy leaves 
of this genus being similar to the quince. 
Nat. Ord. Rosacece. 

A genus of half-hardy, deciduous and ever- 
green trees, upright and trailing shrubs, in- 
habiting the northern parts of Europe and the 
mountains of India. The leaves are small 
and entire at the edge, downy beneath ; the 
flowers are white or pinkish, and produced in 
lateral clusters, like those of hawthorn, or 




singly, and are succeeded by scarlet, and occa- 
sionally black, berry-like fruit. Loudon says : 
"The species are very desirable from the 
beauty of their foliage, flowers, and fruit. G. 
frigida and C. affinis in particular, producing 
fruit in great abundance, of an intense scarlet 
color, ■which have a splendid appearance, and 
remain on the trees the greater part of the 
■winter." C. microphylla is a yet more valua- 
ble plant. In this species the branches are 
trailing, the leaves small and evergreen. It 
is perfectly hardy and ■wherever it grows, 
ornamental; its deep glossy foliage, which 
no cold will impair, is, when the plant is in 
flower, covered with snow-white blossoms, 
rendering it a very desirable plant for rook- 
work, etc. This species is a native of Nepaul, 
and was introduced 1825. 

Cotton. See Gossypium. 

Cotton-Grass. The common name of the genus 

Cotton Rose. Filago Gerwanica. 
Cotton Thistle. See Onopordon. 
Cotton Tree, Silk. See Bombax. 
Cotton-'Wood. See Populus. 

Cotyle'don. Navelwort. From Tmtyle, a cav- 
ity ; in allusion to the cup-like leaves. Nat. 
Ord. CrassulacecE. 

A genus of succulent plants, with fleshy 
leaves, nearly allied to the House-leek, and 
bearing red or yellow flowers. They are 
plants of no great beauty, but like all succu- 
lent plants, are very interesting. The orna^ 
mental species are all from the Cape of Good 
Hope, and were first introduced in 1690. 
They are propagated by cuttings and leaves, 
and require an open, sandy soil. Under this 
one genus several botanists now include 
JEcheueria, Paehvphytv/m, Pistorinia, and Umbil- 
licus. The differences are at the best merely 
botanical ; the culture of the groups is iden- 

Cotyledons. The seed lobes; the primordial 
leaves in the rudimentary plant or embryo ; 
the fleshy leaves that appear above ground 
when a seedling plant begins to grow, com- 
monly called seed leaves. Monocotyledons 
have only one such leaf, as Grasses, Lilies, 
Palms, etc. ; Dicotyledons have two, as the 
Maple, Elm, Pea, Bean, etc. 

Couch-Grass. The popular name of Triticwm 
repeme. t 

Coulte'ria. In honor of Thomas Coulter, M.D., 
a botanical author. Nat. Ord. Legwminosm. 

A genus of ornamental hot-house shrubs, 
that grow from twelve to fifteen feet high, and 
produce an abundance of yellow and orange 
flowers. Their size prevents them from be- 
ing grown except in botanical collections. 
The wood of some of the species is used in 
Couta'rea. From covtari, its name in Guiana. 
Nat. Ord. BMbiacexB. 

This fine evergreen tree is allied to Cinchona. 
It requires the same treatment, and its bark 
has much the same medicinal properties. 

Cowa'nia. In commemoration of the services 
rendered to botany by the late Mr. James 
Cowan, a merchant, who introduced a num- 
ber of plants from Mexico and Peru. Nat. 
Ord. RosacecB. ' 


C. plicata, the only species, is worth far 
more attention than it has hitherto received. 
Its flowers are large and handsome, resem- 
bling those of a Hose. They are bright red, 
and, in addition, the plant is a shrub of ro- 
bust character, nearly hardy, requiring only 
to be protected from severe frosts. Prop^ 
gated by division. It is a native of Mexico. 

CoTwbane. The popular name given the genus 
Archemora, reputed to be an active poison, 
particularly to cattle, if eaten by them. It is 
quite common in swampy grounds, from New 
York to Illinois and southward. It is also 
called Wild Parsnip. 

Co^ivberry. One of the common names of Vao- 
dnium, which see. 

Co'w-Herb. See Vaccaria. 

Co^wr-Itch. See Mucuna. 

Co^w-Parsnip. The common name ot-Herao- 
leum, a coarse growing, weedy plant, some- 
times used in medicine, but of doubtful repu- 

Co^wrie Pine, Dammara australis. 

Co'wslip. See Primula. 
American. Dodeoatheon Meadia. 

Co^w-Tree. See Brosimum. 

Co-vr Vetch. Vicia Cracca. 

Covr 'Wheat. The genus Melampyrum. 

Crab -Apple. See Pynts. 

Crab-Grass. Called also Dog's Tail, or Wire- 
Grass, popular names of the genus Eleusine, a 
native of India, but extensively naturalized 
in this couiitry. 

Crab's Clavv Cactus. See Epiphyllwrn. 

Crab's Eyes. The seeds of Ahrus precaiorivs. 

Cra'mbe. Sea^Kale. The name erambe is de- 
rived from the Greek name for Sea^cabbage. 
Nat. Ord. Cruaiferm. 

A genus of hardy perennials. C. maritima, 
the best known species, is a native of the 
west coast of England, where it grows in 
great abundance in the clean sand and gravel. 
The common people have from time imme- 
morial, been in it:e practice of watching the 
appearance of the shoots and leaf-stalks 
closely, as they appear in early spring, when 
they cut them off under ground in the same 
manner as we do Asparagus. These young 
shoots, when cooked, are by many con- 
sidered superior to either Asparagus or Cauli- 
flower. Sea-Kale is only fit for use in a 
blanched state, which is easily done. In 
early spring the crowns should be covered 
with sand, or some light mulching that will 
exclude the young shoot from light, the cover- 
ing being from twelve to fifteen inches in 
depth. By the time the young leaves are 
through this mulching they will be perfectly 
blanched and fit for use. It is a common 
practice with gardeners to cover the crowns 
with an inverted flower-pot, and by others 
the whole bed is covered with manure. 
Either plan will prove satisfactory. See 
" Forcing Vegetables." Sea-Kale is increased 
by seed or ropt cuttings, the latter plan being 
preferable. The roots should be taken up 
in the fall, cut in pieces two to three inches 
long, and these placed in boxes of sand in a 
dry cellar until the weather is settled in 
spring, when they may be planted out in 
rows, three feet apart, and about nine inches 




between the plants. With this treatment 
many of the crowns, under favorable circum- 
stances, will be strong enough to yield a crop 
the next season. 

Cranberry. See Oxycocous. 

Cranberry-Tree. See Viburnum opuhis. 

Crane-fly Orchis. See Tipularia. 

Cranesbill. See Geranium. 

Crape Myrtle. See Lagerstrcemia. 

Cra'ssula. A diminutive of crassus, thick; in 
reference to the fleshy leaves and stems. Nat. 
Ord. CrassuloMXCB. 

Succulent green-house plants, natives of the 
Cape of Good Hope, with heads of red or 
white flowers. All the Orassulas should have 
alternate seasons of stimulus and repose. 
When they are growing, and about to flower, 
they should be well watered, and when the 
flowers begin to fade, the supply of water 
should be gradually lessened, till at last very 
little is given. The plants are propagated by 
cuttings, which should be laid on a shelf two 
or three days to dry before planting, or they 
may rot. Most of the species are from the 
Cape of Good Hope, and have been in cultiva- 
tion more than a century. 

Crassula'ceae. An extensive natural order 
consisting generally of succulent herbs or 
shrubs. Natives of dry places in all parts of 
the world. They are found on rocks, old 
walls or hot, sandy plains, exposed to the 
heaviest dews at night, and the scorching 
rays of the mid-day sun. Some species are 
astringent. Sedum acre is very acrid, and is 
h«nce called Wall Pepper. Sempervivum tec- 
torum, the House-leek, is so called from being 
grown in some places on the tops of houses. 
Bryopkyllum calyoinum possesses the property 
of producing leaf-buds along the margins of its 
leaves. There are over fourteen genera, in- 
cluding Crassula, Sedum, Sempervivum, Pen- 
thorum, etc., and over 400 species. 

CratEG'gus. The Hawthorn. From kratos, 
strength; in reference to the strength and 
hardness of the wood. Nat. Ord. Rosacece. 

A well known family of moderate-sized 
trees, commonly called thorns. They are 
found throughout the United States, Europe 
• and the temperate regions of Asia and Africa. 
There is a great resemblance to each other in 
all the species, both as to the shape of ihe 
leaves and color of the flowers. The English 
Hawthorn, C. oxyacantha, so commonly used 
as a hedge plant, will not stand the severity 
of our winters, at least much north of New 
York, with a certainty that would warrant its 
use here. Single specimens are often met, in 
old gardens, of " great age and size. The 
Hawthorns are remarkable not only for their 
fragrant flowers and ornamental fruit, but for 
the variations common in both. The flowers 
are usually white, but in the cultivated varie- 
ties vary to pink and crimson. The fruit is 
sometimes globular, sometimes oblong, but 
generally smooth and polished, and in some 
quite downy ; while the color is from black 
and dark red, to orange-yellow and white. 
The double-flowering varieties are especially 
beautiful. Some of our native species are 
among the most ornamental low trees we 
have in our gardens, being, when in bloom, 
completely covered with pure white flowers 
of delicious fragrance. From the time of 


their coming into flower thoy have been 
quite commonly called the May-tree. From 
the perfect hardiness of the species, their 
ornamental appearance both in flower and 
fruit, which never fails, they should be 
cultivated in preference to the foreign 
kinds. Propagated usually by seeds, which 
not unfrequently take two years to germi- 
nate. A double-flowering variety, sent from 
France, is a tree of great beauty, the 
flowers being bright rosy pink, not unlike the 
flowering Almond, but of greater substance. 
This variety is not considered hardy north of 
Philadelphia. The great drawback to its 
culture is its being subject to the attacks of 
the " borer." It is propagated by cuttings or 
by budding on tlie more common vaMeties. 
C. Pyracantha, the Evergreen Thorn, has 
fruit of a bright scarlet color, about the size 
of a pea, remaining on the tree all winter. 
There is another variety with bright yellow 
berries. They are both valuable for lawn 
decoration, and make excellent hedge plants. 
The whole species grow well in a soil that is 
naturally dry ; wet or marshy situations are 
wholly unsuited to them. 

Crazy "Weed. See Astragalus. 

Crawfu'rdia. In honor of Sir John Crawfurd, 
governor of Singapore. Nat. Ord. Gentiancem. 
This genus consists of two species, both 
, herbaceous climbing plants, closely allied to, 
and formerly included In, the genus Gentiana. 
C. Japonica (Climbing Gentian), a native of 
Japan, is an exceedingly beautiful plant, at- 
taining a height of six feet, and producing 
large axillary bell-shaped flowers of a deep 
blue color. C. fasciculaia (fascicle flowered), a 
native of the Himalayas, is a similar species, 
but not so tall. Propagated by division or 
from seed. Both species are of recent intro- 
duction into the garden. 

Creeper. Properly, a plant that trails on the 

Creeping Charlie. A popular name of Lysir 

machia nummularia. 
Creeping Porget-Me-Not. See Omphalodes 

Creeping Jack. Sedum acre. 
■ Creeping Jenny. Lysimachia nummularia. 
Creeping Myrtle. See Vinra. 
Creeping Sailor. Saxifraga sarm^ntosa. 
Creeping Stem. In common usage, applied to 

stems growing horizontally, both above and 

under ground. An underground^ stem. 

Crenate. Having convex flat teeth, or rounded 
or scolloped notches. 

Crenulate. Having small round notches. 

Creosote Plant. See Larrea. 

Cre'pis. From krepis, a slipper. Hawksbeard. 
Nat. Ord. Compositce. 

A genus of herbaceous plants consisting of 
about one hundred and thirty species, very 
few of which are of much Interest. Two of the 
few worth growing are C. aurea and C. ruhra. 
The flrst is a neat border perennial, and the 
latter a very pretty annual. They are both 
of easy cultivation. 

Crescentia. Named after Pietro Crescent, an 
Italian writer on agriculture. Nat. Ord. 




A genus of large evergreen spreading trees, 
■with large solitary flowers, rising from the 
trunk or branches. They are all natives of 
tropical America, and are increased by cut- 
tings of the ripened wood. C. Cwjete, is the 
Calabash Tree. 

Cress. Garden. See Lepidium. 
American or Land. Barbarea prcecox. This 
much resembles Water Cress in flavor ; the 
leaves may be used for the same purposes 
as common Cress. 
Indian. Tropceolum mnjvs. 
Water. See Nasturliwm officinale. 

Cre'ssa. From cressa, a native of Crete ; the plant 
is plentiful there. Nat. Ord. ConvolvulacoB. 

A curious little annual, rarely seen in our 
collections. The flowers are funnel-shaped, 
of a lively purple, and freely produced. It 
requires but little care or nursing, if planted 
in a light, rich soil. There is but one species, 
C. Crelica, which is a native of the Levant. 
Introduced in 1822. 

Crested. Having an elevated, irregular, or 
notched ridge resembling the crest of a hel- 
met ; a stamen is crested when the filament 
projects beyond the anther and becomes 
dilated. This term is chiefly applied to seeds, 
and to the appendages of anthers. It also 
belongs to bracts which form with their edges 
an appearance like that of a crest. The term 
is often applied to the Moss Bose. 

Crested Dog-tail Grass. See Cynosurus. 

Crimson Flag. See Schisostylis. 

Crimson Trefoil. Trifoliwm incarnaivm. An 
annual species, used largely in Italy and the 
south of France for feeding green. The yield 
in fodder is immense, as, in warm climates, 
four to five cuttings can be made in a season. 
The blossoms are long, pointed, and of a deep 
red or carmine color. 

Cri'num. From krinon, the Greek name of the 
Lily. Nat. Ord. Amaryllidcuxce. 

This is a fine genus of bulbous plants, grow- 
ing from a foot and a half to five feet in height. 
The flowers are large, produced freely in 
umbels, and many of them are richly scented 
and of pleasing colors. To grow them well 
they should be potted in rich loam full of 
fibrous matter, and, in the early part of the, 
growing season, they should have the benefit 
of a moderate bottom heat, with abundance of 
water every day, and an additional soaking of 
liquid manure about once a week. In winter, 
of course, this must be discontinued, and the 
plants placed where they may receive all the 
light possible, in order to mature the new 
growth and induce them to flower freely the 
following season. C. amabile is a noble spe- 
cies, requiring to be grown in a strong heat. 
The bulbs grow six to eight inches in diameter, 
and two feet long, and sometimes produce, 
both spring and fall, immense spikes of dark 
purple flowers, of delicious fragrance. This 
species is a native of the East Indies, and was 
introduced in 1810. The genus is very large, 
and the species are found in nearly all tropical 
and sub-tropical countries. Propagated by 

Ciispate, Crispus. When the edge is exces- 
sively and irregularly divided and puckered ; 
also when the surface is much puckered and 
crumpled. Well-known examples are afforded 
by Curled Parsley, Curled Endive, Curled 


Kale, etc. Crispate Is also a diminutive of 
Bullate, which see. 

Crista'ria. From crista, a crest ; in reference to . 
the form of the seed vessel. Nat. Ord. Mal- 

A pretty hardy herbaceous perennial from 
the Southwestern States, producing quite 
showy scarlet flowers in terminal racemes or 
clusters. Propagated by division of the roots 
or from seeds, which however require some 
time to produce flowering plants. 

Croceus, Crocatus. Saffron-colored. 

Croco'smia. From crocus, saffron, and osme, 
smell ; alluding to the odor of saffron exhaled 
by the dried flowers, when immersed in warm 
water. Nat. Ord. Iridacece. 

O. aurea, the only species, is a beautiful 
Ixia-like plant, with large, deep orange-colored 
flowers, somewhat resembling those of the 
crocus in form. The corms are fleshy, like 
those of the Tritonia, in which genus it was 
formerly included ; it can be grown in the 
cold frame, and is increased by offsets. 

Cro'ous. A Chaldean name, applied by Theo- 
phrastus. Nat. Ord. Iridacece. 

Of this well-known genus there are many 
species, mostly found in the southern and 
eastern parts of Europe, and in Asia Minor. 
As a garden flower the species are almost 
entirely lost sight of in the large number of 
varieties that have been produced by hybrid- 
izing. They are divided into two classes : the 
first, those that flower in early spring, too 
well known to need description ; the second, 
the autumnal-flowering or naked Crocus, so 
called because the flowers are produced in the 
absence of leaves, which, with the seeds, are 
produced in the spring. The spring-flowering 
Crocus is of the easiest culture, and we need 
only remark that it is a mistake to put them 
into poor ground, since no plants in our gar- 
dens delight more in, or make greater returns 
for, rich soil. They require a dry situation, 
and in such a place and soil they flower pro- 
fusely. The bulbs or corms should be planted 
at least three inches deep; for, as the new 
corm forms above the old one, they will, in 
three or four years, push themselves out of 
the ground if planted too near the surface. As 
often as once in three years the corms should 
be taken up, separated, and planted out as 
.quickly as possible; the longer they are left 
out of ground the weaker they become, and 
the later they will come into bloom. In start- 
ing a new bed the corms should be planted as 
soon as they can be obtained, which is usually 
about the first of September. If left until 
November, as is the too common practice, 
very few will flower strongly the coming sea^- 
son, and none satisfactorily. When left in 
the ground, they commence new life about the 
first of September, and before winter they 
have their preparations for spring work com- 
plete; the flower buds will be nearly their 
full length above the bulb, ready for the first 
sunny days in March to break forth into 
bloom. One of the peculiarities of the Crocus 
is, that when they are in flower, the germen, 
or seed vessel, is still under ground, almost 
close to the bulb ; and it is not till some weeks 
after the flower has decayed that it emerges 
on a white peduncle, and ripens its seeds 
above the ground. The situation for the Cro- 
cus bed should be a warm one, and before 













E*l I 1 "i • > ^ to. , 






hard frosts it may be mulched two or three 
Inches with leaves or coarse litter, which is 
to be taken off as soon in spring as the season 
will warrant. The mulching, however, may 
be omitted where it is not convenient to apply 
it. . C. aaiivus, which is the type of the 
autumnal-flowering species, should be planted 
' in midsummer, and it will come into flower in 
September. All the species and varieties are 
increased by offsets. Their introduction into 
British gardens dates back as far as 1600. 
The named varieties bear very large flowers, 
and are, in all respects, very great improve- 
ments upon the older kinds. 

Crops, Rotation of. See Rotation. 

Crossa'ndra. From krossos, a fringe, and aner, 
andros, an anther; in reference to the anthers 
being fringed. Nat. Ord. Acanthacem. 

Beautiful evergreen free-flowering shrubs, 
■^ith large flowers in terminal, four-cornered 
spikes. There are five species, one of which 
is a native of the East Indies ; the others are 
from tropical Africa and Madagascar. All are 
of easy culture and may be readily increased 
by cuttings. 

Cross-Wort. A common name for the genus 

Crotala'ria. From krotalon, a Castanet; the 
seeds are inflated pods, and rattle when 
shaken. Nat. Ord. Legwminosce. 

This is an extensive genus, and a few of its 
species are. particularly beautiful. The green- 
house kinds are to be preferred. All of them 
grow readily in loamy soil, the chief point in 
their culture being to observe that the young 
shoots are stopped once or twice in the early 
part of their growth, in order to counteract 
their natural tendency to grow upright, and 
become what id technically expressed as ' 'long- 
legged." One of the principal discourage- 
ments in growing these plants is the difflculty 
of preserving them from tne attacks of the 
red spider. The annuals are grown from 
seed, and the perennial kinds are increased 
from cuttings. The species are pretty gen- 
erally found from the West to the East Indies. 
Some of the annuals are found in the Southern 

Cro'ton. From kroton, a tick ; in reference to 
the resemblance of the seeds. Nat. Ord. 

A genus of green-house evergreen shrubs of 
great beauty, grown for their variegated f ol iage, 
they being among the most strongly marked 
plants in cultivation (yellow and green, some- 
times red with the other colors). They are 
readily propagated by cuttings, with a bottom 
heat of not less than 75°, and require a high 
temperature and full sunlight to develop their 
markings. Leaf mould is an essential ele- 
ment in the compost for potting. Water 
should be sparingly used, particularly in 
winter. They do best in small pots, and as 
ornamental plants for decoration, they have 
no superior. Notwithstanding their great 
beauty, they are also classed with the eco- 
nomic or useful plants. C. Tigliwm, furnishes 
the Oroton oil, a most powerful purgative. C. 
tinctorum is used to dye both silk and wool of 
an elegant blue color. The substance for this 
purpose is called Tumsol, and is made of the 
juice which is lodged between the calyx and 
-the seeds. C. Eleuteria furnishes the Casca- 


rilla bark, which has a pleasant, spicy odor, 
and a bittex', warm, aromatic taste, and it is 
considered a valuable medicine. The species 
are nearly all natives of the East Indies, and 
were first introduced in 1748. Syn. Codimim, 
under which genus the large number of culti- 
vated variegated sorts are now placed. See 

Crow-berry. Empelrwm nigrum. 

Crow'ea. Name.1 after J. Crowe, a British bota- 
nist. Nat. Ord. Rutcuxa. 

A genus of beautiful green-house shrubs, 
consisting of but two species, O. latifoUa and 
C. aaUgna, both lovely objects when in flower, 
which is nearly two-thirds of the year. They 
are in the greatest perfection during the win- 
ter months. The flowers are lily-shaped, of a 
beautiful purple, and borne at the axil of the 
leaves. They are easily propagated from cut- 
tings, and should be grown in a mixture of 
leaf mould and loam. Water should be spar- 
ingly given, or the plants will have a sickly^ 
yellow appearance. Both species are natives 
of New South Wales, and were introduced in 

Crowfoot. See RammciuJ/us. 

Crow^n Imperial. See FritUUuria. 

Cruciane'lla. Orosswort. A diminutive of 
crux, a cross ; alluding to the leaves being 
placed crosswise. Nat. Ord. Rubiacea. 

A genus of hardy herbaceous and green- 
house plants of but little interest. C. stylosa, 
a native of Persia and the Caucasus, is a low- 
tufted herb with rose-colored flowers, which 
blooms during the greater part of the summer. 
It is a desirable plant for rockeries. Propa- 
gated by cuttings or from seed. 

Cruciate or Cruciform. Shaped like a cross. 
A flower is said to be cruciate, when four 
petals are placed opposite each other at right 
angles, as in any of the Brassica tribe. 

Cruci'ferae. A large and important order of 
annual, biennial or perennial herbs, rarely 
suffruticose. They are very generally distri- 
buted, but abound most in the cold and tem- 
perate regions, especially in Europe, They 
are all nitrogenous (and contain sulphur), 
pungent, stimulant, anti-scorbutic, often 
acrid. Not one of them is poisonous, but 
many are culinary vegetables. The order 
contains some well-known flowering plants, 
such as the Stock, Wall-flower, Socket, 
etc. Brassica oleracea is the origin of the 
Cabbage, Cauliflower, Broccoli, Savoy and 
Curled Eale. Brassica Rapa is the origin of the 
Turnip, but the Swedish Turnip is thought by 
some to be a variety of Brassica campestris, 
while others think it is a hybrid between B. 
Rapa and B. Napus, the wild Navew Eape, or 
Coleseed. Crambe maritima supplies Sea- 
Kale, which is blanched to fit it for the table. 
Some pla,nts of the order are pungent, as iSiJi- 
apis nigra. Black Mustard, from the seeds of 
which the best mustard is made; S. alba. 
White Mustard, is less pungent. Other pun- 
gent plants are Lepidium sativum, common 
Cress; ^astusrium, officinale. Water Cress; 
Cochlearia Armoraem, Horse-Eadish ; and 
Raphamus aaiimus, the Eadish. Isatis tindoria, 
Woad, "yields a blue dye ; and /. indigotica is 
used as Indigo in China. Cochlearia officinalis 
grows on the sea-shore, and has been used by 
ships' crews affected with scurvy, and has 




hence been called Scurvy Grass. The seeds 
of many species yield an oil, such as oil of 
Mustard, Bape oil, and Camelina oil, and the 
cake left after pressing the oil from Bape 
seed is used as food for cattle. There are 
about 170 known genera, and 1,200 species. 
Brassica, Cheiramthua, Erysimum, Arahis, 
I/wnaria, Drdba, Teesdalia, Hesperia, laatis, 
Capsella, etc., are illustrative genera. 
Crypta'nthiis. A genus of Bromeliads, closely 
allied to Billhergia and Tillandsia, and requir- 
ing the same general treatment. 

Cryptochilus. From kryptos, hidden, and chei- 
los, a lip; the lip or labellum being partly 
hidden by the sepals. Nat. Ord. Orohidacem. 

An interesting genus of terrestrial Orchids 
from the cooler parts of India. There are but 
two species, one producing brilliant scarlet 
flowers on a one-sided spike, while the other 
has smaller yellow flowers produced in the 
same manner. They require the same treat- 
ment as Stanhopea. 

Cryptoco'ryne. From kryptos, hidden, and 
ftojT/ne, a club; the club-shaped spadix or 
spike in the center of the flower is hidden by 
the hooded spathe. Nat. Ord. AroideoB. Allied 
to Arum. 

Herbaceous perennial marsh plants with 
tuberous creeping roots. They produce the 
same peculiar-looking flowers as the Arums, 
but are sweet-scented, and require the same 
treatment as the tropical species of Arum. 
Propagated by division. Introduced from the 
East Indies in 1824. 

Cryptoga'mia. Cryptogams. Many names 
have been applied to the vast class of plants 
comprehended under this name, such as 
Asexual, or Flowerless Plants, Acrogens, 
Agamffi, Anandree, Acotyledons, Cryptogams, 
Cryptophyta, Cellulares, Exembryonata, etc. 
Of these the term, Oryptogamia, has been 
adopted by Berkeley and others as being the 
least objectionable in our present state of 
knowledge. Under this name are included all 
those plants called by Linnseus Oryptogamia, 
because he was unable to discover their organs 
of fertilization, if they had any. They compre- 
hend Sea^weeds, Fungi, Lichens, Mosses-, 
Ferns and their allies. It is now known 
that all are multiplied by a sexual apparatus 
in structure wholly different from that of 
Phffinogamous plants, but in function the 
same. In the higher orders, that is to say, 
in Ferns, Lycopods, and Horsetails, the plant, 
properly so called, does not proceed directly 
from the spore or seed, but from a rudiment- 
ary intermediate organ, called prothaUium, on 
which the organs of fertilization are formed, 
these organs not producing a spore or seed, 
but the very plant itself. 

Cryptogra'mme. A genus of hardy ferns 
synonymous with Allosorus, which see. 

Cryptome'ria. Japan Cedar. From kryptos, 
hidden, and meris, a part; the structure of 
all the parts of the flower being hidden, or not 
easily understood. Nat. Ord. Conifera. 

G. Ja/poniea, of which there are many forms, 
is a splendid evergreen tree, from sixty to 
one hundred feet high, from the north of 
Japan, where it is found in moist situations. 
It is hardy in this country, south of Philadel- 
phia, and requires a rich deep soil, with 
plenty of moisture and protection from cutting 


winds to fully develop its beauty. It was 
introduced in 1846, and is increased by seeds 
or by cuttings. 
Cr3rptoste'6ia. Prom kryptos, hidden, and 
stego, to cover; alluding to the corona being 
concealed within the tube of the corolla. Nat. 
Ord. Asclepiadacem. 

A small genus of pretty twining green-house 
shrubs, consisting of two species C. grandiflora 
and C Madagascariensis, the one from India, 
the other from Madagascar. They are interest- 
ing plants, having opposite leaves, and produce 
large, reddish-white flowers in terminal cymes. 
Propagated by cuttings. Introduced in 1S18. 

Cryptoste'mma. From krypfos, hidden, and 
8termna, a crown ; the crown of the flower 
being hidden. Nat. Ord. Gompoaitm. 

A small genus of tender annuals from the 
Cape of Good Hope. The flowers are bright 
golden yellow, borne on hairy stems, and are 
very showy. They were at one time Very 
common, but have now fallen out of cultiva- 
tion. The seed should be started in a hot-bed, 
and the young plants pricked out the latter 
part of May. They require a warm situation, 
and a light arid rather sandy soil. C. calendu- 
laceum has flowers yellow inside and a very 
dark purple outside, which gives it a very 
showy appearance. Introduced in 1731. 

Crypto'stylia. From kryptos, hidden, and stylos, 
a style. . Nat. Ord. Orchidacece. 

A small genus of brown-flowered terrestrial 
Orchids from New Holland, Java, and Ceylon. 
The species are more curious than beautiful. 
They should be grown in turfy loam and sand, 
in equal proportions, in an ordinary green- 
house temperature. Introduced in 1822. 

Cte'niiun. Toothache Grass. From Ctemiwm, 
a small comb ; from the pectinate appearance 
of the spike. Nat. Ord. Graminacece. 

G. Americanvm, the only species, is a strong- 
growing grass, from three to four feet in 
height with rough narrow flat leaves. The 
root has a very pungent taste, and in domestic 
medicine was used as a remedy for the tooth- 
ache, hence its popular name. It is common 
in wet pine barrens from Virginia, southward, 
and has no agricultural value. 

Cuba Bast. The fibrous inner bark of Paritium, 
(Hibiscus) elatum. 

Cube'ba. Uninteresting shrubs, indigenous to 
tropical Asia and Africa. C. officmalia, a 
native of Java, furnishes the cubeb fruits of 
commerce, which are like Black Pepper, but 
stalked. Nat. Ord. PiperaceoB. 

Cubebs. See Gubeba. 

Cuokoo-Plower. See Gardamine. 

Cuckoo Pint. Arwn maculatwm. 

Cucullate. When the apex or sides of anything 
are curved inward, so as to resemble the 
point of a slipper or- a hood, as in the lip of 
Cypripedium, the spathe of an Arwm, etc. 

Cucumber. See Cucumis. 

Cucumber Tree. The popular name of the 
Magnolia acuminata, the young fruit of which 
resembles a small cucumber. 

Cu'cumis. Cucumber. From Cucumis, the Latin 
for Cucumber. Nat. Ord. GucurbitaceiB. 

Of the several species included in this gems, 
C. aativis, the common Cucumber, is the best 
known and of the most importance. It is an 




annual plant, a native of the East Indies, and 
was first introduced into England in 1573. In 
the East the Cucumber has been extensively 
cultivated from the earliest periods, as well 
as most of the other species of gourds. When 
the Israelites complained to Moses in the 
wilderness, comparing their old Egyptian 
luxuries with the manna upon which they 
were fed, they exclaimed : " We remember the 
fish'whioh we did eat freely, the cucumbers 
and the melons." Isaiah, in speaking of the 
desolation of Judea, says : " The daughter 
of Zion is left as a cottage in a vineyai'd, as a 
lodge in a garden of cucumbers." In Syria 
and in India immense quantities are eaten by 
the common people. The probabilities are, 
however, that their Cucumbers are Melons, 
though mention is made of the cultivation of 

_ both, and late travelers mention large plantar 
tions over which constant watjh is kept, and 
fires built at night to keep off the wild dogs 
and wolves. The many varieties under culti- 
vation are great Improvements on the origi- 
nal species ; but where and when improve- 
ment commenced we have no record ; and in 
looting over the field during the last thirty 
years, it is about as diflELcult to say when it 
will stop. Where Cucumbers are required 
during the winter and spring months they are 
generally grown in span-roofed houses, ample 
provision being made for both bottom and 
superficial heat. ' They are generally planted 
in a row on either side of the house, and 
trained up on trellises under the glass. Where 
space is limited they may be grown in large 
pots, and trained up a rafter, top-dressing 
occasionally with rich soil and supplying 
liquid or artificial manure. A temperatui'e of 
about 60° at night is found the most suitable, 
a higher temperature being apt to draw the 
plants and make them long joii:ted. Eed 
Spider, Thrips and Green Fly are their worst 
insect enemies, and must be kept down by 
regular fumigating with tobacco, and careful 
syringing. The principal sorts grown for 
forcing are the two English varieties. Tele- 
graph and Blue Gown, both long-fruited sorts 
and extremely prolific and long-lived. White 
Spine is also forced to a considerable extent, 
a marked preference being accorded it in the 
New York markets, while the long-fruited 
sorts are the favorites in Boston and Phila- 

Cuou'rbita. Gourd. Prom cmrhiia, a gourd. 
Nat. Ord. Cucurbitacem. 

This is an extensive genus of trailing 
annuals, producing what is commonly known 
as Ornamental Gourds, some of which are 
exceedingly curious and beautiful. They are 
of easy culture, requiring the same treatment 
as tiie Cucumber. Natives chiefly of hot 
countries, they abound in India and South 
America, a few are also found in the north 
of Europe, at the Cape of Good Hope and in 

Cueurbita'ceae. A natural order of succulent, 
climbing plants with tendrils in place of sti- 
pules, alternate palmately - veined, rough 
leaves, and staminate and pistillate flowers. 
They are chiefly natives of hot countries, 
especially of India and South America ; a few 
are found in the north of Europe and in North 
America, and some are also met with at the 
Cape of Good Hope and in Australia. The 


plants of this order generally possess a cer- 
tain amount of acridity. The pulp of the fruit 
of Citmlhm Colocynthis is the Colocynth of the 
shops ; this is supposed to be the wild gourd 
of the Bible. Ecbalium purgana or agreste 
(Momordica elaferium) is called Squirting Cu- 
cumber, on account of the elastic force with 
which its seeds are scattered. Cuewmis sativvs 
is the common Cucumber, G. melo is the Musk- 
melon, and Citrullua vulgaris is the Water- 
melon. Cucurbila Pepo, the Gourd, is a 
scrambling plant, to which belong the Vege- 
table Marrows, which are edible ; the Orange 
Gourds, which are bitter; the Egg Gourds, 
Crooknecks, Turk's Caps, and Warted Gourds. 
C. maxima is the Pumpkin, and G. Melopepo 
the Bush Squash. The seeds of Hodgsonia 
are eaten in India. Lagenaria vulgaris is the 
Bottle or Dipper Gourd. The fruit of iMffa 
aautangula is cut up when dry and used as a 
flesh brush under the name of" Towel Gourd. 
Sechium edule yields an edible fruit called 
Choco or Chaca. The species of Bryonia are 
purgative. There are about seventy known 
genera and over 400 species. Gacurbita, Gvu- 
cumis, Citrullus, Momordica, Cocdnia, Trieo- 
santhes, Luffa, and Bryonia are examples of 
the order. 

Culm. The straw of Wheat, Eye, etc. ; a kind 
of hollow stem. 

Cultivator. This is the general name applied 
to implements for stirring the soil, other than 
hoes, whether used by hand or by horse- 
power. There are scores of kinds in use, 
known under different names. The one we 
most prefer for use in garden operations for 
cultivating between rows, is what is known 
as the Planet, Jr. This is a combined drill, 
wheel-hoe, cultivator and plow, and is really 
a most excellent and valuable implement, 
combining in one, three implements, all 
nearly as effective as any of them would be 
separately. It is unquestionably the most 
popular as it is the most perfect machine of 
its kind made, at present writing. In small 
gardens, where a horse is seldom used, it is 
invaluable for working the coarser crops, 
such as corn, potatoes, cabbage, celery, etc. 

Cultrate, Cultriform. Shaped like a pruning- 
knife, as in Orassula cultrata. 

Culver's-root, or Culver's Physic. A common 
name for Veronica Virginica. 

Cumi'num. Altered from qvamoun, its Arabic 
name. A genus of Fennel-like UmbellifercB, of 
little interest except G. Cyminvm, the seeds of 
which, called Cummin, are sometimes used 
as Carraways, but the latter are more agree- 
able and efficacious. 

Cummin. Cvrniinwrn Cyminwm. 
Black. The pungent seeds of Nigella sativa. 

Cummi'ngia. Named after Lady Gordon Owm- 
ming, of Altyre, near Forres, Scotland. 
Nat. Ord. LiliaceoB. 

A small genus of beautiful little half-hardy 
bulbs from Chili, which succeed in a light 
rich soil, and should have the protection of a 
frame. The flowers are bell-shaped, light 
blue, and borne in panicles on slender scapes. 
Propagated by offsets. Introduced in 1823. 

Cundura'ngo. The Condor Vine of New 
Grenada, a species of OonoMms, named O. 
Chmdmrango, by M. Friama. When first Intro- 




duced this plant became famous, owing to 
the reputed efficacy oi! the stems in the cure 
of cancer ; a reputation its merits would not 
Cuneate. Wedge-shaped ; the broadest end 
uppermost, tapering to the base. 

Cuni'Ia. Dittany. The derivation of this 
word is doubtful ; by some botanists it is sup- 
posed to be from konos, a cone, and by others 
from Canila, tne name of a town. Nat. Ord. 

Native hardy herbaceous perennials, com- 
mon on dry hills from New York to Illinois 
and southward. They produce clusters of 
small white or purplish flowers from July 
to September. Propagated by root division. 

Cunningha'mia. In honor of two brothers, J. 
and A. Cunningham, British botanists in Aus- 
tralia. Nat. Ord. Coniferm. 

C. Sinensis, the only known species, is a 
lofty evergreen tree, native of South China. 
It bears a close resemblance to the Araucarias, 
the foliage, however, being of a brighter 
green and less rigid. It is too tender for our 
climate, but its elegance makes it welcome in 
any conservatory where there is room for its 
development. Propagated from seed. In- 
troduced in 1804. 

Cuno'nia. Named after John C. Cuno, of 
Amsterdam, who described his own garden in 
verse, in 1750. Nat. Ord. Saxifragacece. 

C. Capensis, the only species, is a small 
tree, a native of the Cape of Good Hope, 
where it is called, " Rood Elze," by the set- 
tlers. The dense racemes of small white 
flowers, are axillary and opposite, the leaves 
pinnate with oblong coriaceous serrated leaf- 
lets. It is quite an ornamental green-house 
plant, and is easily increased by cuttings. 
Introduced in 1816. 

Cup Plant. A popular name for Silphiumper- 

Cupa'nia. Named after Francis Oupani, an 
Italian monk, who wrote on botany. Nat. 
Ord. Sapindacece. 

A genus of ornamental green-house ever- 
green trees, chiefly natives of Mexico and 
the West Indies. The species vary in height 
from six to twenty feet, and produce beautiful 
white flowers. One species, C. pendula, a 
native of tropical Australia, is a lofty-growing 
tree, and furnishes the beautiful wood known 
as Tulip Wood, so called from its Tulip-like 
markings. The species are increased by 

Cu'phea. From kyphos, curved ; referring to the 
form of the seed-pods. Nat. Ord. Lythracece. 
An extensive genus of green-house ever- 
greens, and half-hardy annuals. With a few 
exceptions, such as C. platycentra, commonly 
known as "Segar Plant" and "Fire Cracker 
Plant," they are of but little merit. C. platy- 
centra makes a beautiful border and room 
plant. It is propagated readily by cuttings, 
grows freely, and produces its scarlet and 
purple tubular flowers in great profusion 
nearly the whole year. Introduced from 
Mexico in 1845. 

Cupre'ssus. Cypress. From kao, to produce 
and parisos, equal ; in reference to the sym- 
metrical growth of some of the species. Nat. 
Ord. Conferee. 


An extensive genus of hardy evergreen 
trees, widely disseminated. C. sempervirens, 
the common European Cypress, is a native of 
Persia, but has for so long a time been gen- 
erally planted throughout the East, that it is 
impossible to ascertain the section where it 
is indigenous. The timber of this species is 
highly esteemed for its durability, being con- 
sidered superior to cedar. The doors of St. 
Peter's Church at Eome, which had been 
formed of this wood in the time of Constan- 
tine, showed no signs of decay when, after 
the lapse of a 1100 years, Pope Eugenius 
IV. took them down to replace them by 
gates of brass. In order to preserve the 
remains of their heroes, the Athenians buried 
them in coffins of Cypress; and the chests 
or coffins in which the Egyptian mummies are 
found are usually of the same material. C. 
thyoides is the White Cedar or Cypress of our" 
Southern States, a graceful and beautiful tree 
in its native home, but which only thrives in 
wet places. There are several species found in 
California and Oregon,, some of which are 
magnificent trees; others are graceful and 
ornamental shrubs. The beautiful Retinas- 
poraa of Japan are nearly related to this 
genus. A number of species, known as Cu- 
pressus, are now placed under Chamcecyparis, 
by some authors. 

Cupreus. Of copper color, yellowish-red with 
considerable mixture of gray. 

Curcu'ligo. From ciirculio, a weevil ; the seeds 
having a point resembling the beak of a 
weevil. Nat. Ord. Amaryllidacece. 

A genus of green-house herbaceous plants of 
which the only species worthy of cultivation 
is C. recurvata, and its variegated forms. 
They have large palm-like ribbed leaves, 
beautifully recurved ; most ornamental and 
useful for green-house or conservatory deco- 
ration. They are of easy cultivation growing 
freely in a compost of turfy loam and sand, 
and are readily propagated by suckers which 
form at the base of the stem. Introduced 
from Bengal in 1805. 

Curcu'lio. The Plum Weevil. See Insects. 

Cu'rcuma. Turmeric. From kurkum, its Arabic 
name. Nat. Ord. Seitaminem. 

An extensive genus of herbaceous peren- 
nials, natives of the East Indies, China and 
Java. Most of the species possess the same 
aromatic stimulating properties in the roots, 
or rhizomes, and seeds, as the common ginger, 
and are plants of considerable beauty from their 
colored bracts. C longa is one of the best 
known species, the powdered root of which is 
the Turmeric of commerce. This powder is 
used in India as a mild aromatic and for other 
medicinal purposes. It also enters into the 
composition of curry powder, and a sort of 
arrow-root is made from the young tubers. 
Turmeric is a dye of a very rich color, but it 
possesses no durability, nor has there been 
any combination of mordants found that 
would give it this quality in a sufficient 
degree to make it useful. Several of the 
species, with yellow or reddish flowers, are 
cultivated in the green-house. 

Curl. A disease of Potatoes, referable to 
Chlorosis. The tubers produce deformed, 
curled shoots, of a pallid tint, which are 
never perfectly developed, and give rise to 




minute tubers. It is a local disease, however, 
and its cause is not certainly known. It is 
distinct from the curled foliage produced by 
the presence of Aphides. This term is also 
applied to a serious disease affecting the leavos 
of the Peach tree, in which they are curled 
and blistered. Some attribute the disease to 
Aphides, and others to Fungi. There is no 
known remedy but the destruction of the 

Curme'ria. Derivation of name not given. Nat. 
Ord. AroidecB. 

A small genus of green-house herbaceous 
perennials, natives of Colombia. C. Wallisii 
is a dwarf-growing species, and of a very or- 
namental character. The leaves are spread- 
ing, and strongly marked with very irregular 
dark-green spots or blotches, Intermixed with 
broad patches of very pale yellowish-green. 
C. pictv/rata has bi-oad green leaves, with a 
broad central band of silvery gray. They 
were introduced to cultivation in 1875, and 
are highly esteemed in a collection of varie- 
gated-leaved plants. Propagated by offsets 
from the roots. 

Currant. Buffalo or Missouri. Ribes awrewm. 
Common Red. Rihes rubrum. 
New Zealand. A.ri8toteliafruticbsa. 
Red Flowering. Ribes Sanguinewm. 

Cuscu'ta. Dodder. From kechout, its Arabic 
name. Nat. Ord. CuscutacecB. 

These plants are deserving of attention 
from their parasitical character, as they will 
attach themselves to, and grow on any other 
plant within their reach. Their long twining 
stems emit an abundance of small fragrant 
flowers towards the end of summer. Their 
seeds germinate in the earth, but detach 
themselves as soon as sufficiently grown to 
take hold of a neighboring plant. They are 
natives of South America, New Holland, other 
tropical countries, and the United States. The 
Ciiscuta is becoming troublesome in the 
Southern States by overrunning other vege- 
tation. It is particularly so to Oleanders, 
several instances being reported where it has 
completely destroyed these beautiful shrubs. 
In California there has been much trouble in 
fields of Alfalfa from a species of Cuscuta, 
which, it is stated, was introduced with 
Alfalfa seed from Chili. The only cure, when 
it gets into a field, consists in cutting the 
crop before the Dodder matures any seed, and 
repeating the process as long as the Dodder 
makes its appear-anoe. C. Gronovii is very 
common in low damp grounds, especially in 
shady places both east and west, chiefly on 
coarser herbs and low shrubs; its orange- 
colored stems render it very conspicuous. 

Cuscuta'oeas. A natural order of plants in- 
cluded by some as a sub-order of Oonvolvulr 
acecB. They are leafless, parasitic, twining 
herbs, with flowers in dense clusters. The 
seeds germinate in the soil in the usual way, 
and afterward become true parasites by at- 
taching themselves to plants in their vicinity, 
and growing at their expense. They are 
found in the temperate regions of both hemi- 
spheres and are very destructive to some 
kinds of plants. There are four known genera 
and upward of fifty species. Cuscuta, Lepi- 
danche, and Epilinella are examples of the 


Cushion Pink, or Ladies' Cushion. Armma 

Cuspidate. Tapering gradually into a rigid 
point. A leaf is cuspidate when it suddenly 
tapers to a point. 

Custard Apple. A popular name of Aamitia 
triloba, or American Papaw. 

Cuticle. The external homogeneous skin of a 
plant, consisting of a tough membrane over- 
lying the epidermis. The word is also used 
for the skin of anything, including the epi- 

Cutting. A portion of a young branch which, 
when inserted into the earth under suitable 
conditions, emits roots, and is developed as a 
distinct individual. See Propagation by Cut- 

Cyana'nthus. From kyanos, blue, and anthos, a 
flower. Nat. Ord. CampanulavecB. 

C. lobatus Is a delicate little hardy herba- 
ceous plant from the higher ranges of the Him- 
alayas, with a habit similar to some species of 
Campanula. Its requirements are a sandy 
soil, with plenty of moisture during the flow- 
ering season, but afterward It should be kept 
rather dry and allowed to rest. The flowers 
are terminal, and light blue. Propagated by 

Cyane'lla. A diminutive of kyanos blue. Nat. 
Ord. LiliacecB. 

Pretty green-house bulbs, with white, blue, 
or yellow flowers. They grow readily in 
sandy loam, and, like all other plants of the 
same order, require to have a resting season, 
which, for convenience. Is generally deferred 
to the winter. The protection of a cold frame 
is all they require to endure our winters. 
They increase freely by offsets. Natives of 
the Cape of Good Hope ; introduced in 1768. 

Cyanophy'Ilum. From kyamos, blue, and phyl- 
lon, a leaf ; referring to the color of the under 
surface of the leaves. Nat. Ord. Melastom- 

Of this exceedingly interesting plant we 
take the following description from Lowe's 
" Beautiful Leaved Plants :" " Native country, 
tropical America. Introduced In 1857 by Mr. 
Linden, a Continental nurseryman. A flne 
woody Melastomaceous hot-house shrub, 
which has not yet flowered In this country 
(England). The leaves are truly magnificent, 
growing two feet long and nine inches wide, 
of a long oval shape, tapering to a point. 
Upper surface a distinct ivory-like midrib, 
with a pair of veins of the same color running 
from the base near the margin and meeting 
near the point, joining near the midrib. Mar- 
gin irregularly serrated. Color a deep vel- 
vety green ; underneath the veins are visible, 
and the general color is a rich purplish crim- 
son. Habit strong growing. Nothing can 
possibly exceed the beautiful foliage of this 
truly handsome plant." The above descrip- 
tion of C. magntficwm, will apply equally well 
to the other species. Propagated by cut- 

Cyano'tis. From kyanos, blue, and oms, an ear; 
referring to the shape of the petals. Nat. Ord. 

A small genus of evergreen trailing plants, 
allied to Tradescantia, and requiring the same 
general treatment. The species are showy 
plants, natives of tropical Asia. They are 




propagated readily by cuttings. 
In 1770. 


Cya'thea. From kyatheion, a little cup ; in ref- 
erence to the appearance of the spore or seed 
cases on the back of the leaves. Nat. Ord. 

An extensive genus of arborescent Perns, 
abundant in South America and in the West 
Indies, in India, the Eastern Islands, and in 
the Pacific Islands ; a few are also met with 
in New Zealand and South Africa. In some 
the trunk is short, but in others it reaches a 
height of forty to sixty feet, and is 
crowned with a magnificent head of fronds, 
which are in many cases of gigantic size, and 
are always large. C. medullaris, a native 
of New Zealand and the Pacific Isles, and 
known in gardens as a noble Tree Pern of 
comparatively hardy character, forms in its 
native country a common article of food with 
the natives. The part eaten is the soft me- 
dullary substance, which occupies the center of 
the trunk, and which has some resemblance to 
Sago. C. dealbaia, another beautiful species 
of New Zealand, is said to be eaten in the 
same way. This has a trunk from ten to fif- 
teen feet high, crowned with a noble tuft of 
fronds, which are white beneath with a silvery 
powder. Propagated by spores. Pirst intro- 
duced in 1793. 

Cyatho'des. Prom leyathos, a cup, and eidos, 
"like ; because the nectary resembles that ves- 
sel. Nat. Ord. Epaaridacem. 

An interesting and somewhat extensive 
genus of green-house evergreens, natives of 
Australia, and occasionally met in New Zea- 
land and the Pacific Islands. They produce 
small axillary white or yellow flowers. They 
are propagated by cuttings and require the 
same treatment as recommended for the 

Cycadacese. A natural order of small, palm- 
like trees or shrubs, with unbranohed stems 
and pinnate leaves, usually rolled up like a 
crosier while in bud. They are chiefly natives 
of the tropical and temperate regions of 
America and Asia, but are also found in 
southern Africa and in Australia. The plants 
are mucilaginous and starchy. Cycas revolvia, 
one of the best known, is a native of Japan, 
and supplies a kind of starch which is used as 
Sago ; and a similar kind of false Sago is sup- 
plied by C. circinalis in the Moluccas. Caffre 
bread is made from the starch of a Gape spe- 
cies of Encephalartos. In the West Indies a 
kind of Arrow-root is obtained from some 
species of Zamia. There are seven known 
genera and about fifty species. Cycas, Zamia, 
EncephakurtoB, and IHon are examples of the 

Cy'cas. The Greek name of a Palm said to grow 
in Ethiopia. Nat. Ord. OycadaeecE. 

A remarkable genus of ornamental plants, 
consisting of low-growing trees, with cylin- 
drical, usually unbranched stems, terminated 
at the top by a crown of handsome, deeply- 
cut, pinnate leaves of thick texture. C. revo- 
Ivia, the finest of the species, is grown exten- 
sively in China and Japan, its native countries, 
for the pith contained in its trunk, and which 
is prepared by the natives into an article of 
food similar to the Sago, upon which they live 
wholly for several months in the year. They 
are commonly, but erroneously, called Sago 


Palms, as they furnish none of the Sago of 
commerce. Their cultivation in our houses is 
the same as is required for all the Palm tribe; 
plenty of pot room, and a strong, moist heat. 
C. revdlmta, however, may be wintered in alow 
temperature, and its new growth retarded for 
the lawn. After the leaves have perfected 
their growth and are thoroughly hardened, 
the plants can be placed upon the lawn during 
summer, where they are most appropriate 
ornaments. Young plants are usually obtained 
from suckers, but as it takes many years to 
grow these to any useful size, large numbers 
of the trunks, minus leaves and roots, vary- 
ing in height from one to seven feet,' are 
annually imported from Cuba and the West 
Indian Islands, which being placed in heat, 
soon make good plants. Several large con- 
signments have also been received of late 
years from Japan. This genus was first intro- 
duced into England from China in 1737. 

Cy'clamen. From kykloa, circular ; referring to 
the round leaves. Nat. Ord. Primulacece. 

This genus contains some of our most pop- 
ular and desirable plants for fall, winter, and 
early spring flowering. They are all neat and 
dwarf in habit ; all have foliage of pretty form 
and beautiful markings, and the flowers, in 
every case, are beautiful, some exquisitely 
so. C. persicum stands at the head of the 
family, and is the one in most general culti- 
vation. The Cyclamen should be grown from 
seed, which should be sown as soon as ripe, 
in gentle heat, in pans filled with a compost of 
well-rotted manure, leaf mould, and coarse 
sand thoroughly incorporated. As soon as 
the plants have made two leaves, prick out 
into thumb-pots filled with the same compost, 
and place upon the shelf in the green-house, 
near the glass, and shade from direct sunlight. 
Carefully water ; to dry them or drown them 
Is equally fatal. As soon as the pots are filled 
with roots, shift into a three-inch pot, observ- 
ing the same instructions in all respects. By 
the first of September they will require a 
five-inch pot. With proper care and attention, 
they will be in flower in December and Janu- 
ary following planting. They require a more 
even temperature than is usually given to 
green-house plants, not above 60° nor below 
50° ; with it bulbs two inches in diameter can 
be grown in one year. After flowering, they 
should be gradually ripened off, but never 
allowed to become thoroughly dry. During 
summer keep them in a frame, shaded, and 
give occasionally a little water. They should 
be repotted again about the first of September, 
reducing the old ball considerably and giving 
them similar treatment to that previously 
advised for young plants, but the flowers are 
generally earlier and smaller a second year. 
It is not advisable to save plants after this 
age, as seed sown every year will keep up a 
stock, and young plants are much to be pre- 
ferred. This species is a native of Persia. 
All the species are famous for their acridity, 
yet in Sicily the Cyclamen is the principal food 
of the wild boars ; hence the common name of 

Cyclantha'ce3e. A natural order of perennial 
herbs or shrubs, all natives of tropical 
America. It is very closely allied to Pandan- 
acecB, and embraces four genera and about 
thirty-five species. Carhuiovica palinata,yvhioh 




yields the much-valued straw from which the 
Guyaquil or Panama hats are manufactured, 
is the best known representative of the order. 

Cycla'nthera. A free-growing Mexican climber, 
belonging to the Cuewrbitaceoe. It has hand- 
some foliage, and pretty oval-shaped fruit, ex- 
ploding when ripe. 

Cyclan'thus. From kykloa, a circle, and antkoB, 
a flower ; in allusion to the spiral arrange- 
ment of the flowers. Nat. Ord._ Cyolantha- 

A remarkable genus of tropical American, 
perennial, stemless, milky herbs. C. discolor 
has bifid lanceolate leaves, with a tapering 
point, more or less frilled at the edges. The 
young leaves are streaked, of a tawny orange 
ifiue, which passes off as they become matured: 
Introduced from Guiana in 1882. Syn. Cyclo- 

Cyclobo'thra. From kykloa, a circle, and 
bothros, a pit ; in reference to a cavity at the 
bottom of each sepal. Nat. Ord. Liliacem. 

A genus of very handsome bulbous plants 
from California and Mexico. They are allied 
to the Calochort'us, and require the same 
treatment. The flowers are nodding, like 
those of the FritUlarias, and of white, yellow, 
and purple colors. They are easily propagated 
by the small bulbs that grow on the upper 
part of the stems. 

Cyclo'gyne. From kyklos, a circle, and gyne, a 
stigma, or female organ ; in reference to the 
disposition of the pistils. Nat. Ord. Legumi- 

A very beautiful green-house evergreen 
shrub from Swan Eiver. It is remarkable 
for the appearance of the pinnate leaflets, 
which are clad underneath with white hairs ; 
and this, with the profusion of purple flowers 
it bears, renders it an attractive object. 
Propagated by seeds or cuttings. 

Cycno'ches. Swan Neck. From kyknos, a 
swan, and auchen, the neck ; in reference to 
the long and gracefully curved column. Nat. 
Ord. Orchidacem. 

Some of the species are considered indis- 
pensable to the Orchid house, for the beauty 
and delightful fragrance of the flowers. They 
require strong heat and moisture. 

Cydo'nia. Quince. The name of Cydonia was 
given to this plant by the ancients, from its 
growing abundantly near Kydon, in the isle 
of Crete, now Candia. Nat. Urd. Rosacem. 

The common Quince, C. vulgaris, has been 
under cultivation from a very early period. 
Pliny says: "There are many kinds of this 
fruit in Italy ; some growing wild in the 
hedgerows, others so large that they weigh 
the boughs down to the ground." Martial, 
who died at Rome A. D. 104, states that the 
Romans had three sorts of Quinces, one of 
which was called Ohrysomela, from its yellow 
color. They boiled them with honey, as the 
Europeans make marmalade. Botanical re- 
searches show that the Quince grows spon- 
taneously on the hills and in the woods of 
Italy, in the south of France, in Spain, Sicily, 
Sardinia, the Crimea, and in the south of the 
Caucasus; it also grows abundantly on the 
banks of the Danube, and in the north of 
Africa. "The learned Goropius maintains 
that Quinces were the golden apples of Hes- 
perides, and not Oranges, as some commen- 


tators pretend. In support of his argument 
he states that it was a fruit much revered by 
the ancients, and he assures us that there 
has been discovered at Rome a statue of 
Hercules that held in its hand three Quinces. 
This, he says, agrees with the fable which 
states that Hercules stole the golden apples 
from the gardens of the Hesperides." This 
species is unquestionably the parent of the 
severaJ varieties under cultivation. There 
seems to have been but little improvement 
in this fruit in centuries. The great differ- 
ence in the quality of this fruit, as seen in our 
markets, is largely due to cultivation. The 
common practice of planting thfj Quince 
in some neglected corner results in getting 
small, knotty fruit, almost if not altogether 
worthless. The Quince should have a deep, 
rich soil, rather heavy, and the ground should 
be kept clean and free from grass. Attention 
should also be paid to pruning, as apreventive 
against slugs and other vermin. The trunks 
and branches should be thoroughly rubbed 
over with strong soft-soap every spring. 
With this simple precaution the failure of a 
crop of large, clean, healthy fruit will be very 
rare. The propagation of the Quince is very 
simple, the more rapid way being to take cut- 
tings from the young wood in autumn, heel 
them in in some protected place during winter, 
and plant out in spring in a shaded situation, 
and they will take root very readily. O. Japon- 
ica, Syn. Pyrus Japonica, is a beautiful dwarf 
species, remarkable for the brilliancy of its 
blossoms, which vary from the richest scarlet 
to the most delicate blush color. It is a na- 
tive of Japan, perfectly hardy, and well 
adapted for single plants on the lawn, or for 
planting ornamental hedges. The fruit has a 
delicious fragrance, but is entirely worthless 
for domestic purposes. This species is best 
propagated by root cuttings. C Maulei, 
dwarfer and more compact in habit than C. 
Japonica, has bright red flowers and golden 
yellow fruit, produced in great abundance, 
and which makes an excellent conserve. It 
is one of the most beautiful plants of com- 
paratively recent introduction. 

Cylindrical. Cylinder-shaped ; approaching 
closely to the form of a cylinder, as the stems 
of grasses, etc. 

Cyli'sta. From kylitoa, twining; referring to 
the habit of the plants. Nat. Ord. LeguminoacB. 
A genus of ornamental climbing plants. C. 
searioaa, found in the Bombay districts of 
India, is a very ornamental climber, requiring 
to be grown in a hot-house, as do most of the 
genus. The flowers are very showy, bright, 
yellow, borne on erect bracted racemes, and 
are remarkable for their large papery calyx, 
which is very conspicuous. Propagated by 
cuttings. Introduced in 1776. 

Cymbi'dium. From kymbos, a hollow recess; 
referring to a hollow recess in the lip or label- 
lum. Nat. Ord. OrchidacecB. 

A genus containing both terrestrial and 
epiphytal Orchids, many of them of rare 
beauty, and all worthy of cultivation. C. 
Sinenae, a native of China, is remarkable for 
its delicious fragrance. The epiphytal spe- 
cies require the treatment of hot-house 
Orchids; the terrestrial ones do well in a 
green-house temperature. 




Cy'mbiform. Having the figure of a boat In 
miniature ; that is to say, concave, tapering 
to each end, with a keel externally, as the 
glumes of PhcUaris Ganariensia. 

Cyme. A form of inflorescence, resembling a 
flattened panicle, as in the Lauruatinws and the 
Elder (^Sanibucua). 

Cy'nara. Cardoon. Artichoke. From hyon, a 
dog ; in reference to the spines of the involu- 
crum resembling dog's teeth. Nat. Ord. Com- 

O. carchmeulvs, the Cardoon of the garden, 
very much resembles the Artichoke ; it is a 
hardy perennial, a native of the south of 
Europe and the northern parts of Africa. The 
stalks of the leaves, or ribs, as they are usu- 
ally termed, are blanched, and when properly 
cooked constitute a tender and excellent veg- 
etable, much used in France, but not gener- 
ally cultivated in other countries. The flow- 
ers, like those of the Artichoke, have the 
property of curdling milk. See Artichoke. 

Cyno'don. Bermuda Grass, Scutch Grass. A 
small genus of grasses but little known, except 
G. Dactylon, a native of southern Europe, and 
all tropical countries. It is a common pasture 
grass in the West Indies, and the Sandwich 
Islands, and has long been known in the 
United States, though it is only of late years 
that its value is becoming appreciated. It is 
admirably adapted for the Southern States, as 
it is fitted by nature to withstand drought 
and the scorching rays of the sun bet- 
ter than any other grass. In the East 
Indies (where it is called, Doub or Doorba, by 
the natives) and in all tropical countries, this 
grass is highly esteemed for its drought- 
resisting qualities, and also for the peculiar 
habit oi its growth ; the wiry roots of grass in 
running over the surface of the ground form a 
strong fibrous matting. It has numerous 
joints from each of which roots strike down 
and blades shoot up. This has caused it to be 
sown largely for the purpose of binding banks 
of creeks and dams, etc. It makes a perfect 
carpet of roots, enabling it to withstand traffic 
which would completely kill any other grass. 
For lawns it is also highly prized, as while all 
other grasses are burned up during the hot 
season, Bermuda Grass will look compara^ 
tively green, and if watered and regularly 
mown, it will make quite a velvety carpet. 
The only drawback is that in winter it looks 
a little brown. It should be sown in the spring, 
as it will not germinate until warm weather 
comes. As a grass for hay or pasture, it 
matures and gives its first cutting ordinarily in 
June. Persons having the most experience 
with Bermuda Grass, place the average 
yield of hay for ten years at four tons per acre 
per annum. This is a cautious and safe estim- 
ate of its productiveness. It grows where- 
ever corn and cotton grow. On poor land 
Bermuda Grass is stumpy and coarse; on 
rich land its growth is free, and its blades are 
long, tender and delicate. Properly cultivated 
in southern latitudes, animals prefer this 
grass and the hay made from it over all other 
varieties. Like Japan Clover, it does not 
succeed further north than Virginia. 

Cyuoglo'ssum. Hound's Tongue. From kyon, 
a dog, and glossa, a tongue ; referring to the 
shape of the leaves. Nat. Ord. BoraginacetB. 


Pretty border plants, producing fiowers of 
almost all colors. They grow in any soil, and 
are not very particular as to situation, and 
are increased readily by division of the stools 
in the spring. The annuals and biennials are 
grown from seed. 

Cynosu'rus. Dog's-tail Grass. From kyon, a 
dog, and cmra, a tail ; from its resemblance to 
a dog's tail, whence its common name. Nat. 
Ord. OrcmiinaceoB. 

A small genus of grasses, but one of which, 
G. eristaius, the Crested Dog's-tail Grass, is of 
value to the agriculturist. This species is 
common In England, in dry pastures, often 
forming a considerable portion of the turf on 
gravelly soUs. For such soils it is avalu- 

. able grass, being greatly relished by sheep, 
but is not much liked by cattle. The slender 
straws of this grass are valuable for making 
hats, being far superior even to the fine wheat 
plant cultivated for the purpose in Italy. 

Cype'lla. From kypellon, a goblet, a cup ; re- 
ferring to the form of the flowers. Nat. Ord. 

A genus of very pretty half-hardy bulbs, 
worthy of a place in the green-house. They 
are multiplied by offsets. Introduced in 1823. 

C3rpera'ce8e. A natural order of grass-like, 
tufted plants, having solid, usually jointed, 
and frequently angular stems; leaves with 
their sheaths entire (not split, as in Grasses) ; 
and very generally distributed all over the 
world, abounding in moist places. Some of 
the Sedges are demulcent, others are bitter 
and astringent. Some, by means of their 
creeping underground stems, bind together 
the loose sands of the sea-shore. Their cell- 
ular tissue is sometimes used for paper, and 
the underground stems of several species of 
Cyperus are used for food. The underground 
stems of Garex arenaria are used for Sarsa- 
parilla. The species of Eriophorum, or Cotton ' 
Grass, have long, white, silky hairs surround- 
ing the fruit. Papyrus antiquorum (also called 
Cyperus) appears to be one of the plants called 
Bulrush in the Bible. It formerly grew abund- 
antly at the mouth of the Nile, which was 
hence called papyriferous by Ovid, but it is 
now gone. The cellular tissue of its stems was 
used in place of paper. Scirpus lacustia, the 
Bulrush, is used for making mats, baskets, 
and the bottoms of chairs. In South America 
it is used for making balsas or boats, and a 
similar use is referred to in Isaiah, xvii., 1, 2. 
There are 120 known genera and upward of 
2,000 species. Cyperus, Papyrus, Carex, Scir- 
pus, Eriophorwm, and Cfladiwm are examples of 
the order. 

Cjrpe'rus. Supposed to be derived from Cypris, 
a name of Venus, from their supposed medi- 
cinal qualities. Nat. Ord. Cyperacew. 

A genus of sedge plants, of but little merit 
for the garden or green-house. C. altemifoliys 
is grown as a basket plant ; it is of the easiest 
culture, and will thrive in any soil or situation, 
but prefers a moist one. A variegated variety 

^ of this species is very beautiful, but not con- 
stant. They are natives of Madagascar, first 
introduced in 1781. C. rotundvs (Nut GrassJ is 
a common and troublesome weed in the 
Southern States. ■ 

Cy'phia. From kyphoa, curved; referring to 
the shape of the style and stigma. Nat. Ord. 











A small genus of herbaceous twiners from 
South Africa. They produce small blue or red 
bell-shaped flowers, of but little interest. The 
species are rarely met, excepting in botanical 

Cyphoma'ndra. From kyphoma, a hump, and 
oner, a man ; the anthers form a hump. Nat. 
Ord. Solanacece. 

A genus of shrubby plants with showy 
foliage, natives of South America. C. betacea, 
is the Tree Tomato, a handsome shrub, a 
native of Peru, the small, deep red, egg-lilie 
fruit of which is used in the same way as 
Tomatoes. Propagated by seeds or cuttings. 
Introduced in 1887. 

Cypress. See Cwpresaus. 
'SXajok. or Deciduous. Taxodiumdistachyvm. 
Chinese Deciduous. Taxodium sinense. 
Puneral. Cwpressusfunebria. 
Japan. The genus Retinoapora; especially 

R. ohtaaa. 
Monterey. Cupressus maerocarpa. 
Nootka Sound. Cupresaus NictkcBnsia. 
Oregon. Cupreaaus Lawaoniana. 

Cypress Vine. See Quamoclit. 

Cypripe'dium. Ladies' Slipper, -or Moccasin 
Flower. From Cypria, one of Venus's names, 
and podion, a slipper. Nat. Ord. OrchidacecB. 

A somewhat extensive genus of terrestrial 
Orchids, producing flowers of the most sin- 
gular structure, combined with elegance and 
beauty. It is remarkable that a family with 
such marked and distinctive characteristics 
should find congenial homes in such a 
diversity of soil and climate. The species 
are pretty generally distributed, from our 
most northern States to Mexico, through 
South America, the Pacific Islands, and India. 
The State of New York furnishes six species, 
all beautiful and worthy of cultivation. The 
native species may all be cultivated in the 
garden by placing them in a well drained 
shady border; the soil of which should be 
liberally mixed with leaf mould. Their unique 
blossoms render them highly deserving of any 
care. The best time for transplanting them 
from their native localities is after they have 
done blooming, and they should be rehioved 
with a ball of earth attached to the roots. 
Some of the tropical species require the tem- 
perature and humid atmosphere of the hot- 
house, while others do best In the green-house. 
The most of them however thrive admirably 
amongst ordinary stove-plants, flower very 
freely, and continue in perfection a long time. 
One most important point in their culture Is 
drainage. This must be most thorough and 
effective, for as these plants have no pseudo- 
bulbs to sustain them, they must not be dried 
off, as many other orchids are, during winter, 
and if the drainage is defective, the roots are 
sure to decay and the leaves shrivel. The 
foliage of several of the species is beautifully 
spotted and marbled with yellow and white, 
which makes them attractive at all times. 
There are so many species and varieties now 
under cultivation, and they are all so beautiful 
that it is almost impossible to make a selection 
of only a few kinds. An amateur should there- 
fore begin" with a few of the common species, 
and add to his collection as his taste or fancy 
dictates. See Orchids. The flowers are 
greatly valued in the winter months for 
florists' work. Propagated by division of roots, 


and by seed, which, with most of the species, 
is a rather delicate undertaking. 

Cyri'lla. Named in honor of D. Cyrillo, an Ital- 
ian botanist. Nat. Ord. CyrillacecE. 

A small genus of half-hardy and green- 
house flowering shrubs, with the habit of 
some of the larger Andromedas. C. racemi- 
flora is common in sandy banks o'f ponds and 
streams from the Carolinas south and west. 
It is a low-growing tree or shrub, with 
racemes of small white flowers. 

Cyiilla'ceae. A small order of evergreen shrubs 
or trees, differing from JSricacecB in their free 
petals and in the anthers opening in slits. 
Flowers usually racemose. The three genera 
are Cliftomia, Coatasa and Cyrilla. There are 
about eight species, all confined to the warmer 
parts of America. 

Cyrta'ndra. From kyrtoa, curved, and aner, 
androa, a male ; alluding to the curved fila- 
ments of the perfect stamens. Nat. Ord. 

A genus of trees and shrubs natives of the 
Malayan Archipelago and the Pacific Islands. 
Though embracing about sixty species, only 
two have as yet been introduced to cultiva/- 
tron, C. pendula, from Java in 1883, and ' C. 
PrUchardii, from Fiji, in 1887. They are both 
interesting plants, and are increased by cut- 

Cyrtanthe'ra. From kyrtoa, curved and anthera, 
an anther. Nat. Ord. Acanthacem. 

A small genus of handsome evergreen plants 
from South America, which do well in the 
green-house. They are nearly related to 
Juatieia; their flowers are orange, yellow, 
and rose in color, borne in dense terminal 
panicles, and they are propagated readily 
from cuttings. Introduced in 1827. 

Cyrta'nthus. From kyrtoa, curved, and anthoa, a 
flower ; the flowers bend down from the sum- 
mit of the scape or stalk. Nat. Ord. Amaryl- 

Very handsome green-house bulbs from the 
Cape of Good Hope. The flowers, which are 
borne in umbels on a slender scape, are red, 
crimson and orange, produced in summer, 
when they require very liberal watering ; they 
should be grown in pots, and are propagated 
by offsets. Introduced in 1774. 

Cyrto'oeras. From kyrtoa, curved, and keroa, a 
horn; in allusion to the curved horns of the 
corona Segments. Nat. Ord. Aaclepiadacew. 

A stove-house evergreen climber with white 
flowers, tipped with buff. This is now gener- 
ally regarded as a section of the genus Hoya. 
C. muUiflorua, the only species, bears the fol- 
lowing synonyms : Centrostemma muUiflorum, 
Cfyrtoceraa floribundwm, O. LindUyamum, C. 
reflexum and Hoya coriacea. 

Cyrtochi'lum. From kyrtoa, curved, or concave, 
and cheiloa, a lip ; the form of the labellum or 
lip. Nat. Ord. OrchidacecB. 

A genus of small flowering Orchids from 
Mexico and Guatemala. The flowers are red, 
yellow, spotted, purple and green. They 
require a high temperature, and are usually 

, grown on blocks of wood or cork. 

Cyrtodei'ra. From kyrtoa, curved, and deire, 
neck. Nat. Ord. GeaneracetB. 

Green-house herbaceous perennials, with 
bcautifuUy-eolored foliage, and solitary flow- 




ers on short axillary stems. They make very 
pretty basket plants for the hot-house, the 
only place in ■which they thrive well. They 
thrive best in sandy loam and leaf mould, and 
are increased readily from cuttings, and also 
from seed. This genus is included under 
Epiacia, by some authors. 

Cyrto'mium. Prom kyrtoa, curved ; the shape 
of the spore cases or seed vessels. Nat. Ord. 

A small genus of robust evergreen Perns of 
very ornamental character. They are natives 
of India, China, and Japan, and require the 
hot-house for perfection of growth. Syn. 

Cyrtope'ra. Prom Teyrtos, curved, and pera, a 
small sack ; alluding to the sack-liko append- 
age to the labellum or lip. Nat. Ord. Orchid- 

A small genus of very beautiful terrestrial 
Orchids, natives of northern India. In 
appearance they resemble the Bletias, and are 
usually given the same treatment. 

Cyrtopo'dium. From kyrtos, curved, and pou8, 
a foot ; referring to the form of the labellum 
or lip. Nat. Ord. Orchidaoew. 


A genus of beautiful, strong-growing Or- 
chids from Brazil, valued alike for their large 
spikes of flowers, yellow spotted with red, and 
for their beautiful foliage. One species, with 
yellow flowers, has pseudo-bulbs nearly five 
feet high. The room required to grow them 
prevents their general cultivation. 

Cysto'pteris. Fiomkyatia, a bladder, andpieron, 
a wing. Nat. Ord. Poli/podiacece. 

A genus of beautiful, hardy Penis, allied to 
Miorol^a and Woodsia. They are admirably 
adapted for ferneries and rock work. C. 
bulbifera, a native species, produces large 
fleshy bulblets in the axils of the upper 
pinnsa, which fall to the ground and become 
new plants. 

Cy'tisus. Prom Cythrms, one of the Cyclades, 
where one of the species was first found. Nat. 
Ord. Legwminoam. 

This is an extensive genus, consisting prin- 
cipally of hardy deciduous trees and shrubs, 
of which C. Lalmnvwm (Syn. Lahwmvm, milgare) 
is a well-known species. They are all very 
ornamental and free-flowering, and succeed 
well in almost any soil or situation. They 
are readily increased by seeds or from 
cuttings. Introduced in 1596. 


Dacry'dium. Prom ddkra, a tear; referring 
to the gummy exudation. Nat. Ord. 

A genus of evergreen trees inhabiting the 
East Indies and New Zealand. The flowers 
are curious, but not showy. The young 
branches afford a beverage of the same quali- 
ties as root beer. D. PrankUnii, from Tas- 
mania, furnishes a valuable timber, very dur- 
able, which is used for ship and house-build- 
ing. Some of the wood is beautifully marked, 
and is used for cabinet work. 

Sa'ctylis. Orchard Grass. .From daetylos, a 
finger ; the head is divided so as fancifully to 
resemble fingers. Nat. Ord. Graminacece. 

A small genus of grasses, the best-known of 
which is D. glomerata, a native of Europe. It 
is a valuable grass for pastures, as it contains 
much nutriment when young, and the plant 
is not injured by close feeding. It grows well 
under trees, and is, therefore, fitted for 
orchards, and other shaded places. 

Daedalaca'nthus. Prom (JisciaZos, various colored, 
and Acanthus, to which it is related. Nat. Ord. 

A genus of about fourteen species of shrubs, 
natives of the East Indies and the Malayan 
Archipelago. D. maorophylhis, the best known 
species, is an erect, minutely-pubescent, per- 
ennial herb, with handsome foliage, and pale 
violet-blue flowers. It was introduced from 
Burmah in 1883. 

Daemo'norops. From dema, a cord, and rhopa, 
a twig; alluding to the rope-like, climbing 
stems. Nat. Ord. Pahnacea. 

This genus of Palms, numbering more than 
forty species, is closely allied to Calamus, to 

which most of the species formerly belonged. 
All the species are natives of the eastern 
hemisphere, principally of the Malayan Pen- 
insula and Islands. They have long, thin, 
flexible stems, furnished with pinnate leaves, 
the prickly stalks of which are frequently pro- 
longed into whip-like tails. D. Draco (form- 
erly Calamus Draco) is a native of Sumatra 
and other islands of the Indian Archipelago, 
and is called the Dragon's Blood Palm, in con- 
sequence of its fruits yielding a portion of the 
substance known in commerce as Dragon's 
Blood. The fruits are about the size of cher- 
ries, and when ripe are covered with a reddish 
resinous substance, Which is separated by 
shaking them in a coarse canvas bag. This 
resin is the best Dragon's Blood that is 
obtained, although there are several other 
plants that furnish a similar article. D. Palem^ 
hanicus and a few other species, natives of 
Java, have lately been introduced into the 
green-house as decorative plants, for which 
purpose they are exceedingly appropriate. 
The young leaves are of a bright cinnamon 
brown, and the contrast between this warm 
color and the deep green of the matured 
leaves renders the plants very beautiful at the 
time they are in course of development. 
Young plants are obtained from seed. In a 
growing state they require considerable heat. 

Daffodil. The common name of Narcissus 
Paeudo-Narcisavs. See Naroiaaus. 

Dagger Plant and Bayonet Plant. Local 
.names for a species of Yucca. 

Dahlia. In honor of Andrew Dahl, a celebrated 
Swedish botanist and pupil of Linneeus. Nat. 
Ord. CompoaitcE. 




This interesting genus, consisting of com- 
paratively few species, sliows more plainly 
the skill of the florist than almost any other 
in cultivation. Its history is also somewhat 
curious, as, strange to say, though it has 
become so great a favorite, and is so univers- 
ally cultivated, the history of its introduction 
is very obscure. It is generally said to have 
been introduced into England by Lady Hol- 
land in 1804; but the fact is, it had been 
introduced many years before that period, 
and was only brought from Madrid in 1804 by 
Lady Holland, who apparently did not know 
that it was already in that country. The first 
kind of Dahlia known to Europeans, D. 8wper- 
fiua, Cav., (7>. variabilis, Dec, Georgina pin- 
nata, W.,) -was discovered in Mexico by Baron 
Humboldt in 1789, and sent by him to Pro- 
fessor Cavanilles of the Botanical Garden, 
Madrid, who gave the genus the name of 
Dahlia, in honor of the Swedish professor 
Dahl. Cavanilles sent a plant of it the same 
year to the Marchioness of Bute, who was 
very fond of flowers, and who kept it in the 
green-house. From this species nearly all the 
varieties known in the gardens have been 
raised, as it seeds freely, and varies very 
much when raised from seed. In 1802, D. 
frustranea. Ait., (X). coccmea, Cav.,) was intro- 
duced from France, in which country it had 
been raised from seed. It is rather remark- 
able that the two species did not hybridize 
together, and that Z). swperflua, or variahilis, 
should produce flowers of colors so different 
as crimson, purple, white, yellow, orange and 
scarlet without hybridization. Among all the 
colors, however, displayed by these varieties, 
no flowers have yet appeared of blue, and are 
not likely ever to be, as we flnd no family of 
plants in nature in which there are blue, yel- 
low and scarlet in varieties of the same spe- 
cies. These two species and their varieties 
were the only Dahlias known in English gar- 
dens for many years, as, though a few kinds 
were introduced from time to time from 
France and Spain, yet, as they did not hybrid- 
ize with the others, and were rather more 
tender, they were not generally cultivated, ' 
and appear to have been soon lost. Most of 
these have, however, been re-introduced from 
Mexico, with several new species, within the 
last few years, and there are now ten or 
twelve distinct species, besides innumerable 
varieties of D. variabilis. The most remarka- 
ble of the new species is the tree Dahlia, D. 
excelsa, which is said to grow in Mexico thirty 
feet high, with a trunk thick in proportion. 
D. imperiaUs, a distinct species, attains a 
height of ten to fifteen feet, and is of a fine 
branching form, producing, late in the fall, 
pure white, drooping, lily-like flowers, three 
Inches in diameter. It flowers rather late to 
be seen in perfection in the Northern States, 
but it is a magnificent plant in any section of 
the country where frost holds off until the 
15th of November. The very showy scarlet 
D. Juarezii, commonly called the "Cactus 
Dahlia," is another distinct species, which, 
with its many varieties of various shades of 
color, is very attractive. The single varieties 
also of D. coccmea, from their grace and 
beauty, are much used for vases or epergnes 
of cut flowers. They also make distinct and 
interesting bedding plants, as they flower in 
great profusion. The colors so far attained 


are scarlet, yellow, rose, crimson, and 
white, with a great variety between these 
colors, as in the other classes, making 
a fine contrast with the yellow disk. The 
propagation of the Dahlia is quite sim- 
ple. For amateurs, division of the root will 
more than supply their needs, as each will 
divide, if started in a hot-bed or any warm 
and moist place, into at least six good plants. 
Young plants of both the single and double 
sorts are propagated by cuttings taken off old 
roots, started in heat in February or March, 
and grown on in pots until time to plant out 
in the border, which should be done as soon 
as danger from frost is over. Seeds of either 
the double or single sorts sown in February, 
grown on, and planted out in June, will make 
strong blooming plants by August. To suc- 
ceed well they should have a strong, deep and 
rich soil ; as they are rapid growers, they are 
consequently gross feeders, and are much 
benefited by frequent applications of water 
during the summer, and by liquid manure 
after the buds are formed. For perfection in 
bloom the shoots and flower-buds must be 
thinned out in the younger stages of growth, 
but otherwise it will be unnecessary to do so. 
Some of the dwarfer Pompon varieties have 
for the last two seasons been flowered in pots, 
for spring sales, with success, both pecu- 
niarily and otherwise, one flrm in the neigh- 
borhood of New York having disposed of over 
10,000 plants in flower in one season. The 
dwarf white variety, named CamellicBjlora, is 
the favorite for this purpose. The same firm 
plants two houses of this yariety about the 
first of August, for winter blooming, putting 
on the sashes just before the first frost, 
realizing a handsome price for them during 
winter, or until the houses are required for a 
spring crop of Geraniums, Fuchsias, etc. 

Daisy. Blue. See Agathea Ccelestia : also Aster 
Common. Bellis, which see. 
Marsh Ox-eye. Chrysanthemum lacastre. 
Ox-eye, or White. Leucanthemvm vulgare. 
Paris. Chrysanthemum frutescens. 
Swan River. Brachycome iberidifolia. 
Western. Bellis integrifolia. 

Dalbe'rgia. Named after Nicholas Dalberg, a 
Swedish botanist. Nat. Ord. Legmninosm. 

A genus of lofty-growing, East Indian ever- 
green trees. Most of the species are truly 
magnificent, of immense size, .with beautiful 
pinnate foliage, and produce an abundance of 
white flowers in axillary racemes. The trees 
are the most remarkable for the valuable 
timber they furnish. D. latifolia is the Black- 
wood or East Indian Rosewood tree, common 
on the Malabar and Coromandel coasts, and 
yields one of the most valuable furniture 
woods. The timber is furnished in planks 
four feet wide, and is of a dark purplish color, 
very heavy, close grained, and susceptible of a 
high polish. It lacks the rich perfume of the 
true Rosewood, and is not so beautifully 
variegated. In India it is used in the manu- 
facture of their richest furniture. The species 
yield some of the most valuable timber used 
in the mechanic arts. 

Dalea. Named after Dr. Samuel Dale, an 
English botanist of the last century. Nat. 
Ord. Leguminosee. 




A genus of shrubby or herbaceous plants 
•with purplish, blue, whitish or rarely yellow 
flowers, natives principally of Mexico, a few 
being found in Chili and the southern United 
States. The genus contains more than 100 
species, of which very few are in cultivation. 
D. MiUisii, introduced from South America in- 
1828, the most showy and best known species, 
has beautiful dark-blue flowers, disposed in 
cylindrical heads, flowering in October. It is 
also known as Psoralea Mutisii. 

Dalecha'mpia. Named after James Dalechamp, a 
celebrated French botanist. Nat. Ord. Euphor- 

Evergreen climbers, producing small yel- 
lowish-green flowers on axillary peduncles. 
The genus is small, mostly natives of BrazU, 
and do best in the hot-house. Propagated by 

Daliba'rda. Named after Denis Dalibard, a 
French botanist. Nat. Ord. Rosacece. 

D. repems, the only species, is a rather 
pretty trailing plant, quite common in our 
northern woods. The flowers are white, 
and are produced singly or in pairs. It is not 
cultivated except in botanical collections. 

Dalmatian Powder. A well-known insecticide 
manufactured from the flowers of Pyrethrum 

Dame's Violet, or Rocket. A common name 
for Hesperis Matronalis. 

Da'mmara. Kauri Pine. The name of the 
species in Amboyna. Nat. Ord. Coniferce. 

A genus of evergreen trees, similar to our 
Pines. J). Auatralia, a native of New Zealand, 
is a tree from 150 to 200 feet in height, pro- 
ducing a hard, brittle, resin-like copal, the 
principal ingredient of Dammar or white 

Daiupie'ra. Named after the circumnavigator, 
Captain William, Dampier. Nat. Ord. Good- 

Green-house herbaceous perennials from 
New Holland, of easy culture. Flowers blue, 
both axillary and terminal. Propagated by 
cuttings of young shoots or by division. 

Damping off. A term applied to the premature 
decay of the leaves, flowers, or stems of plants. 
Its effects are most marked on young and 
tender seedlings when crowded together, or 
placed un.ler unsuitable atmospheric con- 
ditions. Damping off amongst cuttings is 
often caused by allowing them to become too 
dry, and then suddenly applying too much 
water. The water is generally blamed when 
the actual cause is drought and the sudden 
change subsequently caused by the water. 
When damping is detected amongst tender 
seedlings they should be immediately sep- 
arated and transplanted singly in fresh soil. 
This will invariably check it, but the opera- 
tion is best performed before damping 

Damson. A group of small fruited varieties of 
the Plum. 

Dancing Girls. Opera Girls. See Mantisia. 

Dandelion. See Taraxicwm. 

Dane-iwort, or Dane's Blood. Sambucus Ebvr- 

Dangle-Beiry. A common name for Oaylussacia 


Dantho'nia. Wild Oats Grass. Named in honor 
of M. Donthoine, a French botanist. Nat. Ord. 

An extensive genus of grasses, having in 
their native habitat the widest geographical 
range. Some of the species are common on 
poor soils in this country. D. spicata, one of 
th&most common species, is popularly known 
as Wild-Oats Grass. 

Da'phne. From daio, to bum, and phone, a 
noise ; it crackles when burning. Nat. Ord. 

An extensive genus of small shrubs, mostly 
evergreen, with very beautiful, fragrant flow- 
ers, natives chiefly of Europe, but partly also 
of the cooler parts of Asia, including Japan 
and China. Some of them are hardy shrubs, 
valued for their early spring flowers. D. 
Cneorum, the Garland Flower, is a hardy 
spreading evergreen shrub, growing about 
a foot high, and producing its beautiful bright 
pink or crimson, dellciously sweet-scented 

■ flowers in terminal clusters in April and May, 
and occasionally again in September. On 
account of its dwarf habit it is especially suit- 
able for planting on rock-work, or for edgings 
to beds ; it is propagated by layers. T). odora, 
a native of China, is a green-house evergreen, 
succeeding best when planted out in a cool 
house; this species and D. Indiea are grown 
extensively for cut flowers, which are highly 
esteemed for their delicious fragrance. They 
grow freely from cuttings. Introduced in 

Da'rea. Named after Dar, a botanist. A genus 
of Ferns allied to Aspleniwm. 

Darlingto'nia. Named in honor of Dr. 
ton, one of our most distinguished botanists. 
Nat. Ord. Sarraceniacew. 

This remarkable genus consists of but one 
species, C. Califomica, which is found in the 
marshy districts of California, and is com- 
monly known as the California Side-Saddle 
Flower, or Pitcher Plant. It is a perennial 
herb, and can be grown in an ordinary cool 
green-house. The plants should be potted in 
sphagnum, leaf-mould and sand. Propagated 
by division and from seed. Dr. Torrey gave 
the first description of this plant in 1853. 

Darnel. A common name for the Loliv/m, which 

Darwinia. Named after Dr. Darwin, author of 
the "Botanic Garden." Nat. Ord. Myrtacem. 
A small genus of low-growing, heath-like, 
evergreen shrubs, found in the extra tropical 
regions of Australia. The leaves are marked 
with transparent dots. D. macrostegia, much 
better known as Genetyllis. or Hedaroma tulipir 
fera, has numerous campanulate, tulip-like 
flowers, nearly one and a half inches long, 
borne in terminal fascicles. The petal-like 
inner bracts are pale yellow, streaked with 
red, the petals white. It is a very showy and 
ornamental plant, and is easily increased by 
cuttings of the half-ripened wood. Introduced 
in 1854. 

Dasyli'rion. From daays, thick, and leirion, a 
lily; the plants are succulent. Nat. Ord. 

A small genus of green-house evergreen 
plants from Mexico. The flowers, like most 
of this order, are quite interesting. They 
require similar treatment to the tender species 




of Yucca, and are increased by suckers. 
Introduced in 1830. 

'Date. Chinese. A name given by foreign resi- 
dents in the northern provinces of China to 
the fruit of a Zizyphus, allied to or probably 
an improved variety of Z. Jvjvba. 

Date Palm. See Phanix. 

Date Pltun. See JHospyros. 

Dati'sca. A very graceful herbaceous perennial 
of the Nat. Ord. Datiscacem, closely allied to 
the Begonias, well suited for a collection of 
hardy, flne-leaved plants, and also as isolated 
specimens. Flowers yellow, in long, loose 
axillary racemes. Native of Crete and west- 
ern Asia. 

Datisca'cese. A small natural order closely 
allied to the Begonias. The plants consist of 
a few species which are scattered over North 
America, northern India, Siberia, the Indian 
Archipelago and southern Europe. There are 
but three genera, Datisca, Tetrarmlea and Tri- 
cerastes, and these comprise but four species. 

Datu'ra. Jamestown Weed, Thorn Apple, Dev- 
il's Trumpet. An alteration of the Arabic 
name tatorah. Nat. Ord. Solanacew. 

Strong growing ornamental annuals, shrubs, 
or trees. The flowers of some of the annual 
• species are large, very showy, and sweet- 
scented, D. ceratocaulon, white, tinged with 
purple, Z>. Chlorantha jl. pi., double yellow, 
and D. Meteloides (Syn. D. Wrightii), bluish- 
violet or white are the most generally culti- 
vated species, and are very showy border 
annuals. The shrubby species are best 
known as Brugmansias, under which name 
they are here described. D. Stramonium, 
commonly known as Thorn Apple, and in 
some sections as Jimson Weed, is a coarse- 
growing, troublesome weed, that seems to 
delight in filthy door-yards. The seeds and 
. stems of the Datura are powerful narcotic 
poisons, and many deaths ha;ve resulted from 
eating the seeds. They are sparingly used in 
medicine, and the dried root is sometimes 
smoked as a remedy for asthma. 

Daubento'nia. Named after M. Davhenton, a 
celebrated naturalist. Nat. Ord. Legwminosm. 
A genus of green-house evergreen shrubs, 
chiefly remarkable for their curious, quadran- 
gular seed pods, which are three to f ou r inches 
long, stalked, pointed, and furnished with 
wings along the angles. Their red or yellow, 
flowers, resembling the Laburnum, are borne 
on short axillary racemes. They are natives 
of Texas and Buenos Ayres. Propagated by 
seeds and cuttings of ripened young shoots. 
Introduced in 1820. Syn. Sisbania. 

Daube'nya. In honor of Dr. Daubeny, Pro- 
fessor of Botany in the University of Oxford. 
Nat. Ord. lAliacem. 

A genus consisting of two species of yellow 
flowering bulbs from the Cape of Good Hope. 
They are very dwarf, the flower stalks being 
from three to six inches high, upon which is 
borne an umbel of small showy flowers. They 
are of easy culture, in a dry, warm situation, 
and with slight protection they will endure 
our winters. The safer way is to treat them 
the same as Gladiolus. Propagated by offsets. 
Da'ucus. Carrot. From daw, to make hot; 
in allusion to its supposed effect in medicme. 
Nat. Ord. Unibelliferw. 
For description of this genus, see Carrot. 


Dava'llla. Hare's-foot Fern. Named after 
Edmund Davall, a Swiss botanist. Nat. Ord. 

A flne and extensive genus of tropical Ferns. 
They have scaly, creeping rhizomes, which are 
covered with close brown hair, which feature- 
has given rise to the name of Hare's-foot 
Fern. The genus is well marked by natural 
features, and is one of the most elegant to be 
found in our green-houses. Propagated by 
division of roots and by spores. Intro- 
duced in 1699. Acrophorua, Humata, Leucos- 
tegia, Microlepia, Stenoloma, etc., are included 
in this genus by some botanists. 

Davidso'nia. Queensland Plum. Named after 
the discoverer of the plant, who found it in a 
sugar plantation. Nat. Ord. SaxifragacecB. 
D.prv/riena (Syn. pnmgens), the only introduced 
species, is a noble looking and desirable orna- 
mental plant, with leaves nearly two feet long. 
In the young state the leaves are of a bright 
red color, from which they pass to a deep 
green. It produces a succulent edible fruit 
and is one of the most interesting plants in 
Queensland. It was introduced from Austra- 
lia in 1877. 

Davie'sia. Named after Rem. Hugh, Davies, a 
Welsh botanist. Nat. Ord. Leguminosm. 

Handsome green-house evergreens from 
New Holland. Like all other plants from that 
country, they require a bountiful supply of air 
on all favorable occasions through the winter, 
and in summer they are much better placed 
in the open air, so that they are slightly 
shaded from the mid-day sun. Some of the 
species have a sub-scandent habit, which, with 
their densely-filled, drooping spikes of yellow 
and red flowers, gives them a very graceful 
appearance. Propagated by cuttings from 
well-ripened side shoots. Introduced in 1792. 

Dawn Flower. Blue. A popular name for 

Ipomma Learii. 
Day Flower. See Commelyna. 
Day Irily. See Funkia and HemerocalUa. 
Deadly Nightshade. A common name for 

Atropa Bdladorma. 

Dead Nettle. A common name for the genus 
Lamium, a few species of which have become 
naturalized in this country to such an extent as 
to be troublesome. Natives of Europe. 

Dead-wort. Sambucus Ebulua. 

Dealbate. Covered with a very opaque white 

Decai'snea. Named in honor of Joseph 
Deeaiane, a distinguished French botanist, 
1807-1882. Nat. Ord. Berberidacea. 

One of the most remarkable of Indian dis- 
coveries. With the habit of an Araliaceous 
plant it exhibits the characters of the Ber- 
beridaceee and Lardizabalaceee. D.m8ignis,thf: 
only species, is an elegant tree with greenish 
flowers borne in terminal racemes It is a 
native of the humid forests of Sikkim'and 
Bhotan, whence it was introduced in 1883. 

Deciduous. Falling off. Leaves which are 
shed annually, are said to be deciduous; as 
are also trees that annually lose their leaves. 
So also the calyx and corolla of Crudferm. 

Deciduous Cypress. Taoeodivm distichvm. 

Declinate. Bent downwards. 




Decompound, Decomposite. Having vari- 
ous divisions or ramifloations ; a leaf is said 
to be decompound wiien it is twice pinnated ; 
a panicle, ■when its branches are also panicled. 
Decuma'ria. From deeuma, a tent; referring 
to the ten valvate divisions of the calyx, and 
the ten cells of the capsule or seed-pod. Nat. 
Ord. Saocifragacece. 

A climbing shrub of the Southern States. 
Allied to Philadelphus. The flowers are white, 
sweet-scented, and arranged in corymbs. They 
are well adapted for growing against -walls, 
thriving in almost any soil or situation. Prop- 
agated by cuttings or from seed. 
Decumbent. Eeclining upon the earth and 
rising again from it; applied to stems when 
they recline upon the surface of the earth, but 
have a tendency to rise again at the extrem- 
Decurrent. Where the limb of a leaf is pro- 
longed down the stem on each side, below the 
point of insertion, or where the midrib quits 
it ; as though the leaf were partially united to 
the stem by its midrib. Common in the 
Decussate. Arranged in pairs that alternately 
cross each other ; when two right lines cross 
each other at right angles they are said to be 
decussate ; leaves are often placed in this 
position, as in Ixoraparviflora, Phlox deeusaata, 
Deerberry. One of the popular names of Vac- 

dnivmi staminewm. ■ 
Deer-Grass. See Rhexia. 
Deflezed, Bending gradually downwards 

through the whole length. 
Deformation. An alteration in the usual form 

of an organ, by accident or otherwise. 
Degeneration. Some peculiarity in the condi- 
tion of an organ, induced by modification of 
the circumstances under which its more usual 
and healthy development is effected. 
Deherai'nia. Named after Pierre-Paul Deherain, 
assistant naturalist of the Museum of the 
Jardin des Plantes, Paris. Nat. Ord. Myrain- 

D. smaragdina, the only species, is an inter- 
esting warm green-house plant, remarkable 
for its large green Primrose-like flowers dis- 
posed in clusters below the leaves. It was 
introduced from Mexico in 1876. Syn. Theo- 
pJvrasta smaragdina. 
Dehiscent. Opening, gaping; an expression 
applied to the mode in which the anthers or 
the capsule burst open and discharge their 
Delpbi'nium. Larkspur. From delphin, a dol- 
phin ; in reference to the supposed resem- 
blance in the nectary of the plant to the 
imaginary figures of the dolphin. Nat. Ord. 

Well-known annual, biennial, and perennial 
plants, with curiously-cut leaves and splendid 
flowers, which are either scarlet, purple, pink, 
blue, or white, and never yellow. The Siberian 
Larkspurs are remarkable for the metallic 
luster of their flowers, the hue of which re- 
sembles that of silver which has been tar- 
nished by fire; and the Bee Larkspurs are 
remarkable and interesting for the curious 
manner In which the petals are folded up in 
the center of the flower, so as to resemble a 


bee, or a large blue-bottle fly. The Larkspurs 
will grow in any soil or situation, but one 
open to the sun suits them best. They are 
improved by the addition of a good deal of 
thoroughly-rotted manure to the soil in which 
they grow. The seeds keep good a long time, 
and those of the annual kinds do best sown in 
autumn, as when sown in spring they are a 
long time before they flower. The perennials 
are propagated by division of the root, or by 
seed, which is sown in March in the green- 
house or hot-bed, and the plants pricked out 
as soon as they show their second pair of 
leaves, are carefully grown on until the first 
of June, and then turned out into the flower- 
garden ;they will flower finely during the au- 
tumn months. See "Herbaceous plants." 

Deltoid. Of a triangular shape, like the Greek 
capital /\. 

Deudro'bium, From dendron, a tree, and bios, 
life; referring to the way these air-plants 
fasten on trees for support. Nat. Ord. Orchi- 

In this extensive genus we are presented 
with some truly magnificent epiphytes, which 
regarded either for their singular manner of 
growing, graceful or grotesque habits, and 
large, handsome, and richly-scented flowers, 
are perhaps unsurpassed in the entire range 
of vegetable forms. In a cultural sense they 
may be divided into two sections, the pseudo- 
bulbous class, and those with tall bulbous 
stems. Many of the foriper are extremely 
small compared with the splendid flowers 
they produce, and from this circumstance, 
are usually grown on blocks of wood or cork, 
lest the young shoots should receive injury 
from excessive moisture. Those belonging 
to the other section are again divisible. The 
upright growing species, such as J), nohile, 
made the best appearance when cultivated in 
pots, and trained into suitable forms by the 
aid of stakes ; those of pendent trailing habits 
should be grown in baskets suspended from 
the roof of the house ; in either case the soil 
should be composed of about equal parts of 
fibrous peat and sphagnum, with a libeial ad- 
dition of pieces of charcoal. The mixture 
should be thoroughly incorporated without 
breaking it fine, and an efficient drainage 
must be secured, or the plants will not thrive. 
The base of their stems should be elevated 
two, three or four inches, according to the 
size of the plant, above the top of the pot or 
basket, as they are liable to much injury from 
damp when making their new shoots. The 
temperature of the house in which these 
plants are grown is a consideration of the 
first consequence to their successful culture ; 
it requires to be assimilated, as nearly as cir- 
cumstances will allow, to that of their native 
positions, and may be described as of three dis- 
linct phases, a dry and warm season, in which 
the plants produce their flowers, to be suc- 
ceeded by one Still warmer, and in which an 
abundance of moisture must be present, as it 
is at this time that new growths are effected, 
and this active season must be followed by one 
suited to produce a state of repose in the 
plants, by reducing the amount of heat con- 
siderably, and restricting the supply of 
moisture to the least possible quantity. This 
season is that which corresponds with our 
winters, and for convenience should be re- 




ferred to that time. Thus, from December 
to about the end of March, or later for some 
species, may be regarded as the period first 
mentioned, the growing season commencing 
■with each individual as soon as its flowering 
is over, and continuing until the growth is 
complete, which is usually about the end of 
August or some part of September, when they 
require the perfect rest already spoken of. It 
is in the variation of these seasons, the with- 
holding or appliance of heat, that the whole 
art of the management lies. If it is done 
correctly, and at the proper time, of course 
the plant progresses satisfactorily, but other- 
wise all is confusion; the plant continues 
growing, but does not flower, becoming 
weaker each season. An average of 55°, with 
but slight alteration, should be observed for 
the dormant season; increasing it gradually 
to' 65° or 70° for the flowering period, and after 
this is past, the temperature may be allowed 
to run up to 85°, 90°, or even more through 
the summer, keeping a proportionate amount 
of moisture in the atmosphere of the house 
by means of frequent steaming, syringing, 
etc. The genus consists of over 200 species, 
of which upward of eighty have been intro- 
duced into the green-house, and some of the 
species are grown to an extent that warrants 
\,' their use as a cut-flower. Their appearance 
in the florists' winduwa is by no means rare, 
the moi'e common being Z). nobile, which 
flowers freely in the green-house during the 
■winter, and is one of the very few Orchids 
that will grow and flower very well in the 
ordinary sitting-room. They are natives of 
India, Australia, and the Pacific Islands. See 

Dendrochi'lum. Prom dendron, a tree, and 
cheilos, a lip. Nat. Ord. Orchidace<B. 

A small genus of East Indian Orchids, 
chiefly of little interest. One or two of the 
species are highly esteemed by those who 
make a specialty of Orchids. D. glwmaceiwm is 
a very handsome species, of neat habit, 
producing graceful drooping spikes of ivory- 
white flowers; the leaves, resembling those of 
the Lily of the Valley, gives the plant an in- 
teresting appearance when out of flower. D. 
Jiliforme is another graceful little plant, with 
yellow flowers. This genus requires to be 
grown in heat, and the plants, when at rest, 
should have an occasional watering, as the 
pseudo-bulbs are quite small, and, if allowed 
to shrivel, the plants would be lost. They 
are increased by division. Introduced in 1836. 

Dendrome'con. Tree Poppy. Prom dendron, . 
a tree, and mekon, a poppy ; resembling that 
flower, with a woody stem. Nat. Ord. Pa- 

D. rigichim, the only species, is a hardy small 
shrubby plant, with yellow flowers, a native 
of California. The common name is very ap- 
propriate, the plant having the appearance 
and character of the Poppy tribe, with a 
woody stem and branches. Increased by 

Dendro'panaz. From dendron, a tree, and 
Panaa;, Tree Panax. Nat. Ord. Araliacem. 

Very handsome and effective warm green- 
house plants. There are about twenty 
species, natives of tropical Asia and America, 
as well as China and Japan. D. argentea, has 
oblong, entire leaves about a foot in length, 


silvery white on the upper surface — ^purplish 
beneath. It is the only species in general 
Dennstae'dia. Derivation of name not given. 
Nat. Ord. PolypodiacecE. 

A genus of Ferns, now merged in Dicksonia, 
The name is also a synonym of SUolobimm. 
Denta'ria. Toothwort. Pepper-root. From 
dena, a tooth ; referring to the fanged roots. 
Nat. Ord. Cruciferm. 

A genus of hardy herbaceous perennials, 
several of the species being common in most 
of the States. The roots of D. diphylla have 
a pungent, mustard-like taste, and are con- 
siderably used as a salad, under the name of 
Pepper-root. The plant is somewhat orna- 
mental, of a dwarf habit, producing short 
racemes of white or purplish flowers. They 
are increased readily by division. 

Dentate. Having sharp teeth with concave 
edges. When these teeth are themselves 
toothed, the part is duplicato-dentate ; not 
bidentate, which means two-toothed. 

Depa'ria. From depax, a cup, referring to the 
form of the involucre. A small genus of rare 
stove ferns, with generally bipinnate fronds. 
Some of the species may be propagated from 
the small bulblets they form on their fronds. 

Depauperate. When some part is less per- 
fectly developed than is usual in plants of the 
same family. 

Depressed. Pressed downward; having the 
appearance of being flattened vertically, as 
the tuber of the Turnip. 

Descending. Tending gradually downward, as 
some branches and leaves. Also, penetrating 
more or less vertically into the earth, as with 
the root, the descending axis of vegetation. 

Desfontai'nea. In honor of M. Deafontaines, 
a French botanist. Nat. Ord. Loganiaeem. 

The few species that compose this genus are 
very handsome green-house evergreen shrubs, 
found in Peru. They have thick leaves with 
spiny margins, like those of the Holly. This 
is one of the plants that perplexes the bota- 
nist, as there is nothing in its external appear- 
ance that would lead to a knowledge of its 
affinities. It has been placed under three 
different classifications previous to the present 
one. D. apinosa, the only described species, 
has large flowers borne on terminal pedun- 
cles, scarlet, with a yellow limb. The elegance 
of its foliage and the brilliancy of its flowers 
make it a very desirable green-house plant. It 
requires about the same treatment as the 
Fuchsia. Introduced in 1850. 

Designs. According to Loudon, the art of 
taking plans or designs of objects, should be 
considered to be part of a gardener's general 
education, since none who aspire to any 
degree of eminence in their profession ought 
to be ignorant of the flrst principles of geome- 
try and drawing. It is just as necessary in 
laying out a flower-garden, or planting an 
intricate carpet-bed, to have the dimensions 
carefully measured and a design drawn to a 
scale, as it is to have a working plan in building 
a house. This not only enables the operator 
to arrange previously the positions and space 
to be occupied by the various plants, but if 
a colored design' is made, enables him also 
to see that the proportions of color are 




properly inserted. A glance at the design, 
■when planting, will at onoe indicate the posi- 
tions assigned to all the plants, and also pre- 
vent much confusion and annoyance. Intri- 
cate carpet-bedding designs are often worked 
out by marking the lines with white sand; 
others may be drawn out carefully on the sur- 
face and planted at once. Designs for glass 
structures vary according to their position or 
to the requirements of the plants for which 
they are intended, but each should show in 
the same proportion all the details necessary 
for a good working plan. 

Desma'nthus. From rfesme, a bundle, and an- 
thoa, a flower. The flowers are collected into 
bundles or spikes. Nat. Ord. Legwminosm. 

A geiius of tropical and sub-tropical Indian 
and American herbs, of which there are about 
eight species, some of which have been suc- 
cessfully cultivated. The little brown pol- 
ished seeds of D. Virgatvs are in Jamaica 
strung like beads, and used for making brace- 
lets, etc. 

'Desmo'ditun. Moving Plant, Tick-Trefoil. 
From deamos, a band ; alluding to the stamens 
being joined. Nat. Ord. Leguminosce. 

An extensive genus of hardy herbaceous 
perennials and green-house evergreen shrubs. 
Most of the species are uninteresting plants, 
but a few are very beautilul and remarkably 
interesting. There are numerous species 
throughout the United States, with purple 
flowers produced in slender racemes. Some 
are herbs, others shrubs, but none of the 
native species are worthy of cultivation. The 
most interesting of the species, if not the 
most beautiful, isD. gyram, the Moving Plant, 
a native of India, but rarely seen under culti- 
vation. The singular, spontaneous rotary 
motion of the leaflets of this plant renders it 
an object of great interest. The leaves are 
composed of three leaflets, the terminal one 
being very large, and the laterals very small, 
but these are almost constantly in motion. 
They execute little jerks somewhat analogous 
to the movements of the seconds of a watch. 
One of the leaflets arises and the other de- 
scends at the same time, and with a corres- 
ponding force. When the first begins to de- 
scend the other begins to rise. The large 
leaflet moves also, inclining itself first to the 
right, then to the left, but by a continuous 
and very slow movement when compared to 
that of the lateral leaflets. This singular 
mechanism endures throughout the life of 
the plant. It exercises itself day and night, 
through drought and humidity. The warmer 
and more humid the day, the more lively are 
its movements. It is not unusual for the 
leaflet to make sixty jerks in the minute ; they 
will not do this, however, under artificial cul- 
tivation, except when the plant is subjected 
to great heat. These movements occur spon- 
taneously and without any apparent cause. 
The same external cause that has such a won- 
derful effect on the Catch-fly and the Sensitive 
Plant, does not affect this in the least. None 
of our native species has this strong peculi- 
arity. The plant introduced to the United 
States from Japan as Desmodivmpenduliflorum, 
is now placed under the allied genus Lespe- 
deza, as L. bicolor, which see. 
Deu'tzia. Named after J. Deutz, a sheriff of 
Amsterdam. Nat. Ord. Saxifragacem. 


A genus of slender branched, graceful 
shrubs, producing compound panicles of beau- 
tiful white flowers. D. crenata, Syn. D. 
Scabra, one of the more common species, 
takes its speciflo name from the roughness of 
its leaves, which in its native country, Japan, 
are used by the cabinet makers in polishing 
the flner kinds of wood. This with its double 
variety, are exceedingly showy when in blos- 
. som, and are two of the most desirable 
shrubs in cultivation. Z>. gracilis in addition 
to its beauty and usefulness as a hardy shrub, 
is one of the most valuable plants for forcing 
in winter and spring, and is very largely used 
for that purpose for the cut flower trade. AH 
the species are perfectly hardy, and are read- 
ily propagated by cuttings, divisions, or 

Development. That gradual extension of parts 
by which any organ or plant proceeds from its 
nascent state to maturity. 

Devil in a Bush. See Nigella. 

Devil's Apples. Mandragora officinalis. 

Devil's Bit. A common name for ChamtBlirivm 

luteiim, also for Scabioaa succisa. 
Devil's Fig. Argemone Mexicana. 
Devil's Leaf. Urtica urentissima. 

Devil's Milk. Euphorbia Helioscopia, and 

other species. 
Dew-berry. See Rubua. 

Deyeu'xia. Named in honor of Nicholas Dey- 
eux, a French chemist. Nat. Ord. Gramin- 

A large genus of grasses widely dispersed 
over the temperate and mountainous regions 
of the globe. D. elegana variegata introduced 
from New South Wales in 18a4, is a very ele- 
gant green-house plant, with a thick root- 
stock from which spring numerous leaves, 
about a quarter of an inch in breadth and a 
foot or more long, of a deep bright green 
color, broadly edged with creamy-yellow, 
Syn. Lachnagrostia. 

Dhoura, Doura, or Durra. Guinea Corn. See 

Diane'lla. A diminutive of Diana, the sylvan 
goddess; the first discovered species being 
found in a grove. Nat. Ord. Liliacem. 

Lovely tuberous-rooted plants, chiefly from 
New Holland. They should be grown in pots 
of loam and peat, and if allowed a good situa- 
tion in the green-house, will produce their 
showy blue fiowers in abundance. Propagated 
by division or from seed. 

Dianthe'ra. From dis, two, and anthera, an- 
ther ; in reference to the cells being more or 
less separated from one another. Nat. Ord. 

A genus of green-house or hardy, erect, or 
dwarf herbs, with long solitary or fascicled 
bracteate flowers and entire leaves. D. Amer- 
icana, the Water-willow of the United States, 
is a perennial herb growing in the bays and 
slow-flowing waters of the great rivers, as 
well as in streams and ponds. It has long 
narrow leaves and dense spikes of pale purple 
flowers upon long peduncles. D. ciliata is 
a pretty violet-colored, warm green-house 
shrub from Venezuela. The genus is closely 
allied to Juatieia. 













Dia'ntlius. Prom dioa, divine, and anthoa, a 
. flower ; in reference to tlie fragrance and the 
unrivaled neatness of the flowers. Nat. Ord. 
■ CaryophyUacecB. 

Most of the species of this genus are highly 
valued for the beauty and fragrance of the 
flowers, which present a richer variety of tints 
of scarlet, crimson, rose, orange, etc., than is 
to be found, perhaps, in any other genus. The 
fragrance of some of them is peculiarly grate- 
ful, and no plant in this respect surpasses the 
Carnation, D. ca/ryophyllus (Clove Pink and 
Carnation). Seedlings stand the winter and 
spring without difQculty with a light covering 
of leaves and evergreen boughs, and flower 
very well. Very many will not be considered 
worth saving by the florist, although they will 
all be interesting as single, semi-double, or 
irregular flowers, and richly repay all the 
labor. Carnations are arranged by florists 
into three classes, viz. : Flakes, Bizarres and 
Picotees. Flakes have two colors only ; their 
stripes are large, going quite through the 
petals. Bizarres are variegated in irregular 
spots and stripes, with not less than three 
colors. Picotees have a white ground, spotted 
at the edges with scarlet, red, purple or other 
colors. The Clove Pink is rather more hardy 
than the Carnation, of which it is the parent ; 
the petals are more fringed and the fragrance 
more powerful, resembling that of the clove. 
In France it is called the Clove Gilly-flower. 
Some suppose this latter name to have been 
corrupted from July-flower, July, being its 
flowering time. The great improvement in 
the Perpetual Carnation (Tree or Monthly 
Carnation) has added an invaluable feature 
to this section of winter-blooming plants 
for the sitting-room, conservatory or green- 
house. The delicately rich and grateful odor, 
in connection with the brilliant color and 
good outline of the flowers now cultivated, 
secures for them a prominent place in the 
forcing department for cut flowers. D. plmr 
marius, the Garden Pink, Florist's Pink, or 
Paisley Pink, is in perfection about the last of 
June. The foliage is more grass-like and the 
plant much hardier than the Carnation. The 
double varieties are very desirable, and all 
have a clove fragrance. D. Ohirwnsia, the 
China Pink, is a biennial of dwarf habit and 
great beauty, but without fragrance. It flow- 
ers from seed the flrst year, and being per- 
fectly hardy, flowers much stronger the sec- 
ond year. The colors are exceedingly varied 
and rich; crimson, and dark shades of that 
color approaching to black, are often com- 
bined in the same flower, with edgings of 
white, pink or other colors. In beds where 
there may be a hundred plants, scarcely 
two wUl be found alike. Seed saved from 
double flowers will produce a great proportion 
of double flowers. D. C. Heddewiffii and D. C. 
IcusinicUus and their numerous varieties repre- 
sent an exceedingly useful class of plants for 
mixed borders, many of their flowers being 
double and beautifully marked and fringed. 
D. barhatUB, the Sweet William, is an old 
inhabitant of the flower-garden, and was much 
esteemed in Gerarde's time " for its beauty to 
deck up the bosoms of the beautiful, and gar- 
lands, and croTiv-ns for pleasure." It sports 
into endless varieties of. color, white, pink, 
• purple, crimson and scarlet self colors, and 
many sorts variously edged, eyed or spotted. 


There are also many beautiful double-flowered 
varieties, notably the double dark crimson or 
blood-colored, which, of course, can only be 
perpetuated by division or by cuttings. 

Diape'usia. Named by Linneeus from diapente, 
composed of five ; alluding to the flowers 
being flve-cleft. Nat. Ord. IHapensiacece. 

This genus consists of two beautiful little 
Alpine plants, both evergreen, which grow in 
dense tufts, scarcely rising more than an inch 
above the ground. The flowers are white, 
bell-shaped, and about half an inch across. It 
was first discovered in Lapland, but has since 
been found in the White Mountains, in New 
Hampshire, and in the Adirondacks, in New 
Tork. In its native country it is continually 
covered with snow in winter, which is the 
best protection against severe dry frosts. It 
can be grown in small pots, and protected by 
a frame in winter. Propagated by seeds or 

Diapensia'ceae. A small order of perennial, 
prostrate, sometimes suffruticose, shrubs, 
inhabiting the northern parts of Europe and 
North America. The order includes the genera 
JMappnsia, Pyxidanthera, Galax, Shortia, as 
well as some others not yet in cultivation. 

Dibber. This is the pointed implement used 
for setting out vegetable plants that have 
long roots, such as Cabbage, Celery, etc., and 
also seedling trees and flowering plants. It 
is best made in the form of a pistol handle, 
about ten inches long, one and a half inches 
in diameter, and shod with three or four 
inches of iron tapering to a sharp point. 

Dioe'ntra. From dis, twice, and kentron, a spur ; 
in allusion to the double-spurred flowers. Nat. 
Ord. FwmariacecE. 

Very ornamental, hardy herbaceous peren- 
nials, with generally tuberous roots. They 
are natives of the northern hemisphere, and 
have mostly pink or yellow flowers, in ter- 
minal racemes. They form excellent subjects 
for the herbaceous- border or rook-garden. 
Diclytra or Dielytra spectaMUa is placed by 
many under this genus. See Dielytra. 

Dichlamy'deous. Having both calyx and cor- 

Dichopo'gon. Prom dicha, double, and pagan, 
a beard ; in allusion to the two appendages of 
the anthers. Nat. Ord. Ldliacem. 

A small genus of green-house perennial 
herbs, natives of Australia and Tasmania. D. 
atrictus, the only species yet in cultivation, is 
a very interesting plant, with pale, sometimes 
dark-blue flowers, blooming in November. It 
was introduced in 1883, and may be increased 
~ by division of the rhizome, or by the tubers 
on the root-fibres. 

Dicho'riza'ndra. From die, twice, chorizo, to 
part, and aner, an anther; referring to the 
anthers being two-cleft. Nat. Ord. Commeli- 

A genus of hot-house, herbaceous peren- 
nials from Brazil, some of the species being 
exceedingly ornamental and invaluable for 
late autumn or winter flowering. D. thyrai- 
fiora ranks highest, and when well grown will' 
reach ten feet in height, branched all round, 
each branch terminating with a long spike of 
sky-blue fiowers. When the flowers begin to 
expand it may be removed to a warm con- 
servatory, where it will last in bloom for 




several ■weeks. D. muaaica is a beautiful 
omamental-foliaged species, with dark-green 
leaves, profusely penciled and veined, with 
zig-zag lines of pure white ; under side red- 
dish-purple. Propagated by division in spring, 
when the new growth commences, and by 
Dicho'tomous. Having the divisions always in 
pairs; a term equally applied to branches, 
veins, or forks. 

Dickso'nia. Named after James Dickson, a 
famous British cryptogamio botanist. Nat. 
Ord. Polypodiace(B. 

A genus of very ornamental Ferns, mostly 
arborescent, and including some of the most 
valued Tree Ferns to be found in our green- 
houses. D. antartica, a native of Australia, 
introduced in 1824, is the one most commonly 
grown, and is the most ornamental of the 
genus. X). arborescens, a native of St. Helena, 
grows about twelve feet high, bearing at its 
summit a number of pinnated fronds, from ten 
to twelve feet in length. This species grows in 
great abundance in St. Helena, and next to 
the tomb of Napoleon, is the great attraction 
of the island. It is remarkable that this 
species has not been found in any other part 
of the world. All the Tree Ferns should be 
grown in a mixture of loam and leaf mould, 
and require a humid atmosphere. Young 
plants may be raised from spores, but it takes 
many years for them to grow to the size of 
imported stems, to which method we are 
indebted for all our large plants. One species, 
X). pvmctilobula, a hardy herbaceous plant, is a 
native of this country, very common in moist, 
rather shady places. It is one of our hand- 
somest Ferns, and has an agreeable odor. 

Dicli'ptera. From dikloa, double-doored, and 
pteron, a wing ; referring to the two-winged 
capsule or seed vessel. Nat. Ord. AeantJiacecB. 
An extensive genus of annuals and peren- 
nials, allied to Justicia. The species are dis- 
persed over the tropical and sub-tropical 
regions of the New and Old World. The 
annuals grow readily from seed, which should 
be started in a hot-bed, or the green-house, in 
March, grown on until all danger from frost 
is past, and then transplanted In the open 
border. The perennials are increased by cut- 
tings. They all require a very light, rich 
fibrous soU. 

Dicotyle'dons. Plants having two seed leaves, 
which are called cotyledons. This is one of 
the primary divisions or classes of the vege- 
table kingdom, including about 7,000 known 
genera, and about 70,000 known species of 
flowering plants. The class also receives the 
name of Exogens, from the structure of the 
stems. The plants of this great class have 
spiral vessels; their stems are formed by 
additions externally in the form of zones or 
rings ; stomata or pores exist in the leaves, 
which have a reticulated or netted venation. 
The plants have stamens and pistils, either in 
the same or in different flowers. The sym- 
metry of the flowers is represented by five or 
two, or multiples of these numbers. The 
ovules are contained in an ovary, or more 
rarely are naked; and the embryo has two, 
sometimes more, cotyledons. 

Dicta'mnus. Fraxinella, Gas Plant. An ancient 
name, supposed to have been given because 


the leaves resemble those of the ash ; hence 
the English name, Fraxinella. Nat. Ord. 

A small genus of hardy herbaceous peren- 
nials, and among the oldest inhabitants of the 
cottage garden. Johnson says: "Instances 
are known where D. Framnella has outlived 
father, son, and grandson in the same spot 
without increase, all attempts at multiply- 
ing it, to give away a rooted slip to a newly- 
married member of the family, having failed ; 
yet the Fraxinella is easily increased from 
seeds, which should be sown soon as ripe in 
any common garden soU. They will come up 
the following spring." The plant has to be 
three years old before it will flower. It is a 
native of Germany. When rubbed the leaves 
emit a fine odor, like that of lemon peel ; it is 
strongest in the pedicels of the fiowers. The 
whole plant emits a resinous or oily matter, 
which may be readily ignited, especially in 
warm weather. 

Dictya'nthus. From diktyon, net work, and 
cmthoB, a flower; the flowers are netted with 
veins. Nat. Ord. Asclepiadouxoe. 

Green-house climbers of considerable 
beauty, from Central America and Brazil. 
They wiU do well, planted out in summer, but 
require gr^en-house culture during winter. 
The same treatment that is given the Passi- 
flora will suit them. The flowers are whitish- 
purple and greenish-brown, borne on axillary 
peduncles. D. campounulalua somewhat re- 
sembles the Stapelia. Propagated by cuttings. 
Introduced in 1851. 

Dictyogra'mma. A genus of Ferns now 
placed under Gymnogranvma. 

Dietyo'pteris. From diktyon, a net, and pteria, 
a Fern; referring to the fronds. Nat. Ord. 

A genus of Ferns from Australia, without 
special merit, and rarely met in collections : 
now placed under Polypodium. 

Dictyospe'rma. From diktyon, a net, and 

sperma, a seed ; in allusion to the raphe of 

the seed forming a loose net- work. Nat. Ord. 


A genus of warm-house Palms, closely al- 

. lied to Areca, from which genus it is botanically 

Didi'sous. Derivation of name not given. Nat. 
Ord. Umbelliferm. 

The two species that compose this genua 
were formerly included in Trachymene. D. 
caeruUus is a showy plant, a native of Austra- 
lia. It is covered with hairs ; its leaves are 
three-parted, each division again sub- 
divided; its flowers are blue. The fruit, 
when mature, is covered with small tubercles. 
D. albiflorua has no hairs, and its flowers are 

Did3rmooa'rpus. From didymoa, twin, and 
kairpos, a fruit ; in reference to the twin cap- 
sules. Nat. Ord. Oesneracece. 

A genus of upwards of thirty species of 
caulescent or stemless herbs, or under- 
shrubs, natives of tropical Asia. The 
flowers are violet-blue, rarely yellow, leaves 
usually cordate, wrinkled, and hairy. Those 
in cultivation are neat, pretty plants ; propa,- 
gated by cuttings of the young wood. 



DID ■ 

Didymochlse'na. Prom didymoa, twin, and 
ehlaina, a cloak ; referring to tlie covering of 
tlie spore cases. Nat. Ord. Polypodiacem. 

A small genus of very handsome green-house 
Ferns, natives of Africa and South America. 
They are allied to Aspidium, and are not often 
met with, except in choice collections. 

DiefFenba'ohia. Named after Dr. Bieffenbach, 
a German botanist. Nat. Ord. Aroidem. 

A genus of showy plants, all inhabitants of 
tropical America and the West Indies. They 
are grown for the beauty of their foliage, 
which is a very light green, thickly dotted 
with irregularly-shaped, pure white blotches, 
which give the plant a decidedly variegated 
appearance. A number of very choice and 
beautiful species have been introduced of 
late years from the United States of Colombia. 
They require a warm house, and should be 
kept near the glass to bring out their full 
colors. When at rest, if water is thrown over 
them, they are liable to damp off. The juice 
of these plants is decidedly poisonous; for 
this reason, and their awkward appearance 
when at rest, they have lost much of the 
favor that was bestowed upon them at their 
early introduction. D. Seguine picta (Syn. 
Caiadium seguinum), is called the "dumb 
cane" by the natives, because it has the 

• power, when chewed, of swelling the tongue 
and paralyzing the speech. It is said that 
Humboldt, when gathering the plant, un- 
fortunately tasted it, and, in consequence, 
lost his speech for several days. They are 
propagated by division and by cuttings, 
and should be grown in a light, riqh loam, 
freely mixed with sand and leaf mould. 

Diely'tra. After years of learned discussion 
among botanists as to the derivation of this 
word, it is now accepted that it was errone- 
ously changed from Diclytra, which, in the 
first instance, was accidentally printed for 
Dicerctra. As, however, B. spectabilis is so 
well know as Didytra, we describe it under 
that name. Nat. Ord. FumariacecB. 

D. apectabilia, the " Bleeding Heart," a na- 
tive of Siberia, was found by Mr. Fortune in 
the gardens in the north of China, and sent 
it, in 1846, to the London Horticultural 
Society. This species is too well known to 
need description. It is only proper, how- 
ever, to say it is by far the handsomest of its 
tribe, and will grow in thick groves or in the 
most sunny situations. In the shade they do 
not flower so freely as in sunny places, but 
last longer, and more than compensate the 
loss of flowers by their luxuriant, graceful 
foliage. This species is well adapted for pot 
culture. It should be potted in November, 
left outside until it has formed "new roots, 
and then brought into a gentle heat, and it 
will come into flower early in March. Taking 
it all in all, it is probably the finest hardy 
plant In cultivation. The plants are increased 
by division of roots, which should be done as 
soon as they start in spring. 

Diervi'lla. Named after M. Diervilk, a French 
surgeon. Nat. Ord. Caprifoliouxm. 

A small genus of low-growing shrubs, with 
yellow flowers, appearing in spring, by no 
means so showy as the allied Japanese genus 
Weigelia, which by some authors is placed 
under this genus. They are common from 
Canada southward. 


Biifuse. Scattered, widely spread, as in Veronica 

Digging. This is now nearly all done by the 
digging fork in place of the spade, unless in 
soils that are being broken up from sod. The 
fork pulverizes the soil much better (the only 
object to be attained by digging), is much 
lighter to handle, and the wonder is why, for 
generations the spade was used, when the 
manure fork, at the same time in use, had 
not suggested its value for digging purposes. 

Digita'lis. Fox-glove. From the Latin digitah, 
the finger of a glove; referring to the shape 
of the flower. Nat. Ord. ScrophukuriaceoB. 

This genus consists of several species, bi- 
ennials and perennials, all perfectly hardy 
and of the easiest culture. D. purpurea, the 
common Fox-glove, has long been cultivated 
as an ornamental border plant, and is the 
most useful of the class. There are some 
with white, rose and yellow flowers that are 
very beautiful, but not so free flowering. 
They prefer a rich, loamy soil, and partial 
shade, and are propagated by seeds or root 
division. Natives of central Europe, northern 
Africa and western Asia. A popular English 
name of the Digitalis pwrpurea is Witches' 
Fingers. The plant is used in medicine. 

Digitate. Where several distinct leaflets radiate 
from the point of a leaf-stalk; applied to a 
simple leaf, where the lobes are very narrow, 
deeply cut, and all extending nearly to the 
base of the limb, like the extended fingers of 
the human hand, as in the Horse-Chestnut, 
Lupins, Spircea palmata, etc. 

Dill. Anefhum graveolens. Dill is a hardy bi- 
ennial plant, a native of Spain, and -has been 
under cultivation in ^English gardens for 
nearly three hundred years. The plant grows 
upright, and resembles Fennel, only it is 
smaller. The flowers are borne in an umbel, 
and appear in July. The whole plant is 
strongly aromatic. The leaves are used in 
pickles, and to give flavor to soups and 
sauces. It was formerly included in domestic 
medicines. It is readily grown from seed in 
any good garden soil. 

Dille'nia. A genus of very beautiful lofty ever- 
green trees, inhabiting dense forests in India, 
and the Malayan Peninsula and Islands, with 
very large and showy flowers, something like 
the Magnolia. D. Spedoaa is one of the hand- 
somest of Indian trees, whether the beautiful 
foliage is considered or the size and structure 
of the flowers. Unfortunately it is only suited 
to places where plenty of room can be af- 

Dillenia'ceae. This order consists of trees, 
shrubs, or under-shrubs, found chiefly in 
India, Australia, and America. There are 
about thii-ty known genera and over 200 
species. Some are large timber trees 
while others are valued for their flowers and 
fruits. Illustrative genera are Dillenia, Can- 
dollea, Delima, etc. 

Dillwy'nia. In honor of L. W. DiUwyn, a 
British patron of botany. Nat. Ord. Legumi- 

Handsome green-house plants, of neat habit 
of growth, free to flower, and of easy cultivor 
tion. An airy part of the green-house should 
be allotted to them in winter, and through 
the summer they will be benefited by being 


hendebson;s handbook of plants 


placed out of doors. It is essential, in order 
to produce handsome plants, that the young 
shoots be frequently stopped while the plants 
are young, or they are liable to overgrow 
themselves. Propagated by cuttings of the 
firm side shoots in March or April. They are 
natives of New Holland, and were first intro- 
duced in 1794. 

Dimidiate. Divided into two unequal parts. 

Dimorpha'nthus. From dimorphua, two formed. 
Nat. Ord. Araliacem. 

This genus is composed of herbs and shrubs, 
natives of China and Japan. Some of the 
species are very ornamental plants for the 
' green-house or garden. Z). Mandschurieus is a 
deciduous shrub, said to be perfectly hardy. 
Its handsome multifld leaves are nearly three 
feet long, and of the same width, which gives 
the plant a magnificent outline. The young 
shoots of D. edulia are a delicate article of 
food, much prized by the Chinese. They are 
increased by seeds and from cuttings. 

Dimorphisiu. A state in which two forms of 
flower or leaf are produced by the same spe- 

Diiuorphothe'ca. From dimorphas, two formed, 
and theca, a receptacle ; disk florets of two 
forms. A genus of half-shrubby or herbaceous 
plants, principally natives of South Africa. 
They are all half-hardy plants, closely allied 
to Calendula. Suitable tor border culture in 
summer, and for the cool green-house in 
winter. The perennial species are readily 
grown from cuttings. 

Dioecious. When a plant bears female flowers 
on one individual, and male on another. 

Dio'n. (Sometimes spelled Dioon.) From dis, 
two, and oon, an egg ; referring to the two- 
lobed scales which compose the large cones 
of the cycad, bearing a large nut-like seed at 
the bottom of each scale; otherwise from 
seeds being borne in twos. Nat. Ord. Cycadu- 

D. eduik, the only species, is a beautiful 
Palm-like plant. Its simple Zamia-like stem 
bears deep green pinnate leaves, whose leaflets 
are sword-shaped and sharp pointed. The cone 
consists of flat scales covered with wool, each 
scale bearing two large seeds of the size of 
Chestnuts, that yield a large quantity of 
starch, which is used as arrow-root. D. edule 
is extensively cultivated as an ornamental 
green-house plant, and is propagated by 
suckers and seeds, and more commonly from 
imported stems or trunks. It is a native of 
Mexico, and was introduced in 1844. Syn. 
Platyzamia. Miquel observes that this genus 
is more closely allied to certain fossil Oycada- 
cew, than any other living representative of 
the order. 

Dio'naea. Venus's Fly-trap. IHone, one of the 
names of Venus. Nat. Ord. Droseraeem. 

h. nrnadpula, the only species, is indigenous 
to the swamps of North Carolina and other 
Southern States. Aside from all the fables 
about this plant, it is one of extreme interest 
to cultivators, owing to the irritability dis- 
played by the stipulary fringes on the winged 

i. leaves. The lamina of the leaf itself is divided 
by the midrib into two nearly semicircular 
halves, each of which is fringed with stiff 
hairs. This leaf exactly resembles a minature 
rat-trap. When the hairs are touched by a fly 

• DIO 

or other insect, the sides of the leaf are 
• brought together with a sudden spring, im- 
prisoning the intruder. Mr. Charles Darwin 
and other writers claim that the Dioncea 
not only catches and kills the insect, but 
that its tissues absorb or feed upon them. 
Our experiments, carefully and extensively 
made during the summer of 1878, were such as 
to cause strong doubts of the correctness of 
this theory. The Dioncea is easily grown 
in sphagnum moss, kept very moist when the 
plants are in a growing state. They do rather 
best when grown in a Wardian case or 
under a bell glass and are always interesting 
from their singular insect catching peculiarity. 

Dioon. See Dion. 

Diosco'rea. Chinese Yam. After Pedacivs 
Dioacorides, a Greek physician. Nat. Ord. 

A genus of tuberous-rooted plants that are 
extensively grown in Africa and the East and 
West Indies for food. The roots grow to a great 
size, are mealy, and considered to be easy of 
digestion. They are roasted and eaten instead 
of bread. The introduction of the Dioscorea 
batataa into this country as an article of food 
some years ago created quite a sensation ; 
although we did not get a very valuable escu- 
lent, we got a beautiful hardy climber, with . 
clean, glossy foliage and sweet-scented flowers, 
that are .produced in spikes at the base of the 
leaves. This species was introduced from the 
West Indies in 1733 and has been of late years 
advertised and distributed under the name of 
"Cinnamon Vine." D. villoaa. Wild Yam, is 
quite common in the thickets of New England 
and to the south and west. 

Dioscorea'oeBB. A natural order of twining 
shrubs or herbs with tubers either above or 
below ground, usually alternate leaves with 
reticulated venation and small staminate and 
pistillate flowers growing in spikes. They 
are chiefly natives of tropical countries. Tamvs, 
however, is a native of Europe and of the 
temperate parts of Asia. The plants are 
mostly acrid, but contain also a large amount 
of starch. Several species of Dioscorea pro- 
duce edible tubers, which are known as Yams, 
and are eaten like Potatoes. Tamus Coriv- 
mwnis, black Bryony, has an acrid, purgative, 
and emetic tuber, and a berried fruit of a red 
color. Testudinaria elephantipea has a remark- 
able tuberculated stem, and is called Ele- 
phant's Foot or the Tortoise Plant of the Cape. 
The central part of it is eaten by the Hot- 
tentots. There are seven known genera and 
160 species. Dioscorea, Tarmis, and Testudinaria 
are examples of the order. 

Dio'sma. From dios, divine, and osme, odor; 
referring to the powerful perfume which 
characterizes the species. Nat. Ord. Rutacem. 
There is quite a large number of species, 
all from the Cape of Good Hope. D. ericoides, 
the species most generally cultivated, has 
small white flowers, borne on slender heath- 
like branches, with deep green leaves which 
emit a strong penetrating smell when bruised. 
It was introduced to cultivation in 1756, and 
is valued for its bright glossy color, and neat 
shrubby habit. 

Dioapy'ros. Date Plum, Persimmon. From 
dioa, divine, and pyros, pear; literally ce- 
lestial food. Nat. Ord. Ehenacem. 




D. Virginiana is the Persimmon of our 
■woods, common from New York soutliward. 
Ebony wood is obtained from several species 
of tliis genus. The best and most costly kind 
with the blackest and finest grain, is that 
imported from the Mauritius, which is yielded 
by D. reticulata. It is only the heart of the 
tree that yields the black ebony ; the outer 
portion, or sapwood, being white and soft. 
The Japanese* Persimmon is the best fruit in 
Japan. Their horticulturists have, by selec- 
tion and cross-fertilization, developed this 
fruit until it occupies the same position with 
them that the Apple 'does with us. It is de- 
scribed as one of the finest fruits in the world, 
and ranges in weight from eight to twenty 
ounces. Prof. Asa Graj' says : "He who has 
not tasted Kaki (the Japanese Persimmon) 
has no conception of the capabilities of the 
Diospyros genus." The trees are ornamen- 
tal, especially when in fruit, prolific bearers, 
and free from worms and insects. It has 
proved about as hardy as our native species. 

Dio'tis. Ootton-weed. Prom dis, two, and oms, 
an ear, alluding to the ear-like lobes of the 
corolla. Nat. Ord. ComponUce. 

D. maritima (Syn. D candidiesima), a native 
of the shores of the Mediterranean and the 
Canary Islands, is an erect, branching, hardy 
perennial, clothed everywhere with dense 
white or grayish cottony-wool. It iorms an 
excellent edging or rock-garden plant, and is 
readily increased by cuttings or seeds. This 
name has also been given to a Siberian cheno- 
podiaoeous shrub, which, however, is more 
properly united with Evirotia. 

Dipetalous. Consisting of two petals. 

Diphyllous. Two-leaved. 

Dipla'cus. From dia, two, and plakos, a pla- 
centa ; alluding to the splitting of the capsule, 
to each valve of which is attached a large pla- 
centa, and under its edges are found the slen- 
der subulate seeds. Nat. Ord. Scroplmlariacece. 
This genus, consisting of three or four spe- 
cies, is closely allied to Mimiulua, the princi- 
pal difference being in its shrubby habit and 
1;he seed capsule. D. glviinoaua, a native of 
California, was long cultivated under the 
name of Mimulvs ghdinosus. It is an erect, 
branching plant, becoming more or less 
branching at the base. The fiowers are rather 
large, solitary in the upper axils, and, vary 
from a pale yellow to a rich orange or scarlet. 
All the varieties are desirable plants for the 
green-hduse or shady border. Propagated by 

Diplade'nia. From diplooa, double, and aden, a 
gland; referring to the presence of two gland- 
like processes on the ovary. Nat. Ord. Apo- 

A genus of beautiful climbing green-house 
and hot-house shrubs from Central America 
and Brazil. The flowers are red, purple, rose, 
yellow, etc., and are produced in terminal 
clusters in great abundance, and some few 
kinds flower when quite small. They delight 
in a warm, moist atmosphere during their 
growing season, and require to have their 
main growths well ripened for the ensuing 
year. Propagation is effected by cuttings of 
the young shoots that are produced when the 
plants commence new growth in spring. 
Many beautiful hybrids have been produced 


of late years, which are very desirable for the 
warm green-house or plant-stove. 
Dipla'zium. From diplazo, to double; refer- 
ring to the double covering of the spore cases 
or seed vessels. Nat. Ord. Polypodiacem. 

An extensive genus of handsome evergreen 
Ferns, closely allied to Asplenium, and requir- 
ing the same general treatment. The species 
are pretty generally distributed from North 
America to Brazil. 
Diplopa'ppua. A genus of Com/poaitm of but 

little beauty or interest. 
Diplothe'mium. From diplooa, double, and 
thrnia, a sheath. Nat. Ord. PaVmacecR. 

A genus of very noble Palms, almost stem- 
less, or developing a short ringed trunk. D. 
caudesama, a native of Brazil, has pinnate 
leaves four to eight feet in length, the closely 
set narrow piniise being from eighteen to 
twenty-four inches long, and about an inch 
broad. The upper surface is of a glossy 
green color, and beautiful silvery-white 
beneath. It is very graceful in habit, and is 
an excellent plant for lawn or sub-tropical 
Dipsaca'cese. A natural order of herbs or 
undershrubs, mostly natives of the south of 
Europe, Barbary, the Levant, and the Cape 
of Good Hope. Some of the species are as- 
tringent. Dipsaeua FuUonum is the Fuller's 
Teazel, the dried heads of which, with their 
hooked, spiny bracts, are used in fulling 
cloth. The opposite lea,ves of the wild 
Teazel, D. aylveatria, unite at their bases so 
as to form a basin, in which wat<^r collects ; 
hence the plant was called Dipsaeua, or 
thirsty. There are six known genera and 
about 170 species. Dipsaeua, Scabiosa, Morima, 
and Cephalaria are examples of the order. 
Dipsa'cua. Teazel. From dipsao, to uhirst; 
referring to the cavity formed by the leaves 
clasping the stem holding water. Nat. Ord. 

Hardy biennials, of but little beauty or use, 
except D. -IhilUrnvm, the Fuller's Teazel; which 
is a leading farm crop in the town of Skane- 
ateles, N. "i., the conditions there being so 
favorable for its growth that it produces 
nearly all that is used in the United States. 
It is naturalized in some locations, having 
escaped from cultivation, and is quite com- 
mon on the roadsides near Clifton, Staten 
Island. D. aylveatria, a rather scarce species 
is suspected to be the origin of the D. FuUo- 
num, the principal difference being that the 
long flexible awns of the latter are hooked 
while those of D. aylveatria are straight. The 
flower heads, when dried, are used in the 
manufacture of woolen cloths, and are an 
article of considerable importance. Natives 
of Great Britain. 
Dipteraca'nthus. This genus is now referred 

to Ruellia, which see. 
Dipterooa'rpeEB. An order of resin-bearing 
trees, all the species of which are found in , 
the tropics of the Old World. Flowers often 
sweet scented, disposed in axillary panicles. 
Dryabalanopa Camphora or aromcetica, & tree 
from 100 to 130 feet high, supplies the hard 
Camphor of Sumatra, which exists in a solid 
state in the interior of the stein, some- 
times in pieces weighing from ten to twelve 
pounds. It also yields by incision a' resinojis, 




oily fluid called the Liquid Camphor or Cam- 
phor Oil of Borneo. Sometimes five gallons 
of the fluid are found in a cavity in the trunk. 
Several others yield valuable resins. There 
are seven known genera and forty-seven 
species. Dipterocarpua, Valeria, Dryobalamopa, 
and Shorea are examples of the order. 

Dipterous. Having two wing-lite processes, 

as the seeds of Halesia diptera. 
Di'pterix. Tonquin Bean. From dia, double, 
and plerix, a wing ; referring to the two upper 
segments of the calyx. Nat. Ord. Legwmmoam. 
D. odorata, the only species, is an orna- 
mental evergreen tree, a native of Cayenne. 
It produces the Tonquin or Tonga Bean of 
commerce, so much used by perfumers, and 
in the adulteration of the extract of Vanilla. 
Di'rca. Leather-wood, Moose-wood. From 
dirke, a fountain ; the plant growing in moist 
places. Nat. Ord. Thymelacece. 

D. pahistris, the only species, is a much- 
branched shrub growing about six feet high. 
The flowers are small and yellow, and pro- 
duced In clusters. They are followed by 
small reddish, poisonous fruit. The fibrous 
bark of this shrub is remarkably tough, and 
was used by the Indians for thongs, whence 
the popular names. It is common in moist 
ground from Pennsylvania and Kentucky 
northward. In some of the New England 
States it is called Wicopy. 
Di'sa. Meaning unknown, but supposed to be 
its native name. Nat. Ord. OrchidaceoB. 

An extensive genus of terrestrial Orchids 
confined to South Africa and Abyssinia. 
There is a wide variation in the habit of the 
various species. D. grandiflora is perhaps 
the most beautiful of all terrestrial Orchids. 
It is spoken of as the pride of Table Mountain, 
where it grows in great profusion on the 
borders of streams and water pools, which are 
dry in summer, producing its gorgeous 
flowers in February and March. The flowers 
are large, the sepals of a deep scarlet crim- 
son; petals tipped with white and green, 
pale yellow inside. The species have been 
considered the'^ most diffiault to manage of 
any in cultivation. Mr. Hand differs with 
most growers upon this point, having been 
quite successful in flowering them, with the 
following treatment: "The soil for this 
plant should be rich, fibrous peat and loam. 
It should have but little heat, and never be 
allowed to dry off. The great trouble in its 
culture appears to be want of water. It there 
is good drainage it can scarcely have too 
much. It does not need much heat, and 
should be grown with a good circulation of 
air, and not full sun." Propagated by division. 
Introduced in 1825. 
Disca'ria. A genus of RhamnacecB, nearly allied 
to Colktia, but differing in having no petals. 
Natives of Australia and South America. D. 
serratifolia, with its bright green spiny 
branches and foliage, makes an excellent 
' plant for pot culture. 
Dischi'dia. From dia, twice, and schizo, to split ; 
referring to an obscure process in the con- 
struction of the flower. Nat. Ord. Aaclepiw- 

Nearly related to Stephanotis and Hoya. A 
small genus of ornamental green-house ever- 
green trailers. The flowers are white, and 


are borne in the axils of the leaves, 
of but little merit. 

A plant 

Discoid. When, in Compoaitce, the ray florets 
are suppressed, the head of the flowers is said 
to be discoid. 

Discolor. Parts having one surface of one 
color, and the other surface of another color. 
Also, any green color altered by a mixture of 
purple, as in Ciaaus discolor. . 

Dise'nuna. From dis, double, and atemma, a 
crown; referring to the double coronet or 
rays. Nat. Ord. PaaaiJloracecE. 

This genus is closely allied to Passiflora, 
requires the same general treatment, and is 
propagated in the same manner. Some of the 
species are very beautiful, and worthy of cul- 
tivation. They are natives of New Holland ; 
first introduced in 1792. 

Dish-rag Plant. See Luffa. 

Disk. An organ intervening between the 
stamens and ovary. The central tubular 
flowers of Composiice are also called the Disk. 

Disoca'ctus. From dia, twice, iaos, equal, and 
cactoa; the divisions of the petals and sepals 
equal and twice two, and the habit of a Cac- 
tus. Nat. Ord. CactacecB. 

There is but one known species of this 
genus, which is a weak trailing shrub or bush, 
a connecting link between two sections of the 
order "the Epiphylhim and Rhipaalia. The 
flowers are produced singly from one of the 
notches at the upper end of the young 
branches, and are characterized by having 
only four sepals and four -petals. They are of 
a deep pink color, about two inches long, pro- 
duced in succession, last a long time, and are 
succeeded by beautiful little shiny, deep 
crimson berries. The plant should be grown 
in soil composed of equal parts of sharp sand, 
leaf mould, and turfy loam. In a growing 
state it should have a moist atmosphere, but 
in winter it should be kept dry, with plenty of 
light; it may be increased by cuttings or 
seeds. It is a native of Honduras, and was 
introduced in 1839. By many botanists this 
genus is united with Philloca^ctua, from which 
it only differs in its fewer sepals and petals! 

Dispe'ris. From dis, double, and pera, a pouch ; 
in allusion to the form of the outer segments 
of the perianth. Nat. Ord. Orchidacece. 

A small genus of terrestrial Orchids from 
the Cape of Good Hope, bearing scarlet or 
purple flowers. It requires the same treat- 
ment in propagation and culture as Diaa. 

Dispermus. Two-seeded. 

Dispo'ram. From dia, double, and poroa, a pore ; 
application not stated. Nat. Ord. LiUacem. 

A genus of half-hardy herbaceous plants, 
allied to Uvuhwia. The flowers are small, but 
rather pretty, of brown or yellow colors. They 
succeed well in a warm border, if slightly pro- 
tected in winter, and are propagated by 
division of the roots. Natives of China and 
Nepal ; introduced in 1801. 

Dissected. Cut into many deep lobes. 

Disseminatioa The manner in which ripe seeds 

of plants are naturally dispersed. 
Distichous. When parts are arranged in two 

rows, the one opposite the other, as the florets 

of many grasses. 




Distinct. "When any part or organ is wholly 
unconnected with those near It. 

Ditch Stone-Crop. The common name of Pen- 
thorwm aedoidea. 

Dittany. See Cunila. 

Diurnal. Enduring only a day, as the flowers 
of Tigridia and Hemerocallis (Day Lily). 

Divaricate. Straggling; spreading abruptly; 
branching off at an acute angle, and spread- 
ing irregularly in various directions, as in 
Veronica pinnata. 

Diversiflorus. When a plant or inflorescence 
bears flowers of two or more sorts. 

Divided. Where incisions or indentations extend 

nearly to the base. 
Dock. See Rumex. 
Dodder. See Cuaeuta. 

Dodeca'theon. American Cowslip. Prom dodeka, 
twelve, and theos, a divinity ; twelve gods or 
divinities of the Komans ; a name absurdly 
applied to a plant, native of a world the 
Bomans did not know, and resembling in no 
particular any plant of tHeir writers. Nat. 
Ord. Primukbcem. 

This is a genus of native herbaceous peren- 
nials that deserve extensive cultivation. They 
are common in rich woods in Pennsylvania 
and westward to Wisconsin. In the west 
the common name is Shpoting Star. They are 
exceedingly handsome in cultivation, thriving 
-well in a shady border. The flower-stems are 
one foot or more high, bearing a considerable 
number of elegant drooping flowers of rosy 
purple, light purple, or white colors, and of an 
interesting shape, somewhat resembling the 
Cyclamen, to which plant it is allied. A very 
large and showy species, with deep purple and 
yellow flowers, has been introduced from Cali- 
fornia, named by Prof. E. L. Greene, of the 
State University, D. Clevelandi. They are 
propagated by seeds, or division of the roots. 

Dog-Grass. Friticwm repena. 

Dog-Rose. Roaa canina. 

Dog-Thistle. Cardwus arvenaia. 

Dog- Violet. Viola canina, and V. aylvatica. 

Dog-Wood. Cornus aanguinea; also applied to 
Eiwnymua Europaus, Bhamnvs frangula, and 
Vibv/rnwm Opulua. 

Dog's Bane. The genus Apoeynvm. 
Climbing. PeripUica grceca. 

Dog's Parsley, u^thusa Cynapivm. 

Dog's-tail Grass. Cynoaurua ariataiua. 

Dog's-tooth Violet. Erythronium dena-cania, 
which see. 

Dolabriform. Ax-shaped. 

Do'lichos. Prom doUchoa, long; referring to 
the long, twining shoots. Nat. Ord. Legumir 

Climbing annual and perennial plants from 
the East and West Indies, generally with 
purple or white flowers. The pods and seeds 
are eatable, and, in some cases, also the roots. 
D. Lablah, the Egyptian Bean, is a beautiful 
species with two varieties, one with dark 
purple flowers, the other white. They grow 
in any situation, where an ornampntal climber 
is required, and may be treated as hardy 
annuals. This species was introduced from 
Egypt in 1818. 


Dondia. A synonym of Bacquetia, which see. 

Doob, or Doorba. Indian names for Cynodon 
Dactylon, which see. 

Doo'dia. Named after Samuel Doody, a London 
apothecary and cryptogamic botanist. Nat. 
Ord. PolypodiacecB. 

A genus of green-house evergreen Perns, 
mostly natives of Australia and the Sandwich 
Islands. The species are small, stiff, and 
rough-leaved, of no great beauty, and are 
propagated by division wh.en at rest. 

Doom Palm. A name given to HyphcEne the- 

Doora, or Doura. See Sorghum vulgaxe. 

Dore'ma. From dorema, a gift or benefit. Nat. 
Ord. Umbelltferm. 

A hardy herbaceous plant, growing on the 
plains in the province of Irak, Persia, which 
furnishes the drug known as Ammoniacum. 
The plant abounds in a milky juice, which 
exudes upon the slightest puncture being made, 
and dries upon the stem in little rounded 
lumps, or tears, as they are called. Propa- 
gaited by seeds. 

Doro'nicum. Leopard's Bane. Altered from 
Doronogi, its Arabic name. Nat. Ord. Com^ 

A genus of showy herbaceous perennials, 
natives of Europe and temperate Asia, with 
large, bright yellow flowers, which are pro- 
duced early in spring. They are of very easy 
culture being increased by division of the 
roots, and are showy plants for the herbaceous 
border. There are several species in cultiv- 
ation of which D. Altaic^lm,, D. Pardalianches, 
D. Avstriacwm and D. Cau^asicwm are the best 
known. Several seedling varieties have been 
lately introduced in England and are much 
admired. They are often forced for con- 
servatory decoration or for cutting. 

Dorsal. Attached to, or growing on the back 
of any organ. 

Dorste'nia. Named for Theodore Doraten, a 
German botanist. Nat. Ord. Urticacem. 

Herbaceous plants of neat compact habit, 
natives of tropical America. Some of the 
species have elegantly cut leaves; while 
many of the others are decorated with silver 
markings. They are very curious plants, and 
are increased by division or by seeds. 

Dorya'nthes. From dory, a spear, and anthoa, a 
flower; the flower-stem shoots up from 
twelve to twenty feet high, like the handle of 
a spear, bearing flowers on the top. Nat. Ord. 

D. excelap,, introduced in 1800, is a magnifl- 
cent Australian plant, and is what is termed 
an imperfect bulb. The flower stalk has 
been known to grow as high as thirty feet, 
crowned with a head of bright scarlet flowers, 
that emerge from crimson bracts. It does 
well in a green-hou se temperature. X>. Palrmri, 
recently introduced from Queensland, is de- 
scribed as being a more beautiful plant than 
the preceding. The flowers form a pyramidal 
spike twelve to eighteen inches high, and ten 
to twelve inches broad, the flowers being red, 
with a center almost white. Propagated by 

Doryo'pteris. Prom dory, a spear, andptem, 
a fern; spear-leaved Fern. Nat. Ord. 




A genus of tropical herbaceous Ferns, allied 
to Pteria. Some of the species are now includ- 
ed under the latter genus. They are common 
in South America and the East and "West 
Indies. Propagated by spores. 

Dotted. Furnished with transparent recep- 
tacles of oil, looking like dots ; marked with 

Double. When applied to the entire flower, it 
signifies that monstrous condition in which 
the parts of the inner floral whorls, the sta- 
mens or carpels, become converted into petals. 
Applied to the calyx or corolla separately, it 
refers to certain examples in which these 
organs appear to consist of more than the 
usual normal number of subordinate parts, 
and thus seem as if they were double. Double 
flowers are most common in the natural order 

Dougla'sia. A very pretty genus of herba- 
ceous plants from the Eocky Mountains, 
and Artie North America, of the Nat. Ord. 

The plants are evergreen, and like many 
others from high latitudes, will not bear sud- 
den changes ; consequently they need protec- 
tion in winter. The flowers are small, of a 
beautiful purple, borne in small tufts. This 
genus was named by Dr. Lindley in compli- 
ment to David Douglas, whose zeal in collect- 
ing seeds and plants, and whose untimely end 
have richly earned for him a niche in the long 
gallery of departed martyrs to science. Mr. 
Tiouglas was borne in Scone, Scotland, in 1798, 
and killed in the Sandwich Islands, July 12th, 
1834. Having been employed in the Glasgow 
Botanic Garden, his intelligence attracted the 
notice of Sir William Hooker, who procured 
for him an appointment as botanical collector 
to the Horticultural Society of London. In 
this capacity he traveled extensively in 
'. America. In 1824 he explored the Columbia 
Kiver and California, and in 1827 traversed 
the continent from Fort Vancouver to Hud- 
son's Bay, where he met Sir John Franklin, 
and returned with him to England. He made 
a second visit to the Columbia in 1829, and after- 
wards went to the Sandwich Islands. His 
death was caused by falling into a pit made to 
entrap wild cattle, where he was killed and 
mutilated by an animal previously entrapped. 
Through his agency 217 new species of plants 
were introduced into England. He collected 
800 specimens of the California Flora. A gigan- 
tic species of Pine which he discovered in Cal- 
ifornia is named after him, Abies or Pseudo- 
t8uga Douglaaii. 

Doum Palm. See Hyphame. 

Dove Flower. See Pensteria elaia. 

Waxen. Peristeria cerima. 
Down Thistle. 
Down Tree. 

Omopordon Acanthium. 
Ochroma Lagopua. 

Downi'ngia. Named in honor of A. J. Downing, 
the father of horticulture in the United States. 
Nat. Ord. Lobeliaceoe. 

A genus of hardy annuals from California 
and British Columbia, free flowering, and very 
pretty for the border. If the seeds be sown in 
February, and the plants treated the same as 
Verbenas, they will flower by the first of 
June and continue until killed by frost. The 
tfowers are of lovely blue, not unlike the 


Lobelias. Introduced by Mr. Douglas in 1827. 
These plants have erroneously been called 
Clintonia, which name properly belongs to a 
genus of lAliacecB. 

Dra'ba. Whitlow-Grass. From drdbe, acrid; 
referring to one of the universal characters of 
its natural order. Nat. Ord. Cru&ferce. 

A genus of hardy rock or alpine plants, con- 
sisting of annuals, biennials and herbaceous 
perennials. They are very low plants, admira- 
bly adapted for rock-work, as they are gen- 
erally found in a wild state in the fissures 
and crevices of rooks and mountains. They 
have white or yellow flowers, and should be 
grown with good drainage and a sunny 
exposure. Propagated by root division, or 
by seeds. First introduced in 1731. 

Dracse'na. From drdkaina, a female dragon; 
the thickened juice becomes a powder, like 
the dragon's-blood. Nat. Ord. Liliacem. 

Dracaenas rank among the most beautiful 
and useful of the ornamental-foliaged and 
fine-leaved plants. In a large or small state 
they are alike elegant and attractive. They 
are deservedly popular for the green-house or 
the sub-tropical garden, and for lawn decora- 
tion, large plants of many of the species have 
no equal. The species include the celebrated 
Dragon-tree (D. Draco) at Orotavia, in the 
island of Teneriffe, that was first noticed by 
Humboldt, who estimated its age at 6,000 
years. This tree was seventy feet in height 
and seventy-nine feet in circumference at the 
base. The interior of the trunk, which had 
been hollow for centuries, was used as a 
Roman Catholic chapel after the conquest of 
the island by the Spaniards. Unfortunately 
it was totally destroyed by a hurricane which 
occurred in 1867. D. terminalis (or more oor-~~ 
rectly Cordyline), a native of both the East and 
West Indies, is the best known of the species, 
and is extensively grown for baskets, window 
gardens, or the conservatory, the vivid coloring 
of its leaves rendering it at all times attract- 
ive. From this species has originated the 
host of popular hot-house varieties, many of 
which are most desirable and interesting 
because of their varied and rich tints of color, 
and their gracefully recurved foliage. Nearly- 
all the species are admirably adapted for 
decorative purposes. D. Ooldieama is a mag- 
nificent stove-house species, introduced from 
tropical Africa in 1872. Its broad, deep green, 
spreading leaves are marbled and irregularly 
banded with silvery-gray in alternate straight 
or furcate bands, rendering it one of the most 
striking and ornamental of the genus. D. 
wmbraeulifera, introduced from the Mauritius 
in 1778, is a very peculiar and distinct species, 
with long, narrow, dark green leaves, very 
closely set, and horizontal, with the ends 
slightly recurved, giving it the appearance of 
a table top or umbrella. For the sub-tropical 
garden or for the lawnj D. indiviaa and Z>. 
Australis, Syn. Cordyline, are the best, being of 
graceful habit, rapid growth, and not affected 
by sunshine, storm or drought. They are 
natives of New Zealand, and are readily 
increased from seed. The other species are 
propagated by placing the stems on the prop- 
agating bench in sand, with a bottom heat of 
75°, and slightly covering them with sphag- 
num, which should be kept at all times moist ; 
in a short time an eye will break forth from 





<fTd 'f^ ^ 

^^ '] eJJ^ 












nearly every joint. The most forward of these 
may be removed from the stem from time to 
time, which will soon strike root in sand with 
bottom heat. The old stem should not be 
removed until its reproductive powers are 
exhausted. The species are pretty generally 
distributed throughout all tropical and sub- 
tropical countries, and were first brought to 
notice about 1820. See Cordyline. 
Dracoce'phalum. Dragon's Head. Prom dra- 
kon, a dragon, and kephnle, a head ; referring 
to the gaping flower. Nat. Ord. Labiaim. 

This genus consists of hardy annuals 
and perennials, several of which are well 
known as garden flowers, among which may 
be found D. Moldavicum, the Moldavian Balm, 
a hardy annual with blue flowers. Several 
hardy species, perennials, natives of Siberia, 
have beautiful large blue flowers. One very 
pretty species, D. parviflorum, is sparingly 
met in the Northern and Western States. All 
are propagated by seed or by root division. 
Introduced in 1731. 

Draco'ntium. A genus of Aroidem, natives of 
tropical America, comprising certain species 
more remarkable than beautiful or orna^ 
mental ; useful only in large collections. 

Dracophy'llum. A genus of Epaeridacem, con- 
sisting of about twenty-five species, natives of 
New Zealand and Australia. D. capitaium, 
with pure white flowers in terminal heads, 
and D. gracile, also white, but more slender in 
growth, are both very pretty plants when well 

Dragon-Arum. Arum Dracwnadus. 
Green. Ariacema Draconlium. 

Dragon's Blood. This resin, used in medicine, 
etc., is furnished by Calamus Draco, and is 
imported from Sumatra, southern Borneo, 
etc. The name Dragon's Blood is also given 
to resins yielded by Draccena Draco in the 
Canary Islands, and by Draeaana cinnaba/rma 
in Socotra, and also by Plerocarpu^ Draco. 

Dragon's-Blood-Tree. Draccena Draco. 

Dragon's-head. The genus Dracocephalum. 

Dragon's-mouth. Antirrhiv/wm majus. 

Dragon-tree. Canary Islands. Draccena Draco. 

Draining. This is one of the most important 
operations in horticulture. No matter how 
fertile the normal condition of the soil; no 
matter how abundantly it is fertilized; no 
matter how carefully and thoroughly it Is 
tilled, if water remains in it at the depth to 
which roots penetrate, all labor will be in vain ; 
for no satisfactory result can ever be attained 
until the water is drained off. The subject is 
one of such importance that we cannot give it 
full attention here, and to such as require to 
operate on a large scale, works specially 
devoted to the subject should be consulted, or 
a draining engineer employed. Soils having a 
gravelly or sandy sub-soil ten or twenty 
inches below the top soil do not usually need 
draining ; but in all soils underlaid by clay or 
hard pan, draining is indispensable, unless in 
cases where there is a slope of two to three 
feet in a hundred; and even in such cases 
draining is beneficial if the sub-soil is clay. 

In soils having a clay or hard-pan sub-soil, 
drains should be made three feet deep and 
not more than twenty feet apart. If stones 
are plenty, they may be profitably used to fill 


up the drains, say to a depth of twelve or fif- 
teen inches, either placed so as to form a 
"rubble" drain, if the stones are round, or 
built with an orifice at the bottom, if the 
stones are flat. In either case, care must be 
used to cover the stones carefully up with 
inverted sods, or some mateiial that will pre- 
vent the soil being washed through the stones 
and choking up the drain. 

Drain tiles, when they can be obtained at a 
reasonable price, are the best material for 
draining. The horseshoe pattern is generally 
used. If the drain has a hard bottom they 
can be placed directly on it when leveled to 
the proper grade; but if the ground is soft 
and spongy, a board must be laid in the bot- 
tom, on which to place the tiles. It is often a 
very troublesome matter to get the few drain 
tiles necessary to drain a small garden, and in 
such cases an excellent and cheap substitute 
can be had by using one of boards. Take 
ordinary rough boards — ^Pine, Hemlock or 
Spruce — and cut them into widths of three or 
four inches, and nail them together so as to 
form a triangular pipe, taking care to "break 
the joints " in putting the lengths together. 
Care must be taken that the boards are not 
nailed together too closely, else they might 
swell so as to prevent the water passing into 
the drain to be carried off. These drains are 
usually set with a flat side down, but they will 
keep clear better if put with a point down, 
though it is more trouble to lay them. Drains 
made in this way wi}l last twenty years or 

Of course, in draining, the greater the fall 
that can be got the better, though, if the 
grading is carefully done by a competent 
engineer, a very slight fall will sufflce. Some 
of the trunk or main sewers in our cities have 
only a grade of one foot in a thousand. 

Drainage in flower pots is for most 
plants whenever the pot is over five inches in 
diameter. Charcoal broken into pieces from 
one-half to one inch in diameter we prefer to 
every other kind of drainage, which should 
be in depth from one inch to three inches, ac- 
cording to the size of the pot to be drained, 
an extra quantity being necessary if the plant 
is being shifted into a pot too, large ; then 
ample drainage is indispensable to admit of 
the quick escape of water. This drainage, so 
called, is not alone of use as a means for the 
rapid escape of water, but also for the admis- 
sion of air to the roots, which brings in 
another important matter in connection with 
the drainage in pots, the necessity to stand 
the pots on some rough material, such as 
gravel or cinders ; for if placed on sand, soil, 
or anything that will close up the orifice in 
the bottom of the pot, all the drainage placed 
in it will avail nothing. It is far better to use 
no drainage at all, and stand the pots on a 
rough surface, than to use the drainage and 
place the plants on some material that will 
close the outlet. 
Dii'mia. Trom drimya, acrid ; referring to the 
juice of the bulbs. Nat. Ord. lAUacem. 

A small genus of green-house bulbs from 
the Cape of Good Hope. The flowers are 
white, purple, red, green, and variegated, and 
resemble the Ixias, though not as showy. 
The juice of the bulb is very acrid, causing 
blisters when applied to the skin. Propa- 
gated by offsets. Introduced in 1800. 




Dri'mys. Fine lialf hardy evergreen trees with 
aromatic bark and showy flowers, belonging 
to the Nat. Ord. Magnoliacece. 

D. Winteri, the species most generally culti- 
vated, has milk-white flowers one inch o*' 
more across, with a Jasmine-like perfume. 
Leaves oblong, obtuse and glaucous beneath. 
Propagated by cuttings. The fruit of D. 
Aromatica is sometimes used as pe'pper. Syns. 
Wintena and 'Tasmannia. 

Drooping Sorghum. Sorghum cemwwm. ~ 

Drop-seed Grass. The common name of the 
genus Sporobolus, applied because the seeds 
are loose, and easily scattered. The several 
species are common in dry barrens. 

Drop-wrort. See Spirmafilipendula. 

Dro'sera. Sun-dew. Prom droseroa, dewy. Nat. 
Ord. Droserac'CE. 

American, British, and Australian plants of 
insectivorous notoriety, with hairy leaves 
and curious flowers, which require to be 

■ grown in moss, mixed with leaf 'mould, kept 
moist, and during the heat of the day covered 
with a bell glass. The leaves are studded 
with reddish glandular inflexed hairs, dis- 
charging from their apices a drop of viscid, 
acrid fluid. The Italian liqueur called E6s- 
soglia is said to take its name from one of the 
species being used in its composition. This 
is one of the plants experimented with by Mr. 
Darwin, from which he was led to believe that 
some plants feed on insects. 

Drosera'oeae. A natural order of perennial and 
annual herbs, which are otten covered with 
glandular hairs. They have alternate leaves 
with fringes at their base, and a fern-like 
growth. The plants inhabit marshes in 
Europe, India, China, the Cape of Good Hope, 
Madagascar, North and South America, and 
New Holland. They have acid and slightly 
acrid properties. The species of Drosera are 
remarkable for their glandular hairs, which 
are covered with drops of fluid in sunshine. 
JHowBa muscipula is a still more remarkable 
plant, commonly called Venus's Fly-trap. 
Some include Paxnasaia in this order. There 
are seven known genera and about 100 
species. Drosera, DioncBa, and Droaophylhrni, 
are examples of the order. 

Drosophy'Ilum. From droaos, dew, and phyllon, 
a le^ ; in allusion to the leaves being beset 
with stipulary glands, appearing like dew. 
Nat. Ord. Droseracem. 

D. Jjuaitanicwm (the only species), forming a 
dwarf, shrubby plant three to flve inches in 
height, is one of the most singular plants of 
European flora. The nature of the glandular 
hairs is different from that of the Droseras, 
their rigid pedicels not being -endowed with 
the motive power of the British and other 

, species of the genus just mentioned. "A still 
more anomalous character is to be found in 
, ttie way the leaves are developed in the bud, 
being circinate and resolute, not involute, as 
in our Droseras, in Perns, Cycads and other 
plants, and of this mode of development Dro- 

. aophyUum is, so far as I know, the only exam- 
ple in the Vegetable Kingdom." (J. D. Hooker 
In Botanical Magazine) It is a native of Spain, 

' Portugal and Africa, introduced in 1869, and 
is propagated by seeds. 

Drupa'oeee. Formerly regarded as a distinct 
natural order, but now as a section of Roaacece. 


Drupe. A kind of fruit consisting of a fleshy, suc- 
culent rind, and containing a hard stone in the 
center, like the Olives, Plums, Apricots, etc. 

Drya'ndra. Named after Jonas Dryand&r, a dis- 
tinguished'Swedish botanist. 

A genus of Proteacece, allied to Bankaia, 
containing in all about fifty species. Hand- 
some green-house plants, rarely seen in culti- 
vation, notwithstanding their great beauty. 

Dry'as. From Dryades, the goddesses of the 
woods, to whom the oak was sacred. The 
leaves of D. octopetala, a Scotch plant, on 
which the genus was founded by Linnseus, 
resembles small oak leaves ; and he, in play- 
ful mood, made Dryas the badge of Virgil's 
Dryades, after the manner of the Scottish 
clans. Nat. Ord. Rosacem. 

A delicate genus of dwarf, moderately- 
spreading plants, with neat evergreen leaves 
and strawberry-like flowers. All have white 
flowers except D. Drummondii, which are of a 
sulphur yellow. They are all of easy culture, 
but require a moist,* shaded situation. They 
are natives of Great Britain and the United 
States, and are propagated by division and by 

Drymo'nia. From drymoa, an oak wood ; their 
habitation. Nat. Ord. Geaneraoem. 

A small genus of South American shrubs of 
climbing habit, found in moist or marshy sit- 
uations. Flowers large, not unlike the Qea- 
ncra. A few species have been introduced 
into the green-house, and are quite orna- 
mental. They should be grown in baskets 
ttlled with turf and pieces of wood, in a 
moist, warm house, and are propagated by 
cuttings. Introduced in 1806. 

Dryna'ria. From drya, a tree ; dwelling among 
trees. Nat. Ord. PolypodiacecE. 

An extensive genus of green-house Ferns 
from India and the Paciflo Islands, now 
included under Polypodvwm by some authors. 

Dryoba'lanops. Camphor Tree. From drya, 
a tree, balanoa, an acorn, and opa, appearance ; 
in allusion to the species being a tree, bearing 
acorn-like fruits. Nat. Ord. Dipterocarpece. 

A large, resinous, camphor-bearing ever- 
green tree, native of Sumatra. D. aromatica 
furnishes a liquid called Camphor-oil and a 
crystalline solid known as Sumatra camphor. 
It is highly prized by the Chinese. 
Dry'pia. From drypto, to lacerate ; leaves 
armed with spines. Nat. Ord. CaryophyllacecB. 

D. apinoaa is a beautiful little trailing plant 
well adapted for growing upon rock-work ; its 
pretty pale pink or white flowers being pro- 
duced so as to completely cover the ground. 
It is increased by cuttings. This plant is a 
native of Italy, and was introduced in 1795. 

Duck's-foot. See Podophyllvm. 

Duck-vireed. The genus Lemna. 

Tropical. Pistia Utratioidca. 
Ducts. Tubular vessels marked by transverse 

lines or dots; apparently, in some cases, 

modifloations of spiral vessels. 

Dumb Cane. Dieffenbachia Seguine. 

Duplicate. Growing in pairs. When: com- 
pounded with the words crenate, dentate, 
serrate, it implies that the incisions on the 
margins of leaves bearing these names are 
themselves crenated, dentated, and serrated. 




Duramen. The heart-wood, or that part of the 
timber of a tree which becomes hardened by 
the matter deposited in it. It is next the 
center in Exogens and next the circumference 
in Endogens. 

Sura'nta. Named in honor of Castor Durantes, a 
: - physician and botanist. Nat. Ord. VerbenacecB, 
A genus of free flowering evergreen shrubs, 
natives of South America and the West Indies. 
D. Plvmieri, the best known species, has 
pretty blue flowers borne in racemes in great 
profusion. It was introduced in 1739, and is 
increased readily by cuttings. 

Du'rio. Prom Dwryon, the Malay name of the 
fruit, and comes from dmry, a thorn ; alluding 
to the prickly fruit. Nat. Ord. SterculiacecB. 
D. zibeihimus, the only species, a noble tree 
attaining the height of from sixty to eighty 
feet, with somewhat the general appearance 
of an elm, produces the celebrated Durian 
fruit of the Indian Archipelago. This fruit 
varies in shape, being either globular or oval, 
and measures as much as ten inches in 
length ; it has a thick, hard rind entirely cov- 
ered with very strong sharp prickles, and is 
divided into five ceils, each of which contains 
from one to four seeds rather larger than 
pigeons' eggs, and completely enveloped in a 
firm luscious-looking cream-colored pulp, 
which is the eatable part of the fruit. 

This tree is commonly cultivated through- 
out the Malayan Peninsula and Islands, 
where its fruit, during the period it is in 
season, forms the greatest part of the food of 
the natives. Considerable difference of opin- 
ion exists among epicures as to the relative 
merits of several well-known tropical fruits, 
including the Durian, the Mangosteen, the 

' Cherimoyer, and tlie Pine-apple, any of which 
is made to occupy the foremost place, accord- 
ing to individual taste. The flavor of Durian, 
however, is said to be perfectly unique ; and 
it is also quite certain that no other fruit, 
either of tropical or temperate climes, com- 
bines in itself such a delicious flavor with 
^ such an abominably offensive odor — an odor 
commonly compared either with putrid 
animal matter, or with rotten onions. It 
might be supposed that a fruit possessing 
such an odor could never become a favorite ; 
but it is said that when once the repugnance 
has been overcome, the Durian is sure to find 
favor, and that foreigners invariably become 
extremely fond of it. One traveler observes 
that " a rich custard, highly flavored with 
almonds, gives the best general idea of it, but 
there are occasional waits of flavor that call 
to mind cream-cheese, onion sauce, sherry 
wine, and other incongruous dishes. Then 
there is a rich glutinous smoothness in the 
pulp which nothing else possesses, but which 
adds to its delicacy. It is neither acid, nor 
sweet, nor juicy ; yet it wants none of these 
qualities, for it is in itself perfect. It pro- 
duces no nausea or other bad effect, and the 
more you eat of it the less you feel inclined 
to stop. In fact, to eat Durians is a new 
sensation, worth a voyage to the East to ex- 
perience. " 

Burra. See Sorghum vulgare. 

Dusty Miller. Cineraria maritima. 

Dutch-Clover Trifolium repena. 

Dutchman's Breeches. Dicentra cueullaria. 


Dutchman's Pipe. See Ariatolochia aipho. 

Duva'Ua. Named after H. A. Duval, of Paris, 
a botanical author. Nat. Ord. Aaclepediacem. 
A genus of succulent Stapelia-like plants, 
all natives of South Africa. D. polita has 
purplish red flowers with a dull orange center, 
somewhat resembling a bird's head, when 
viewed sideways. 'They are produced in 
threes or fours and open successiyely. . The 
stems and branches are two to three inches 
long, and about half an inch thick, somewhat 
clavate, and more or less decumbent and 
rooting. It is one of the finest plants of the 
genus; and was introduced in ISfd. 

Duva'ua. In honor of M. Duvau, a French bot- 
anist. Nat. Ord. AnacardMxcecB. 

Singular half-hardy shrubs from Chili. The . 
leaves of the plants of this genus, if thrown 
upon water, will Start and jump about in a 
very extraordinary manner. They have a 
strong smell of turpentine. The flowers are 
white, produced in small spikes, and are suc- 
ceeded by dark purple berries. They require 
green-house treatment. Propagated by cut- 
tings. Introduced in 1830. 

Dwarf. Of small size compared with other 
species of the same genus, or with other 
varieties of the same species. 

D-warf Dandelion; Krigia VirginiGa,^a small 
hardy annual, with yellow flowers resembling 
a small Dandelion, common in New England 
and southward. 

D'warf Pan Falm. A common name for Ghor- 
masropa humilia. 

Dy'ckia. Named in honor of Prince Salm-Dyck, 
a German, author of a splendid work on suc- 
culents. Nat. Ord. Bromeliaeoem. 

A small genus of green-house plants, resem- 
bling the Pine-apple in miniature, or a small 
Pitcairnia. D. rariflora is a very showy plant 
with orange-colored flowers. One or two 
other species of the same general character 
have been introduced into the green-house. 
Propagated by division or from seeds. 

Dyer's G-reen-Weed. See Genista tinctoria. 

Dyer's Rocket, or Dyer's Weed. A popular 
name of Reseda Iwteola, allied to Mignonette. 

Dynamis. A power. A figurative term em- 
ployed by Linnaeus to express the degrees -of 
development of stamens. Thus his Didynamia 
signified stamens of two diffeirent lengths, or 
of two different degrees of development. 

Dypsis. From dupto, to dip; application not 
given. Nat. Ord. Palmacem. 

A genus of five or six species of dwarf stove- 
house palms, all natives of Madagascar. D. 
Madagaaca/rienais, D. Hildebrandtii, and D. 
pinnatifrons, the only species yet introduced, 
are choice sorts, and well worthy of a place in 
any collection. 

Dysodia. From dusodea, ill-smelling ; in allu- 
sion to the unpleasant odor of some of the 
species. Nat. Ord. ComposMm. 

A genus of about ten species of erect or dif- 
fuse pubescent plants, closely aUied to Ta- 
geies, and natives of Mexico, Central America, 
and the South-western States. D. chryaam- 
themoidea, a dwarf annual with pinnatisect 
, leaves, grows in great profusion over the 
'western prairies of Illinois, and in autumn 
exhales so unpleasant an odor as to sicken 





TJIagle Wood. An odoriferous wood containing 
-LJ_ an abundance of resin and a fragrant essen- 
tial oii. This is supposed to be the Aloes 
wood of Scripture. See Aquilaria agallocha. 

Ea'rma. From earinoa, the spring; the time 

of their flowering. Nat. Ord. OrcMdacem. 
A genus of very rare Orchids. The stems 

are terminated by dense oblong spikes of 

white flowers, which are delightfully fragrant. 

They were introduced from New Zealand in 

East Indian Rose Bay. See Tabemcemontana. 
Earth-nut, or Eartti Chestnut. Bunium Jlex- 

Easter Ploiwer. Mexican. PoinseUia pulcher- 

Easter Giant. Polygomwm bistortum. 
Easter Lily. lAlium Harrisii and L. longiflorum. 

Ebena'ceae. A natural order of trees or shrubs, 
not milky, with alternate leathery and entire 
leaves. The flowers are hermaphrodite (per- 
fect), or pistillate and staminate. The fruit 
is a round or oval berry with albuminous 
seeds. They are chiefly natives of the East 
Indies, but are also found in tropical Africa, 
at the Cape of Good Hope, in South America, 
Brazil, Australia, northern Asia, and China. 
The trees yield a hard and durable timber. 
The heart-wood of different species of Diospy- 
ros is the Ebony of commerce, of which there 
are many varieties. The Keg-fig of Japan is 
edible fruit of Dioapyros KaM, and our com- 
mon Persimmon is the fruit of Dioapyroa Vir- 
giniana. There are five recognized genera 
and about 250 species ; Dioapyroa, Royena, 
Euclea, and Maba are examples. 

E'benua. A genus of Leguminoam, numbering 
about eight species, natives of the high moun- 
tainous regions of eastern Europe and Asia 
Minor. They are elegant little shrubs, or 
biennial plants, bearing their bright pink or 
violet blossoms on dense spikes or round 
heads in great profusion. They are easily 
increased by seeds or division. 

Ebony-tree. See Dioapyroa.- 

Jamaica. Brya Ebenua. 

Mountain. Bauhinia variegata. 

Senegal. Dalbergia Melcmoxylon. 

Eburneus. Of the color of ivory. 

Ecba'llium. Squirting Cucumber. From, ekbalo, 
to cast out ; because the seeds are violently 
expelled from the ripe fruit. Nat. Ord. Oucwr- 

The Squirting Cucumber is so called from the 
remarkable way in which it squirts out its seeds 
along with the semi-fluid contents of the fruit. 
When the fruit is quite ripe a very slight touch 
causes It to separate from its stem, and by 
the violent elastic contraction of the pericarp, 
or rind of the fruit, the whole of the contents 
are ejected from the opening made by its 
separation from the stem. It is a native of 
the south of Europe, where the drug known 
as Elaterium (a powerful cathartic) is procured 
from it. Syn. Momordica Elaterium. 


Eccremoca'rpus. From ekkremea, pendant, and 
karpoa, fruit ; position of seed-pods. Nat. Ord. 

The best known species, E. acaber, is a half- 
hardy climber, of exceedingly vigorous 
growth, producing a great profusion of 
orange-scarlet flowers, and ripening an 
abundance of seed. If cut down to the root 
in autumn, and covered with dead leaves, 
straw, or anything to preserve it from the 
frost during winter, jt will shoot up again the 
following spring. It may be propagated by 
cuttings, but it ripens seed so freely that it is 
most easily raised from them. They should 
be sown ia autumn, as soon as they are ripe, 
on a slight hot-bed; and the plants, which 
should be kept in a frame or green-house, 
should be shifted two or three times till they 
are ready for planting out in April or May. 
The species are natives of Peru. Introduced 
in 1824. Syn. Calampelia. 

Echea'ndia. Named after Greg. Echeamdia, 
botanical professor at Saragossa. Nat. Ord. 

A small genus of exceedingly rare, tender 
herbaceous perennials, discovered near the 
Eeal del Monte Mines, Mexico, by Mr. John 
Bule, and sent by him to England in 1837. It 
is allied to the Anthericwm, which in habit of 
growth it resembles. The flower spike grows 
nearly three feet high, branching, and during 
July and August it produces daily several 
Asphodel-shaped flowers, of a bright orange- 
yellow color. It is increased from seeds. 

Echeve'ria. In honor of M. Echeveri, author of 
the splendid drawings of the Flora Mexicani. 
Nat. Ord. Craaaulacece. 

The Echeverias are succulent plants, all 
more or less ornamental, particularly so when 
in flower. Some are dwarf and herb-like in 
their manner of growth, and others more or 
less shrubby in their habit. They are all 
free-growing plants, suitable for rookeries, 
edgings, or massing ; where " carpet bedding" 
is done the Echeveriaa are indispensable. 
They require the protection of the green- 
house during winter, and, like most other 
succulents, to be carefully watered ; In fact, 
the soil must never approach a soddened con- 
dition. They must, -however, be freely sup- 
plied with water while in a growing condition. 
The Echeverias are readily propagated by the 
leaves, especially those produced along the 
flower-stem, and by seeds. They are chiefly 
natives of Mexico, and require a very open or 
porous soil, consisting of loam and coarse 
sand. Some of the more popular kinds are of 
recent introduction. A number of the species 
are now classed with Cotyledon. 

Echina'cea. Purple Cone-Flower. Fromecftireos, 
a hedge-hog; referring to the involucre, or 
scaly covering of the flowers. Nat. Ord. Com- 

A small genus of coarse-growing, hardy her- 
baceous perennials, bearing large purple or 
reddish flowers, with a dark centre. They are 
common south and west. 




Echliiate. Furnished with numerous rigid hairs 
or straight prickles ; as the fruit of Castanea 
veaca, Amomum subulatum, etc. 

ZSchi'noca'ctus. From echinos. hedge-hog, and 
cactus ; a name given by Theophrastus to a 
spiny plant. Nat. Ord. Cactacece. 

This genus is one of the most beautiful of 
the order; the grotesque appearance of the 
plants, crowned as they are at times with 
their large flowers, renders them objects of 
much attention among the admirers of this 
class of vegetable forms. The soil we prefer 
for their culture is a mixture of rich loam, 
thoroughly decomposed manure, and sand, in 
equal quantities. This must be well drained 
by mixing small lumps of charcoal and pots- 
herds with the earth, and by placing a layer 
of the same material at the bottom of the 
pots. Through the winter the plants shoula 
be kept in a reduced temperature, such as 
that of a green-house, and have little or no 
water, but in summer they grow and flower 
more freely if allowed a stove temperature 
and a liberal supply of moisture. Bright sun- 
light is essential to their vigor at all seasons, 
but most particularly so in autumn and winter. 
The genus comprises many species; more 
than hall of them natives of Mexico, the rest 
being distributed throughout South America. 
They are propagated by offsets, which should 
be dried a few days after being taken off the 
plant. First introduced in 1796. 

E'ohinops. Globe Thistle. From echinos, a 
hedge-hog, and opia, like; referring to the 
spiny scales of the involucre, or covering of 
composite flowers. Nat. Oi'd. CompositcB. 

A genus of hardy annual, biennial, and per- 
ennial plants, generally with blue flowers, ar- 
ranged in dense round clusters at the ends of 
the branches, so that each cluster of flower- 
heada has the appearance of a single head, 
containing many florets. They are all of 
easy culture, and will grow in almost any 
situation. For moderate-sized gardens, they 
are too rank growing and coarse to bo useful. 
They are natives of southern Europe, and 
are propagated by seeds or division. 

Echino'psis. A small genus of CactacecB, now 
generally placed as a section of Cereus. 

Bchi'tes. From echis, a viper ; referring to the 
snake-like coils of the twining shoots. Nat. 
Ord. ApocynacecB. 

A genus of magnificent green-house climb- 
ing plants, with yellow, white, red, and crim- 
son flowers, and richly-veined leaves. They 
closely resemble Dipladenia, which may be re- 
ferred to for culture. It is an extensive 
genus, pretty generally distributed throughout 
South America and the East Indies. 

E'chium. Viper's Bugloss. From echis, a viper ; 
seeds like the viper's head. Nat. Ord. Bora- 

Perennial, biennial, and annual plants gener- 
ally with rich dark-blue flowers; though 
some of the kinds that are natives of the Cape 
of Good Hope and the Canaries have red, 
white, or violet flowers. They are easily prop- 
agated by seeds or division of the root. 
First introduced in 1683. 

Edelweiss. See Leontopodiwm. 

Edged. When one color is surrounded by a 
very narrow rim of another color. 


Edgevg-orthia. Named for M. P. 
an East Indian botanist. Nat. Ovdi.' Thyme- 

Ornamental evergreen green-house shrubs 
with yellow flowers, closely allied to Daphne. 
Natives of China and Japan. 

Edvra'rdsia. In honor of Sydenham Edwards, 
a celebrated English botanical draughtsman. 
Nat. Ord. Leguminosce. 

Half-hardy low trees and shrubs, with pin- 
nate leaves and very curiously-shaped seed 
pods and flowers, which are of a dark golden 
yellow. They are beautiful plants for lawn 
decoration, but must be protected in winter. 
The species are all natives of New Zealand, 
and are propagated by cuttings. Introduced 
in 1772. Syn. Sophora. 

Eel-Grass. See Vallisneria. 

Efiuse. Applied to inflorescence, and means 
a kind of panicle with a very loose arrange- 

Egg-Plant. The Egg-Plant of our gardens is 
Solanum melongena, var. ovigerum, a native of 
North Africa. It was flrst introduced into 
England in 1596, but for a long time was little 
known or used, owing much to the climate 
being unsulted to the perfect development of 
the fruit. In India and other hot countries 
it is a favorite article of food, and for many 
years it has steadily grown in favor in this 
country. In India it is served! up with sugar 
and wine, and in Italy and France it is used in 
stews and soups. Of this species there are 
several varieties, the favorite being the " Im- 
proved New York Purple," which is a strong 
grower, the plants yielding from Ave to eight 
fruits, some of which are of enormous size ; 
the size, however, depends much on the soil 
and method of culture. For perfection of 
growth, a very rich soil, plenty of moisture, 
and warm weather are required, with the ad- 
dition of frequent hoeings. Under such cir- 
cumstances, fruit seven inches In diameter 
and eight to nine inches long, and weighing 
five to six pounds, is easily obtained. , 'There 
are several other species occasionally grown in 
our gardens, one having bright scarlet, another 
white fruit, each about the size of a hen's egg, 
which are chiefly grown as curiosities. The 
white variety is edible, however, and is per- 
haps the most delicately flavored. Seeds 
should be sown about March 1st, in a tem- 
perature at no time lower than 70° Fahr., 
and from the seed bed pricked out in shallow 
boxes, and fi-om these, again, into small flower 
pots, to be planted out in the open ground 
when all danger from frost is past, as the 
plant, being tropical, is at all times sensitive 
to cold. 

Eggs and Bacon. Linaria vulgaris, and Lotus 

Eggs and Butter. lAnaria vulgaris. 
Eglantine. Sweet Briar. Rosa rubiginosa. 

Egyptian Bean. See DoUchos Lablab. 

Of Pythagoras. Nelumbium spedoswrn. 
Egyptian Lily. See Richardia. 
Egyptian Lotus. Nymphcea Lotus. 
Egyptian Pea. See Otcer., 

Egyptian Rose. Scabiosa arvemsis, and 8. 

Egyptian Thorn. CrateBgus Pyracantha. 




Bhre'tia.^ In honor of D. G. Ehret, a celebrated 
German botanical draughtsman. Nat. Ord. 

A small genus of very beautiful tropical 
trees and shrubs, producing large corymbs of 
fragrant, mostly -white flowers. Introduced 
in 1823 ; propagated by cuttings. 
Iihre'tia'cese. A natural order, now placed as a 
tribe of BoraginacecB. 

Eicbtio'Tnia. Named in honor of J. A. F. Eich- 
hom, an eminent Prussian. Nat. Ord. Ponte- 

Very interesting stove aquatics, natives of 
South America and tropical Africa. E. cras- 
sipes, Syn. Pondeteria azv/rea, or P. crassipes, 
grows freely, floating on the surface of the 
water, without the roots being in the soil ; the 
other species are easily grown in pots filled 
with coarse, rather rich soil, immersed and 
kept in water. 

Elseagna'ceEe. A natural order of trees or 
shrubs, more or less covered with minute 
silvery or brown scurfy scales, and natives 
chiefly of the northern hemisphere. There 
are four known genera and about thirty spe- 
cies. Shepherdia, EUeagnus, and Hippophae 
are examples of the order. 

ElEea'gnus. Oleaster, or Wild Olive. From 
Elaia, an olive, and agnoa, a chaste tree ; 
resemblance ihe tree bears. Nat. Ord. EUe- 

A genus of hardy and half-hardy ornamental 
low-growing trees or shrubs, natives of 
southern Europe and Asia. E. hortensia, is an 
old garden shrub, noted for the silvery white- 
ness of its foliage, and, on this account, is 
often selected to. plant in a conspicuous situa- 
tion, or to contrast with shrubs of darker 
foliage. Its flowers are produced in May, are 
quite small, pale yellow, and fragrant. E. 
argentea is described by Gray, under the name 
of Shepherdia argentea, which see, 

Elae'is. The Oil Palm. From Elaia, the 
olive; similarity of expressing oil from the 
fruit. Nat. Ord. Palmacem. 

This interesting genus of Palms consists of 
but few species, the minor ones being na- 
tives of South America. E. Gmneensia, the 
most important species, abounds on the west 
coast of Africa. It grows to the greatest 
perfection in shady places, where the trees 
attain a height of twenty fleet. The immense 
groves interspersed with the larger vegeta- 
tion of that country, gives the landscape an 
indescribable beauty. The fruits in this 
species are borne In immense dense heads, 
measuring from one to two feet long, and 
from two to three feet in circumference, the 
individual fruit, or nut, being about an inch 
and a half long by an inch in diameter. These 
fruits yield the Palm Oil of commerce, the 
collecting of which is the principal industry 
of ■ the negroes In many parts of Africa, but 
more particularly on the west coast. The 
oil is obtained by bruising the fruit, boiling 
in water, and' skimming it off as it rises to 
the surface. The Palm Oil of commerce is 
about the consistence of butter^ of a deep 
orange yellow, becoming lighter upon being 
exposed to the air, and when fresh it emits a 
sweet violet odor; In Africa this oil is used 
as butter under the name of ghea. A soup is 
also made of It, that forms an important 


article of food. The vast productiveness of 
the plant is evident from the fact, that the 
importations into Gi'eat Britain alone, in 1860, 
amounted to more than eight millions of dol- 
lars. The chief uses to which this oil is ap- 
plied is in the manufacture of candles. Palm 
Oil soap, and for lubricating oil for machin- 

Elaeooa'rpus. From Elaia, the olive, and fear- 
pus, fruit; resemblance of the fruits. Nat. 
Ord. TiliacecB. 

A genus of handsome trees belonging to the 
Linden family. They are natives of South 
America, Australia, and the East Indies. 
The flowers are white or green, quite showy. 
The rough bony fruit, or stone, has a sculp- 
tured appearance, and is used for necklaces 
and other articles of ornament. The fruit is 
surrounded by an edible pulp, and is pickled 
like olives. The bark of some of the species 
affords an excellent dye, varying from light 
brown to deep black ; it is highly valued for 
Its permanency. 

Elaeode'ndron. Olive Wood. From Elaia, an 
olive, and dendron, a tree ; alluding to the re- 
semblance. Nat. Ord. Celastracece. 

A genus of medium-sized evergreen trees, 
common in Africa, India, the south of Europe, 
and is also abundant in the Holy Land. The 
trees grow from thirty to forty feet high, 
much branched, with rough, scraggy trunks, 
jind furnish the Olive Wood, used so much 
In turning and various small works, such 
as boxes, charms, trinkets, and small cabi- 
net work. The fruit is much esteemed and 
yields an oil something like that of the true 
Olive, Olea Europcea, though of an inferior 

Elder. American. Sambueus Canadensis, and 
the genus Iva. 
British. Sambucua nigra. 
Marsh, or Water. Viburnum Opulus. 
Poison. Rhua venenatum. 
Wild, of North America. Aralia hiapida. 

Elecampane. See Inula Helenium. 

Elephant's Apple. Eeronia Elephantwm. 

Elephant's Ear. The genus Begonia, and CoU>- 
casia eaoidenta. 

Elephant's Foot. See Tesiudinaria Elephan- 

Elephant'a-trunk Plant. Martynia proboaddea, 
and Adenium namaquamum. 

Eletta'rla. A synonym of Amomum, which 

Eleusi'ne. Derived from Eleuais, where was a 
celebrated temple of Ceres. Nat. Ord. 

A family of curious grasses, mostly inhabi- 
tants of the East Indies. E. oligostachya, one 
of the most ornamental species, is a dwarf 
grass, well adapted for the flower border, or 
to be used as a " dried grass " for winter- 
bouquets; it is native of China, perfectly 
hardy, and of perennial duration. E. coracana. 
is grown in Japan as a grain crop for its large 
farinaceous seeds. 

Eliohry'snm. See Helichryaum. 

EUse'na. Named in honor of Princesa Eliae, 

sister of Napoleon. Nat. Ord. AmaryUidacecB. 

A small genus of strong-growing bulbs from 

Peru. The flowers are borne in a cluster on a 




scape nearly three feet high, pure white and 
fragrant, closely resembling Jamene. They 
require green house treatment. To bring 
them into flower, water should be withheld 
after their season's growth, until the flower 
spike appears, when they should have the 
warmest position in the green-house, with 
plenty of air and water. Propagated by ofC- 
sets. Introduced in 1837. 

Elk-Bark. Magnolia glauea. 

Elk's-horn Fern. Platyceriwm aldcome. 

Elloboca'rpus oleraceus. Pod Fern. A syn- 
onym of Ceratopteria thalictroidea, which see. 

Elm. American, or White. Ulmvs Americana. 
American Cork, or Rock. Ulnms racemoaa. 
Moose, Eed, or Slippery. Ulmua fulma,. 
Witch, or Wych. Ulmua Montana. 

Elo'dea. Water Thyme. Prom elodes, a marsh ; 
the habitation of the plants. Nat. Ord. 

A small genus of aquatic or marshy plants, 
natives of this country and western Asia. E. 
Virginica is rather a handsome plant, with 
flesh or pink-colored flowers, disposed in axil- 
lary or terminal clusters. 

Elongated. Lengthened or stretched out ; when 
any part of an organ is in any way remarkable 
for its length in comparison with its breadth. 

E'lymus. Lyme-Grass. Wild Eye. According 
to LinnsBus it is named from elyo, to cover. 
Nat. Ord. OraminoMce. 

A genus of strong-growing grasses, inhabi- 
tants of both the new and the old worlds. 
Some of the species are grown for economic 
purposes, others for their ornamental charac- 
ter. E. arenarius affords the nearest approach 
to a grain crop attainable by the Icelanders, 
and this only can be cultivated in very favor- 
able localities. They highly appreciate the 
seeds, call them Melur, and eat them raw or 
made into cakes. It is also useful for binding 
moveable sand hills, etc., by means of its long 
creeping rhizomes. E. hiatrix, is a native 
species, and is grown for ornamental pur- 
poses. It is popularly known as Bottle-brush 
Grass, and is referred by Gray to the genus 

Eiuarginate. Having a small notch in the end, 
as if a piece had been taken out. 

Embossed Cypress. See Glyptoairobua. 

Embryo. The rudiment of a plant contained In 
the seed. It makes its first appearance soon 
after the pollen has fertilized the ovule. 
Fixed embryo, a leaf bud. 

Empetra'ceae. A natural order of shrubs with 
heath-like, evergreen leaves, without stipules, 
and small axillary flowers, which are usually 
imperfect. They are natives chiefly of the 
northern parts of Europe and America. There 
are four known genera and five species. 
Empeirum, Ceratiola and Corema are examples 
of the order. 

Empe'trum. Crake-berry, or Crow-berry. Prom 
era, upon, and petros, a rock ; in allusion to the 
place of growth. Nat. Ord. Empetracew. 

E. nigrum, a native hardy species, is an 
ornamental evergreen, low-spreading, heath- 
like shrub, bearing edible brownish-black ber- 
ries ; well adapted for a damp situation on a 


Encephala'rtos. Prom en, within, kephale, the 
head, and artoa, bread ; the inner part of the 
top of the trunk being farinaceous. Nat. Ord. 

This is a small genus separated from Zamia. 
They are in all respects very similar plants, 
require the same treatment, and are natives 
principally of the Cape of Good Hope. 
Several of the species are valuable decorative 

Enchanter's Nightshade. See Circcea. 

Encholi'iioa. A genus of Bromeliacem, consist- 
ing of a few Brazilian herbaceous plants, 
usually referred to Vrieaia, which see. 

Endive. Cichorium Endivia. This hardy annual 
is a native of the East Indies, and is consid- 
ered a valuable salad at a time when few other 
vegetables are furnished for the table. Like 
the lettuce, its leaves are used before its flow- 
ering stem begins to appear. These leaves 
are very hard and bitter when exposed to the 
air ; they are therefore blanched, and if this 
be properly performed they become crisp and 
tender, and retain only an agreeable bitter- 
ness. Many varieties of the Endive are 
included in seedsmen's lists, all of which are 
the results of selection and cultivation. 

Endive. Wild. See Cichoriwn. 

Endocarp. The lining of a carpel; the inner 
surface or lining of a fruit, representing at 
that time the upper surface of a carpellary 
leaf. The stone of a Cherry is its endocarp. 

Endogens. A large class of plants to which the 
name of Monocotyledons is also given. "They 
have a cellular and vascular system, the latter 
exhibiting spiral vessels. Their stem is endo- 
genous, that is to say, increases in diameter 
by the addition of woody vessels towards its 
interior, the outer part being the oldest and 
densest, and hence the name Endogens, 
inward -growers ; bundles of woody, spiral, 
and pitted vessels are scattered throughout 
the cellular tissue; there is no pith, no separ- 
able bark, no woody rings or zones, and no 
true medullary rays. The age of woody Endo- 
gens cannot be determined by counting con- 
centric rings, as in Exogens. The leaves are 
usually continuous with the stem, and do not 
fall off by articulations ; and when at length 
they separate, their bases leave marks or- 
scars at definite intervals on the stem, as may 
be seen in Palras. The stems of Endogens 
are often subterranean, in the form of corms, 
rhizomes, or bulbs. The leaves have stom- 
ates, and their venation is usually parallel, 
though in a few cases it is slightly reticulated. 
The flowers have stamens and pistils, and 
three-membered symmetry. The ovules are 
contained in an ovary, and the embryo has 
one cotyledon, or seed lobe, whence they are 
called .mohocotyledonous. 

Endosmose. That force which causes a viscid 
fluid lying within a cavity to attract to itself 
a watery fluid through an organic membrane. 

Engelma'nnia. Named in honor of Oeorge Engd- 
mann, of St. Louis, a celebrated botanist. Nat. 
Ord. Oompoaitce. 

E. pinnatifida, the only species, is an erect, 
hardy perennial herb, with golden-yellow 
flowers one to two inches in diameter. It 
grows one to two feet in height, and thrives 
in ordinary garden soil. It was introduced to 
cultivation from the western prairies in 1881. 




English Mercury. Chenepodium Bonus Hen- 
ricus. • 

Enkia'nthus. From erikous, enlarged, and 
anthos, a flower ; the flowers are swollen in the 
middle. Nat. Ord. Ericacem. 

Highly beautiful objects, which, from their 
habit of blooming in the winter and early 
spring, are much esteemed for ornamenting 
the green-house and conservatory. They 
should have a shaded situation out of doors 
through the summer. Propagated by cut- 
tings, which require to be of firm, young 
wood. There are five species, natives princi- 
pally of Japan, China, and the East. First 
introduced from China in 1812. 

Ensiform. Quite straight, with the point acute, 
lilse the blade of a broadsword or the leaf of 
an Iris. 
Enta'da. The Malabar name. Nat. Ord. Legu- 

A genus of ornamental hot-house climbers, 
consisting of five species, with white or yel- 
low flowers, produced either in spikes at the 
bases of the leaves, or in bunches at the ends 
of the branches. The most remarkable feature 
of the genus is the extraordinary length of its 
pods; which are flat and woody, divided into 
numerous joints, each containing one large, 
flat, polished seed. In E. scamdms, a native of 
the tropics of both hemispheres, the pods 
often measure six or eight feet in length. The 
seeds are nearly two inches across by half an 
inch thick, and have a hard, woody, and 
beautifully-polished shell, of a dark-brown or 
purplish color. In the tropics the natives 
convert these seeds into snuff-boxes, scent- 
bottles, and various other trinkets. In this 
country they are much worn as charms on 
watch-guards, and are very common in their 
natural state on the side-walk stands in 
Broadway, New York. They are natives of 
the West and East Indies and the South Sea 
Islands. The seeds are often picked up on 
the coast of Florida, and even as far as the 
coast of Finland, having been conveyed there 
by the great oceanic currents. They are sold 
under the name of Sea Beans and Florida 
Eome'oon. A genus of Papaveracew, containing 
only one species, described as intermediate 
between Stylophomm and Sanguimaria, from 
both of which, however, it differs widely in its 
scapose habit and racemose flowers. Unlike 
the Poppies, also, the Eomecon holds its indi- 
vidual flowers for many days together, and 
produces them in such abundance from May 
to September as to merit a first place in all 
good collections. It is quite a novelty, and 
with its yellow-green cyclamen-like leaves 
and showy flowers forms quite a picturesque 
group in the herbaceous border. It was dis- 
covered at Kwangsi, China, in 1884, by Dr. 
Henry, and is readily increased by means of 
its numerous runners. 
Eope'pon. A genus of ornamental gourds, con- 
sisting of two species, formerly, and still, 
generally included in the genus Trichosanthes, 
' which see. 

Epacrida'ceae. A natural order of shrubby 
plants, with usually simple alternate leaves, 
and regulai and perfect flowers in spikes or 
racemes. Natives of the Indian Archipelago 
and Australia. There are thirty-two known 


genera and over 300 species. Epacris, 8ty- 
phelia, and Dracophylhim axe examples of the 

Epa'cris. From epi, upon, and akroa, the top ; 
The Epacris grows upon the tops of hills and 
on rising grounds. Nat. Ord; EpaeridMcecB. 

An extensive genus of ornamental shrubs 
from Australia, the species of which are highly 
valued, both for their graceful beauty and the 
early period at which they produce their 
abundant flowers. For a proper method of 
treatment, we quote from the Florist's Jour- 
nal : " The method we are about to recom- 
mend for the management of these lovely 
plants will be found to differ considerably 
from the ordinary course of treatment, but as 
we have found it sodeoidedly preferable, there 
can be no hesitation in advising its adoption. 
To begin, we select young, healthy plants, and 
in February remove them from the small pots 
in which they have been grown Into others 
three or four sizes larger, according to the 
apparent strength of the individual, using a 
very sandy soil ; the rougher and more turfy 
the soil is the better the plants will thrive. 
Particular attention should be paid to drain- 
age. Tiie plants are then cut back to within 
four or five joints of their last growth and are 
placed in a gentle heat, where they soon 
' break ' vigorously. These new growths are 
stopped by pinching off their tops two or three 
times in the course of the summer, taking 
care, however, to discontinue it after July, so 
that the last shoots may have time to ripen 
before the winter, and, by giving proper atten- 
tion to watering, they will attain a length of a 
foot or more, and make nice little specimens 
to bloom in the following spring. After they 
have then done flowering, they are again 
repotted, and, instead of being stopped in 
their after-growth, are at once cut back to 
very near the base of the preceding year's 
shoots, and are then allowed to grow as far 
as they please, training them into any desir- 
able form. Thus, instead of a few flowers on 
several small stems, we have long spikes full 
of flowers, increasing the general beauty of 
the plants to an amazing extent. Every year 
they are cut down in the same manner, and 
each season more numerous spikes are pro- 
duced. We must observe, however, that after 
the first season the plants are not subjected to 
a high temperature, choosing in preference a 
shaded, airy place for them to make their new 
wood through the summer, removing them 
about August to a sunny position, in order to 
ripen the recent shoots; in other respects 
ordinary attention is all that is required." 
Hardly as good results can be obtained in this 
counti-y, as they suffer, like the Heath, from our 
long, dry, hot summers. Propagated by cut- 
tings of the tips of the shoots when from one 
to two inches in length, in spring or early 
summer. E. grandiflora, one of the finest 
species, was introduced in 1803. 
Ephe'dra. The Greek for the Hippuris, or 
Horse-tail, which it resembles. Nat. Ord. 

This genus consists of evergreen trailmg 
shrubs with numerous slender-jointed, green 
branches, and small, scale-like leaves. These 
shrubs inhabit the rocky shores of the Medi- 
terranean and salt plains of Asia. Some of the 
species are very ornamental, but are not suf- 










fioiently hardy to stand the winters, unpro- 
tected, north of the Carolinas. One of the 
species, E. aJntisyphilitica, is said to contain 
large quantities of tannin. 

Ephemeral. Existing for, or less than, one 
day; as where a corolla expands for a few 
hours at most, and then fades. " 

Epide'ndrum. Prom epi, upon, and dendron, a 
tree ; the plants are usually found growing on 
the branches of trees. Nat. Ord. OrchidacecB. 
This is an extensive and, for the most part, 
beautiful genus of epiphytal Orchids. AH of 
them may be grown on billets of wood or on 
cork, or, where it is preferred, for the stronger 
growing species, pots may be used, and in 
the latter case it is indispensable that the 
soil be porous and well drained. It should 
consist of equal parts of sphagnum moss 
and fibrous peat, filling the pots for two- 
thirds their depths with broken potsherds, 
and when the plants are placed in them, the 
base of their pseudo-bulbs must be kept con- 
siderably above the rim, so that water 
may not lodge between them. The same rela- 
tive variations of temperature should be 
observed for these as mentioned for Dendro- 
bium, keeping it at an average of ten degrees 
lower than recommended for that genus ; and 
as the same principles govern the growth of 
each, the like changes of atmospheric influence 
are necessary in either case. The genus con- 
sists of over 300 species, distributed through- 
out the West Indies, Mexico, and South 
America. Propagated by division. The first 
species was introduced in 1738. 

Epidermis. The true skin of a plant, immediate- 
ly underlying the cuticle. 

Epigse'a. Trailing Arbutus. From epi, upon, 
and gaia, the earth; referring to its trailing 
habit. Nat. Ord. Ericacem. 

E. repena, the only species, is one of our 
most beautiful native early spring-flowering 
plants. It is a low-growing, evergreen shrub, 
producing axillary clusters of small rose- 
colored flowers, remarkable for their rich, 
spicy fragrance. They are usually found in 
the shade of Pines or Scrub Oaks. In warm, 
sheltered situations they show their flowers 
early in April. It is commonly known on 
Long Island, where it grows in great abun- 
ance, as Trailing Arbutus, in New England as 
May Flower, and in many localities as Ground 
Laurel. It can be easily grown in the shaded 
border by removing the plant from the woods 
in autumn, being careful not to disturb the 
roots. After planting in a sandy soil, protect 
from sun and winds by a slight covering of 
dry leaves. Clumps carefully taken up in 
autumn, and put in a cool green-house in 
February, will come into flower in March. 

Epigae'us. Growing on land, in contradistinc- 
tion to growing in the water. Also when any 
part of a terrestrial plant grows close to the 

Bpigynous. Upon the ovary; a term applied 
when the outer whorls of the flower adhere to 
the ovary, so that their upper portions alone 
are free, and appear to be seated on it, as in 
UmbelUfercB, etc. 

Epilo'bium. Willow Herb. From epi, upon,, 
and loboa, a pod ; flowers superior or seated 
on a seed-pod. Nat. Ord. Onagracem. 


A genus of tall-growing, hardy herbaceous 
plants, chiefly natives of Europe, some of 
which have become naturalized in this coun- 
try. Several of our native species are showy- 
plants, with large spikes of pink flowers, that 
make them conspicuous border plants. They 
are all of easy culture, taking care of them- 
selves when once planted, and are increased 
by division in spring, or from seeds. 
Epime'dium. Barrenwort. From epi, upon, 
akin to, and Median, a plant, said to be grown 
in Media; a name from Dioscorides. Nat. Ord. 

Ornamental hardy herbaceous perennials, 
with stalked compound leaves, and flowers of 
various colors. They form admirable, plants 
for rockwork and grow best in a compost of 
loam, and leaf mould. Propagated by division. 
Natives of Japan, Persia, Algeria, etc. 

Epipa'ctis. Very pretty hardy orchids, natives 
of Europe, and Eussian Asia. Stem one to 
two feet high, leafy, bearing a loose raceme 
of purple, brown, or white flowers. They are 
of easy culture in shady borders, and form 
excellent subjects for naturalizing in artificial 
bogs, or in moist, peaty spots. 

Epi'phora. A pretty little terrestrial Orchid, 
from South Africa, with yellow flowers streak- 
ed with red. E. pubeacens, the only species, 
was taken from Polystachya. 

Epiphyllous. Either growing upon or inserted 
on a leaf. 

Epiphy'Uum. Crab's Claw Cactus, Lobster- 
leaved Cactus. From epi, upon, and phyllon, 
a leaf ; flowers borne on the ends of t.he leaf- 
like branches. Nat. Ord. CactaceoB. 

A genus of very beautiful Cactaceous plants, 
natives of Brazil, where they are generally 
found upon the trunks of trees. The varieties 
are numerous and are largely cultivated for 
their showy flowers. E. truncatum and its var- 
ieties are the kinds usually cultivated in 
our green-houses, and are among the most 
highly colored and beautiful of our winter- 
flowering plants. They are often grafted on 
Cerevs triangularis, C. gramdiflorus. C. serpenti- 
nu8, and others, but do best, perhaps, on the 
Pereskia. A large symmetrical nead is easily 
formed, and with proper attention will make 
a plant worthy of a situation In any green- 
house. Their culture is of the easiest descrip- 
tion; delighting in a rich, well-drained, sandy 
soil, they should have plenty of air, water and 
sunlight while they are growing and watered 
sparingly during the winter months until re- 
quired to be brought into bloom. The Epiphyl- 
lumis one of the best of sitting-room plants, 
and may be had in bloom from November to 
March with good management. There were 
formerly many species included in this genus, 
most of which are now found in Cactvs, Cereua, 
and Phyllocactua. 

Epiphytes. Plants which grow upon the 
surface of others, without deriving any nutri- 
ment from them, as many Mosses and Orchids. 

Bpigy'nium leucobotrys. A synonym of Vao- 
cinium leucobotrys. 

Epipre'mnum. From epi, upon, and premnon, 
a trunk; in allusion to the species rooting 
upon the trunks of trees. Nat. Ord. Aroidetz. 
A genus of about eight species of climb- 
ing evergreen plants from the Malayan 




Archipelago and the islands of the Pacific. E. 
Mirabile, the Tonga Plant, a native of Fiji, is 
thus described by N. E. Brown : " This is an 
ornamental climber, of rapid growth, with 
bold, dark green, pinnatisect leaves in the 
adult stage, and large inflorescences, resem- 
bling those of a Monstera. It is a very suitable 
plant for training up piUars, trunks of palms, 
tree ferns, ete., or the back wall of a stove ; 
and besides its ornamental character, it is 
specially interesting for the manner in which 
the plant changes its appearance as it develops 
from its juvenile stage with small entire 
leaves, to its adult flowering stage with large 
pinnatisect leaves; as well as for its medi- 
cinal qualities, which appear to have been long 
known to the natives of the countries the 
plant inhabits." 

Epi'scia. From episd/os, shaded ; occurring in 
their native habitats in shady places. Nat. 
Ord. GesneracecE. 

Green-house herbaceous perennials, with 
beautifully colored foliage, and solitary 
flowers on short axillary stems. They make 
very pretty basket plants for the hot-house, 
the only place in which they thrive well. 
They grow best in sandy loam, and leaf 
mould, and are readily increased by cuttings 
About thirty species have been described, all 
natives of Nicaragua, New Grenada, and the 
"West Indies. Alsobia, Centroselenia, Cyrto- 
drira, Physodiera and Skiophila are now all 
referred to this genus. 

Equal. Where one part is of the same general 
form, disposition and size, as some other 
part with which it is compared; applied to 
petals and sepals when they are equal in size 
and shape with each other. 

Equestrian Star. One of the popular names of 

Equinoctial. Plants whose flowers expand 
and close at particular hours of the day. 

Equiseta'ceee. A. natural order of the higher 
Cryptogams which takes its name from the 
genus Equisetum, the only one the order con- 
tains. They are remarkable for the external 
resemblance which they bear in habit to 
Casuarina or Ephedra, and as regards the 
heads of fructification to Zamia. All re- 
semblance, however, ceases there, and the nat- 
ural afSnities of the plants are with Ferns. 
There are about twenty-five species chiefly 
found in temperate northern regions ; a few 
are sub-tropical. One of the latter group, E. 
Martii, attains in its native habitat (Brazil) 
the enormous height of thirty feet. " Dutch 
Rushes," used for scouring and polishing, are 
the stems of JS. hyemale. 

Equitant. A mode of vernation, or of arrange- 
ment of leaves with respect to each other, in 
which the sides or edges alternately overlap 
each other, as in Morma iridioides. 

Eragro'stls. Love-Grass. From eroa, love, and 
agrostis, grass ; in allusion to the beautiful 
dancing spikelets, whence the popular name. 
Nat Ord. Qramiinacem. 

A very extensive genus of grasses, found in 
nearly every part of the habitable globe. Most 
of the species are very handsome ; but none 
of them are of any value for agricultural pur- 
poses. E. elegana is a very ornamental spe- 
cies, somewhat resembling the Brizas in 
habitand gracefulness. Itis especially adapted 


for border culture, and is one of the most 
beautiful for winter or dried bouquets. 
Era'nthemum. From eran, to love, and cmthe- 
mon, a flower ; referring to the beauty of the 
flowers. Nat. Ord. Acanthacem. 

A somewhat extensive genus of winter- 
flowering green-house plants, found pretty 
generally distributed throughout tropical and 
sub-tropical countries. The flowers are small, 
purple, white, blue, or rose-colored. They 
require the treatment of soft-wooded plants 
of the same class. The two species E. tricolor 
and E. atropv/rpurea, are equal to DracBBnas 
in their beautiful crimson and carmine- 
colored foliage, which fits them either for 
massing outside or as specimens in the green- 
house. They are propagated by cuttings, 
and were first introduced in 1796. 
Era'nthis. Winter Aconite. From er, spring, 
and anthos, a flower; referring to its early 
flowering. Nat. Ord. Rammculacem. 

A small genus of hardy tubeious-rooted 
plants, natives of Italy and Siberia. E. hye- 
malia is the well-known Winter Aconite. It is 
one of the earliest and most hardy of spring 
flowers, throwing up its pretty yellow blos- 
soms long before the snow disappears, and 
continuing in flower for several weeks. This 
is the only species under cultivation, and is 
freely propagated by division of the tubers. 
It has been under cultivation since 1596. 
Eremostachys. From erymos, deserted, and 
stachys, a spike ; alluding to the flowers grow- 
ing in sparse verticillate spikes. Nat. Ord. 

Very pretty hardy perennials, natives of 
western and central Asia. E. laciniata, the 
only species in cultivation, bears yellow flow- 
ers in ten to twenty-fiowered whorls, the 
upper ones approximate. Increased by divi- 
sion or seeds. 
Eremu'rus. From eremos, solitary, and aura, a 
tail ; referring to the flower spike. Nat. Ord. 

A genus of very pretty, hardy, herbaceous, 
large. Hyacinth-like plants, consisting of 
about eighteen species, natives principally of 
Asiatic Russia. The yellow, white, or rose- 
colored flowers are borne on elongated ra- 
cemes; the leaves are radical and linear. 
They are of easy culture, and are increased by 
Ergot. A disease of Corn, Eye, etc., produced 

by Fungi. 
E'ria. From erion, wool ; referring to the down 
on the leaves of some of the species. Nat. 
Ord. Orchidacece. 

A small genus of pretty flowering hot-house 
Orchids, allied to Dendrobium, mostly from 
the East Indies. They require the same treat- 
ment as Stanhopea, and aie propagated by 
division; introduced in 1837. 
Eria'nthus. Woolly Beard-Grass. From erion, 
wool, and anthos, a flower. Nat. Ord. Grami- 

A small genus of tall-growing, reod-like 
grasses. E. Ravennm, a rival to the Pampas 
Grass, though not so beautiful, is more valua- 
ble in this latitude, being perfectly hardy, and 
producing its graceful plumes in autumn in 
, great abundance. It makes a magnificent 
lawn plant, and is propagated by root division 
and from seed. Introduced in 1824. 




Eii'ca. Heath. Prom erico, to break; referring 
to the brittle nature of the wood. Nat. Ord. 

This genus comprehends a great number of 
species, the most of which are very beautiful 
and interesting plants. Several hundred of 
the species, including all that are desirable 
for indoor culture, are natives of Table 
Mountain at the Cape of Good Hope. They 
all occupy elevated ranges, enjoying a pure 
air, refreshed by copious dews, ^.nd exposed 
for a long period to a dry, arid atmosphere. 
The Heath, however, can never be cultivated 
so successfully here as in England, as our cli- 
mate is too dry and hot in summer. What is 
called the soft- wooded section, such as E. per- 
aoluta and its white variety, E. hyemalis, E. 
Wihnorecma, etc., can be grown here with 

-V, success, and are exceedingly valuable, not 
only for winter green-house decoration, but 
for cut flowers. They are readily propagated 
by cuttings of half-ripened wood, which is in 
proper condition when it begins to turn brown. 
They are easily grown from seed, an interest- 
ing way, on account of the varieties produced 
when a little care has been given in cross-fer- 
tilization. The seeds should be sown in pots 
of finely-sifted peat and sand pressed tightly 
into the pot, well watered before sowing, and 
afterward covered with a bell glass. They 
should then be kept in a cool house or pit, 
where they can have an even temperature and 
moisture. The Cape species were first intro- 
duced into England in 1774. 

Brica'cese. A natural order of shrubs or under- 
shiubs, with evergreen, rigid, entire, whorled 
or opposite leaves without stipules. Arbutus 
Unedo is the Strawberry Tree. Rhododendron 
arboreum sometimes reaches in India a height 
of forty feet, and some species grow at an 
elevation of 16,000 to 18,000 feet in the Hima- 
layas. Several species of Asalea, Rhododen- 
dron and Kalmia are natives of the United 
States. The plants of this order are highly 
prized for the beauty of their flowers. There 
are about fifty known genera and 900 species. 
Erica, Rhododendron, Kalmia, Clethra,Arbutu8, 
and Ledwm are examples of this order. 

Eii'geron. From er, the spring, and geron, an 
old man; some being hoary with a downy 
covering early in the season. Nat. Ord. Com- 
poaitcB. I 

A genus of coarse-growing, unpretending, 
herbaceous plants, found common in waste 
places throughout the TTnited States ; in some 
localities known as Fleabane. The plants are 
of no economic value. 

Zirino'sma. A synonym of Leucojv/m, which see. 

Eri'nus. Meaning unknown. (The wild Fig- 
tree is the Erinoa described by Dioscorides. 
It has, however, no resemblance to the Erinoa 
of the moderns.) Nat. Ord. ScrophidariacecB. 
This is a small genus of hardy herbaceous 
Alpine plants, suitable for rock-work or other 
rough, uneven situations. They are low- 
growing plants, generally forming close tufts, 
producing lively purple and white flowers in 
early spring. Though perfectly hardy, they 
are impatient of water, and, consequently, 
should have the protection of a frame in win- 
ter, unless planted in a very dry situation. 
There are one or two evergreen species from 
the Cape of Good Hope, but they are little 


known. The hardy species are propagated by 
root division or from seed. First introduced 
into the garden in 1739. 

Iiilnus. Prickly, rough. 

Eriobo'trya. The Loquat, or Japanese Medlar, 
E. (Mespilua) Japonica, one of the Pomacem, 
is a native of Japan and the southern part of 
China, and is cultivated as an edible fruit in 
many parts of India. It is now placed under 
the genus Photinia, which see. 

Eriocaula'ceae. A natural order of marsh 
plants with narrow, spongy leaves. There 
are ten known genera and 220 species. None 
are cultivated except in botanic gardens. 
Erioccmlon is the typical example of the order. 

Eriocne'ma. From erion, wool, and kneme, a 
knee; the joints are woolly. Nat. Ord. Melas- 

A small genus of green-house ■ herbaceous 
plants, allied to the Sonerila, and natives of 
Brazil. The flowers are white, produced spar- 
ingly in little umbels on the end of a naked 
stalk. E. marmoratwm has beautifully varie- 
gated leaves, green striped with broad bands 
of white. Its habit is not unlike some of the 
Begonias. Propagated by cuttings. Intro- 
duced in 1850. 

Eriogo'num. From erion, wool, and gen/u, a 
joint ; joints of the stems downy. Nat. Ord. 

A genus of pretty, summer-flowering hardy 
annuals and herbaceous or somewhat woody 
perennials. They are easily cultivated, and 
young plants may be obtained by division or 
from seed. The genus contains about one hun- 
dred species, natives of north-west America. 

Erio'phonim. Cotton Grass. From erion, wool, 
and phoreo, to bear ; in reference to the silky 
tails or coverings of the seeds. Nat. Ord. 

A very interesting genus of marsh or bog 
plants, commonly, but incorrectly, termed 
grasses. They are hardy herbaceous plants, 
growing in dense clumps or masses, very con- 
spicuous and interesting, on account of the 
flowers of some of the species, the heads of 
which appear like tufts of cotton. One of the 
species is indigenous in this country, and 
several of them have been natuaalized from 

Erio'psis. From eiria, a well-known genus of 
Orchids, and opaia, resemblance; wooUiness 
of flowers. Nat. Ord. Orchidacem. 

A small genus of Orchids, having the gen- 
eral appearance, while growing, of the genus 
Eria, but with gay, orange-colored flowers, 
resembling the Vamdaa. They are natives of 
Mexico and New Grenada, and are but lit- 
tle cultivated. 

Eriospe'rmum. From erion, wool, and apermoa, 
a seed ; woolly-seeded. Nat. Ord. iiZiocMB. 

A considerable genus of bulbs from the 
Cape of Good Hope, the flowers of which pre- 
cede the leaves. The flowers have no special 
beauty, and the leaves always have a deformed 

Erioste'mon. From erion, wool, and atemon, a 
stamen; referring to the woolly stamens. 
Nat. Ord. Rutacem. 

A genus of handsome green-house plants 
from New Holland, of neat, compact habit 
of growth, and free-flowering. The flowers are 




white or pinkish, produced singly at the axils 
of the leaves. They require plenty of air and 
light, and are propagated by cuttings of the 
young shoots in April. Introduced in 1824. 

Eritri'chium. From erion, wool, and thrix, 
trichos, hair ; plants woolly. Nat. Ord. Bora,- 

A genus of handsome dwarf annual or per- 
ennial herbaceous plants, found throughout 
the temperatft regions of the northern hem- 
isphere, South Africa and Australia. E. nanum, 
the one most generally cultivated, has flowers 
of a brilliant sky-blue color, with a yellowish 
eye, not unlike those of Myosotis alpestris, 
but larger. It has been enthusiastically 

• termed "The Glory of the Alpine Flora." 
E. barbigerum, introduced to cultivation from 
California in 1886, is a very pretty white-flow- 
ered annual species, the whole plant covered 
with long; spreading hairs. Increased by 
seeds or division. 

Ero'dium. Heron's-bill. From erodioB, a heron ; 
referring to the resemblance of the style and 
ovaries to the beak and head of the heron. 
Nat. Ord, Geramiacew. 

The genus Erodium differs from the Gerani- 
um and Pelargonium in the shape of its seed 
vessel. In all the three the seed-pod resem- 
bles the head and beak of a bird ; in Geranium 
it resembles a crane's bill, in Pelargonium it 
is a stork's bill, and in Erodium a heron's bill. 
The species are dwarf annuals and perennials 
producing mostly lilac and purple flowers. 
Every part of the plant, when bruised, emits 
a strong peculiar odor. They form admirable 
plants for the rock-garden, particularly in dry, 
surmy situations and in sandy soil. Increased 
by division, or by seeds. 

lirose, Eroded. Having the margin irregularly 
toothed, as if bitten by an animal; a term 
used to express a particular kind of denticu- 
lation, as in Salvia pinnata. 

Erubescent. Beddish, blush-colored. 

E'rvum. Lentil. From erw, tilled land, in 
Celtic ; some of the species are pests in culti- 
vated ground. Nat. Ord. LeguminoacE. 

A genus justly classed as weeds, the only 
species of interest being E. Lena, the common 
Lentil, a plant of the greatest antiquity. It 
was from the seed of this that the pottage 
is supposed to have been made, for which 
Esau sold his birthright. It is held in high 
esteem in Egypt and Syria, and is considered 
an indispensable diet by the natives, who 
undertake long journeys. It is largely sold 
by druggists under the name of Ervalenta. 
This genus is now merged by " Hooker and 
Bentham " into Vicia. 

Ery'ngium. Eryngo. From Eryngion, a name 
adopted by Pliny from Dioscorides. Nat. 
Ord. UmbelUfercs. 

A very extensive genus of hardy annuals 
and herbaceous perennials, the latter being 
common throughout Europe. E. marUimum, 
Sea Eryngo, or Sea Holly, is a conspicuous 
plant along the English coast ; the flowers are 
thistle-like, of a bright blue color. E. ame- 
thyalmwrn, a native of Dalmatia, Is one of the 
best of the perennial species ; the flowers, as 
well as the bracts and upper part of the stems, 
have a beautiful blue tint. Some of the an- 
nual species are very beautiful border plants, 


and if cut early, are useful as dried flowers in 
winter bouquets. 
Eryobo'trya. Japan Evergreen Plum. From 
erion, wool, and botrys, a bunch of grapes ; 
referring to the downy flower-racemes. Nat. 
Ord. PomacecB. 

E. JapOniea, the only species, is a half-hardy 
evergreen shrub closely allied to PhoHnia, 
having large wrinkled leaves, downy beneath. 
The whitish flowers are borne in October and 
November, consequently it will not ripen its 
excellent, pale orange-red fruit in our north- 
ern States, neither will it endure the rigors of 
our northern winters. There is a variegated 
leaved variety, which is exceedingly orna- 

Ery'simum. Hedge Mustard. Prom eryo, to 
draw; it is considered a powerful cure for 
sore throat ; it is also said to draw and pro- 
duce blisters. Nat. Ord. CrudfercB. 

An extensive genus, mostly biennials. All 
of but little merit. One or two cultivated 
species of hardy annuals make rather effective 
clumps in the border. E. Arkanscmum, the 
western Wall-flower, grows about two feet 
high, the stem being crowded with bright 
orange yellow flowers as large as those of the 
Wall-flower. Propagated by seed. 

Brythe'a. A small genus of green-house palms 
from southern CalLfomia, with fan-shaped, 
plicate, filiferous leaves much resembling 
the LcUania; excellent for lawn decoration 
or for cool-house culture. E. edulia, forms a 
handsome tree with a slender trunk thirty or 
more feet high. Each tree bears one to four 
panicles, blossoming late in March ; the fruit 
clusters are said to weigh forty to fifty 
pounds. Syn. Brahea edulia. 

Erythrae'a. Centaury. From erythros, red ; the 
color of the flowers ot some of the species. 
Nat. Ord. Oenticmacea. 

A somewhat extensive genus of biennials 
and annuals. The latter are of easy culture, 
and produce freely small pink flowers. Seed 
shovdd be sown in autumn in the open border. 
The biennials require the protection of the 
frame, which their merits do not deserve. 
The annuals are natives of Europe, and have 
been long known in the garden. 

Erythri'na. Coral-tree. From erythroa, red; 
the color of the flowers. Nat. Ord. Legwmir 

A genus of ornamental flowering green- 
house shrubs, commonly known as Coral- 
trees, found pretty generally distributed 
throughout the tropics of both hemispheres. 
They all produce scarlet or crimson pea- 
shaped flowers in pairs at the axils of the 
leaves. E. Criata-galU and lawnfolia, natives of 
Brazil, succeed well planted out in a warm sit- 
uation in the open border, producing flowers 
in the greatest abundance ; being rank grow- 
ers, they require considerable room. As a 
shrub for the lawn they have few, if any, 
superiors, their showy flowers contrasting 
finely with their bright glossy foliage. E. 
Henderaonii, a variety of recent introduction, 
is one of the very finest flowers, a bright 
scarlet, smaller than the other species, but 
produced in greater abundance. As it flowers 
earlier it seeds freely, so that it can be grown 
as an annual plant. The only care required 
is to take the plants up, after the tops are 




killed by frost, and keep them through the 
winter in a warm dry room, or in the eeliar, 
covering the roots well with dry sand. In 
spring cut well back before planting out. They 
are readily propagated by cuttings of the 
young shoots, or from seed which, sown in 
boxes about the first of January, will make 
flowering plants the coming summer. 

Erythrolee'na. Mexican Thistle. From ery- 
thros, red, and Icma, a cloak; referring to the 
scarlet flowers. Nat. Ord. Compoaitm. 

E. conspicua, the only species, is the pretti- 
est of all the Thistles. It is a tall plant, 
growing from eight to ten feet high; the 
leaves, riot unlike the common Thistle, are at 
the base of the plant, two feet long. The 
flower-heads, clustered at the ends of the 
branches, are about three inches long, and 
very handsome, scarlet and orange. Young 
plants are readily obtained from seed. Intro- 
duced in 1825. 

Erythro'nium. Dog's-Tooth Violet. From 
erythros, red ; referring to the color of the 
leaves and flowers of the species first dis- 
covered. Nat. Ord. Liliacece. 

A genus of small growing bulbous-rooted 
plants. Most of the species are American, 
and are common in moist woods in most of 
tlie States. With but one exception the na- 
tive varieties have large yellow flowers, borne 
singly on a slender scape six to nine inches 
high. E. albidum, a rare species found in 
Iowa and southward, has nearly white flow- 
ers, without the spots on the leaves common 
to the species. E. dens-canis, common in 
Europe, has purplish rose-colored flowers, 
with light rose-color within. Propagated by 

Erythro'xylon. From erylhros, red, and xylon, 
wood; the wood of the trees is red. Nat. 
Ord. Erythroxylacece. 

Bushy shrubs, or low-growing trees, chiefly 
natives of "tropical South America, and the 
West Indies. One of the species has a world- 
wide reputation. For the following account 
and description of it we are indebted to The 
Treasury of Bota,ny: " E. Coca is the most 
interesting of the species, on account of its 
being extensively cultivated, and its leaves 
largely employed as a masticatory, under the 
name of Coca, by the inhabitants of countries 
on the Pacific side of Soiith America. It is a 
shrub of six or eight feet high, somewhat re- 
sembling a Blackthorn bush. The Coca leaves 
are of a thin texture, but opaque, oval, taper- 
ing toward both extremities, their upper sur- 
face dark green, the lower paler and strongly 
marked with veins, of which two, in addition 
to the midrib, run parallel with the margin. 
Small white flowers are produced in little 
clusters upon the branches, in places where 
the leaves have fallen away, and stand upon 
little stalks about as long as themselves. 
The use of Coca in Peru is a custom of very 
great antiquity, and is said to have originated 
with the Incas. At the present day it is 
common throughout the greater part of Peru, 
Quito and New Grenada; and also on the 
banks of the Rio Negro, where it is known as 
Spadic. Coca forms an article of commerce 
among the Indians, and wherever they go they 
carry with them a bag of the carefully dried 
leaves, and also a little bottle-gourd fllled 
with finely powdered lime, and ■ having a 


. wooden or metal needle attached to its stop- 
per. Four times a day, whatever the nature 
of his occupation, whether employed in the 
mines, the fields, as a muleteer or domestic 
servant, the Indian resigns himself to the 
pleasures of Coca chewing, mixing the leaves 
with lime, or the ashes of Gecropia. When 
used in moderation Coca exerts a pleasurable 
influence upon the imagination, and induces 
a forgetfulness of all care. It is also a pow- 
erful stimulant of the nervous system, and, 
when under its influence, Indians are able to 
perform long and rapid journeys, and oaiTy 
heavy loads, without requiring any other sus- 
tenance. But when taken in excess it pro- 
duces intoxication, of a character resembling 
that of opium rather than alcohol, but not so 
violent, altiiough the consequence of its pro- 
longed use are quite as injurious, and very 
few of those who become slaves to the habit 
attain an old age. Spruce says that an In- 
dian with a. chew of Spadic in his cheek will 
go two or three days without food, and with- 
out feeling any desire to sleep." A prepara- 
tion of Coca, under the name of " Coca Beet 
Tonic," is now being sold ; but those who use 
it will do well to remember that it does not 
" make old bones." 

Escallo'nia. Named after Eacallon, a Spanish 
traveler. Nat. Ord. SaxifragacecB. 

Ornamental summer flowering shrubs from 
South America, suitable for shrubbery borders 

. in our Southern States. They flourish vigor- 
ously near the sea, and can be used as hedge 
or shelter plants. ' The flowers vary from 
white to pink and deep red, and the undivided, 
usually serrated leaves are often glandular. 

Escallonia'cese. This natural order is now 
placed by Bentham and Hooker, as a tribe of 

Eschalot. See Shallot. 

Eschscho'ltzia. Named after Dr. Eschscholts, a 
botanist. Nat. Ord. PapaveracecB. 

Annual plants, with showy flowers', natives 
of California, on which account the first 
species introduced was called the California 
Poppy. The seeds should be sown in the 
open border as soon as they are ripe, as, if 
tlie sowing be delayed till spring, the plants 
frequently do not flower till the second year. 
M£!,ny showy garden varieties are now in cul- 
tivation, including double white, double yel- 
low, and several others. 

Espa'rto. The Spanish name of Macrochloa 
tenaeissima, used for paper making, cordage, 

E'stragon. Tarragon. See Artemisia Dracun- 

Etiolated. Deprived of color by being kept in 
the dark ; blanched. 

Euade'nia. Fromew, well, and aden, a gland; in 
allusion to the appendix at the base of the 
stamens. Nat. Ord: CajiparidacecB. 

E. eminena, the only species yet in cultiva- 
tion, is a striking plant with " singularly 
handsome inflorescence, which resembles a 
candelabrum in its ramification, the yellow 
petals looking like pairs of gas jets on each 
branch.". Introduced from west tropical 
Afripa in 1880. 

Eubaly'ptus. Gum Tree. From eu, well, and fco- 
lypto, to cover ; the limb of the calyx coveijs the 




flower before expansion, and afterward falls 
off in the shape of a lid or cover. Nat. Ord. 

An extensive genus of immense evergreen 
trees, of the Australian and Tasmanian for- 
ests. E. globulus, the Blue Gum Tree, has 
been extensively planted within the past few 
years in the Southern States and Oalifornia, 
for the reputation it has of absorbing malaria. 
The tree is very ornamental, and furnishes 
timber of a superior quality. Its rapid growth 
excites the wonder and admiration of those 
already accustomed to the extraordinary de- 
velopment of the vegetable kingdom on the 
Pacific coast. It will be remembered that 
Australia sent to the World's Fair at London, 
in 1863, a plank from this tree 250 feet long. 
Young plants are readily obtained from seed 
or from cuttings. The species are not hardy 
in the United States north of the Carolinas. 
Euchari'dium. From extcharia, agreeable; in 
allusion to the appearance of the plant. Nat. 
Ord. OnagracecB. 

A genus of pretty little annuals from Cali- 
fornia, allied to the Clarkias. They come into 
flower in six weeks after germination; are 
perfectly hardy, and are extremely showy 
when grown in masses. They succeed best in 
a rich, loamy soil ; introduced in 1836. 

Xju'charis. Lily of the Amazon. From eucharia, 
agreeable ; alluding to the fragrant flowers. 
Nat. Ord. Amaryllidacew. 

Of this genus there are five species in culti- 
vation, all free-growing bulbous plants of rare 
beauty and delicious fragrance. They should 
be grown in the hot-house or a warm green- 
house. The flowers are produced in a truss 
of from four to eight, according to the 
strength of the bulb and manner of treatment, 
and are borne on a stem that lifts them well 
above the leaves. They are pure waxy white 
and of great substance. If asked for the plant 
producing the best white flowers for the hot- 
house, for the decoration of vases, or for any 
other purpose where white flowers are wanted, 
we should unhesitatingly recommend the Eu- 
charis, as combining all the essentials of tlie 
perfect flower. From a general impression 
that they are difficult to manage, they are 
but little grown. As the plants are found 
growing by the sides of rivers, moisture 
and heat are of course essential to the 
development of their flowers. The ease 
with which they are now cultivated and 
the fact that a dozen or more large pots of it 
will furnish flowers nearly the whole year, 
make it invaluable in all collections of clioice 
plants. The plants may be repotted at any 
time of the year, taking care not to damage 
the bulbs or roots, and removing as much of 
the old soil as possible. The soil should be 
composed of loam, leaf mould, sand, and well- 
rotted manure in equal proportions ; and the 
pots liberally drained. While they are grow- 
ing freely they sliould have plenty of water, 
and liquid manure twice a week. They 
should be syringed twice a day. The tem- 
perature of the house during winter should 
not fall below 70°, and they should have a 
good share of sunshine. If wanted to flower 
during the winter months, water should be 
used sparingly from August to October. The 
bulbs should be disturbed as little as possible, 
repotting when necessary, without division. 


Side shoots may be taken off at any time and 
potted in small pots, and, if well managed, 
they will flower in a year. Green fly and 
thrips which are apt to trouble them, should 
then be sponged off or got rid of by smoking 
every alternate day for a week. The three 
species E. grandijlora, the largest and best, 
E. Amazonica, and E. Candida, a small flower- 
ing species, are very beautiful, and all 
require the same general treatment. This 
plant was flrst introduced in 1864. 

Eucbla'ena Luxurians. (Sjoi. Reeama.) See 

Eucni'de. Derivation of name not given. 
Nat. Ord. Loaaacem. 

E. bartonioides, the only species, is a native 
of Mexico, a tender annual, growing about 
one foot high, with bristly stems, and lobes, 
and denticulated leaves, and axillary, very 
large yellow flowers. It will thrive under the 
same treatment given tender annuals. Intro- 
duced 1849. Syn. MeiUzelia. 

Eucodo'nia. A genus of Mexican plants, now 
included under Achimenes. E. grandijlora, the 
species grown for its flowers, was also called 
Mandirola lanata, 

Eu'comis. From eukomes, beautiful-haired ; re- 
ferring to the tufted crown of the flower-spike. 
Nat. Ord. UMacecs. 

A genus of coarse-growing bulbs from the 
Cape of Good Hope, requiring green-house 
treatment, as they rest in summer. E. bifolia, 
one of the species, has only two leaves, lying 
flat on the ground, and a short raceme of pale 
green flowers. The only m,erit of the species 
is in the fragrance of the flowers. They 
grow with the most ordinary treatment, and 
are propagated by offsets ; introduced in 1774. 

Eacro'ma. A synonym for Castilleja. 

Eucro'sia. From eu, beautiful, and krosaos, a 
fringe ; referring to the cup above the inser- 
tion of the stamens. Nat. Ord. Amaryllidcuxm. 
A genus of green-house bulbs from South 
America, mostly from the western declivity 
of the Peruvian Andes. E. bicolor, the only 
species, has bright vermilion flowers, with a 
purple stripe on the outside of the petals. 
They are borne in a terminal cluster on a 
scape about one foot high. They should be 
grown in a warm green-house ; in winter they 
require perfect rest. Propagated by offsets. 
Introduced in 1816. 

Euory'phia. Prom eu, well, and kryphioa, cov- 
ered ; referring to the calyptra of the flower. 
Nat. Ord. HypericacecB. 

A genus of three or four species of very 
handsome hardy or green-house evergreen 
shrubs of easy culture. E. pinnatifida has 
large white flowers, usually borne in pairs 
near the upper portion of the branches, and 
ricli deep-green pinnate leaves. Introduced 
from Chili in 1880. 

Euge'nia. Kose Apple. Named after Prince 
Eugene of Saixony. Nat. Ord. Myrtacem. 

A genus of handsome shrubs, grown as fruit 
trees in the East Indies, but grown in English 
hot-houses for their splendid white flowers, 
which are produced freely; they are propa- 
gated by cuttings of the ripe wood. Recent 
botanists place here E. Pimenta, which pro- 
duces the allspice of commerce. See Pimenta. 




Eula'lia. From eit, well, and lalia, speech ; in 
reference to the high reputation of the plants. 
Nat. Ord. Ch-aminacece. 

We are indebted to the American Agricul- 
turist for the following history and description 
of this genus : " One of the most beautiful of 
ornamental grasses is the variegated Eulalia 
Japonica, which was sent from Japan several 
years ago by Mr. Thomas Hogg. It was illus- 
trated in ' Hearth and Home ' in 1871, and a 
year or two later was placed in the trade. It 
is a robust perennial grass, forming, when 
well established, large clumps, with firm, but 
graceful, leaves, which are marked with alter- 
nate stripes of creamy-white and green, much 
after the manner of the old ' Ribbon or Striped 
Grass ' of the gardens, and presenting quite 
as much variety in the stripmg. This is taller 
and more erect than that, and the leaves are 
longer and more robust. The flower stalks 
appear In September, and the plant at this 
time is from four to sis feet high. The flower 
panicles are at first brownish, with erect 
branches, and not at all showy, but as the 
flowers open, the branches of the panicle 
curve over gracefully in a one-sided manner, 
and bear a strong resemblance in form to what 
is known as a ' Prince of Wales' feather ;' each 
of the individual flowers, which are very 
numerous upon each branch of the cluster, 
has at its base a tuft of long, silky hairs, and 
these contribute greatly to the feathery light- 
ness of the whole. When Mr. Hogg sent this, 
it was accompanied by another variety of the 
same grass, which did not survive the effects 
of the journey. Upon a second visit to Japan, 
he procured other plants of this last variety, 
which reached this country in good condition. 
This variety, whiah it is proposed to call 
Eulalia Japonictt, var. Zebrina, the ' Zebra- 
striped Eulalla,' or Zebra Grass, in all that 
relates to form, habit, and its flowers, is quite 
like the other, but differs most essentially in 
the manner of its variegation. In the older 
variety the leaves, according to the usual 
manner of .variegation In grasses, have the 
markings run lengthwise of the leaf, while in 
this Zebrina variety they run crjsswise. The 
leaves present alternate bands of green and 
creamy white of varying width, but with the 
colors quite well defined, and producing a 
most singular effect. Japan is remarkable for 
the great number of plants with variegated 
foliage that it has contributed to our collec- 
tions, but we have not seen any variegation 
that interested us bo much as this peculiar 
grass. We have seen but one other plant 
with Its variegation so singularly disposed, 
and that was also from the same country. In 
the quaint little garden attached to the Jap- 
anese Bazar at the Centennial Exhibition was 
a Bulrush (Sdrpiis), the cylindrical stems of 
which were marked transversely, though the 
markings were much less positive than in the 
grass in question. Aside from the ornamental 
effect of its peculiar transverse markings, this 
variety has great interest for us in a physio- 
logical or pathological point of view. It is 
claimed by some that all variegation of foli- 
age, or at least that in which the green of tlie 
leaf is changed to white or yellow, is an indi- 
cation of disease, and this view is strongly 
maintained in spite of the numerous instances 
in which the variegated plants are more 
vigorous and hardy than typical plain green 


ones of the same species. To those who hold 
this view — that variegation is due to disease — 
this Zebrina variety of Eulalia presents a dif- 
ficult problem. As the circulation of the juices 
of the leaf must take place in a lengthwise 
direction, tlie nutriment for each green por- 
tion of the leaf must pass through one of the 
colored sections, ana those who regard these 
white, or whitish, bands as marks of disease, 
will be puzzled to account for the occurrence 
of green sections of the leaf which, though 
placed directly between two 'diseased' por- 
tions, remain in perfect health throughout the 
whole season of growth." The Eulalias are 
perfectly hardy in this latitude, and are valu- 
able acquisitions to the garden, not only for 
the grace and elegance of the foliage, but for 
the flowers as "dried grasses." They keep 
for years, presenting somewhat the appear- 
ance of an ostrich feather. Propagated by 
division or by seeds, which, however, do not 
produce variegated leaves. 
Bulo'phia. From eulophos, handsome-crested; 
referring to the handsome lip, which is fur- 
rowed into elevated ridges. Nat. Ord. Orchid- 

An extensive genus, consisting of both ter- 
restrial and epiphytal orchids, natives of 
tropical Asia, Africa, and America, but occur- 
ring in the greatest numbers at the Cape of 
Good Hope. E. Dregiana, a native of the 
Cape, is of free habit, producing spikes, of 
flowers which resemble little doves hanging 
by their beaks; the sepals and petals are 
chocolate color, and the lip white. They 
require the same treatment as the Cypri- 
Buo'nymua. Burning Bush. Spindle-tree. 
Prom eu, well, and onoma, a name ; literally, 
of good repute. Nat. Ord. Celastracem. 

An extensive genus of low-growing trees 
and shrubs, mostly of an ornamental char- 
acter. E. atropurpwrevs, a native species, is a 
valuable shrub for the border, on account of 
its handsome foliage, its abundance of purple 
flowers, and its copious crimson fruit in 
autumn. This species is what is commonly 
called Burning Bush, or Waahoo. It grows 
freely in almost any soil or situation, preferring 
a moist one. Japan has furnished several spe- 
cies with ornamental foliage, that are among 
our most useful plants for single specimens, 
for baskets, or window gardens. E. radicana 
variegata has leaves of green and white, is a 
rapid grower, and hardy south of New York. 
It is readily increased by cuttings. The Japan 
species are evergreen, and were first intro- 
duced in 1804. 
Eupato'rium. Named after MUhridoiea Eupator, 
King of Pontus, who discovered one of the 
species to be an antidote against poison. Nat. 
Ord. Composiim. 

An extensive genus, consisting for the most 
part of native hardy herbaceous plants. A 
number of spesies are grown in the green- 
house for their flowers and are produced 
freely in winter ; of these the species known 
in cultivation as E. elegarm, E. riparium, 
and E. Weinmannianum, all very graceful 
plants with white flowers, are the most use- 
ful, and are grown in large quantities for early 
winter use. They are natives of South Amer- 
ica, and are increased by cuttings. Of our 
native kinds, E. ageratovdes. White Snake- 




root, is the mpat valuable as a flowering plant. 
Tiie flowers aie pure wiiite, borne in terminal 
clusters or heads. TJie plant grows about 
four feet liish, is verj' branching, and prefers 
a thick sliade. It flowers late in August, and 
is very showy for nearly a month. M. perfo- 
Uatwm, Bone-set, has, outside of the " regular 
practice," considerable reputation as a tonic 
stimulant, and is often administered in the 
form of a tea, made from the leaves, in cases 
of intermittent fevers. They are readily 
increased by root division or from seeds. 

Eupho'rbia. Milk-wort or Spurge. Named 
after Euphorbus, physician to the King of 
Mauritania. Nat. Ord Euphorbiacem. 

This is an extensive and variable genus, 
including species with the aspect of trees or 
large shrubs, and through every gradation, 
downward to the humblest annual weeds, all 
of them remarkable for an acrid milky juice. 
Notwithstanding the extent and variety of 
the genus, there are comparatively few of its 
members in cultivation ; the principal of them 
being E. splendens, E. jacquiniflora (fulgens or 
pninifolia) and E. Bqjeri. These do best in 
the hot-house, and are well deserving atten- 
tion for their rich red or crimson. flowers, and 
amply repay the little trouble occasioned. 
These species are all much improved by 
frequent stopping, as it induces a more dense 
habit, and consequently a greater display 
of flowei-s. It is worthy of remark that 
the first flowers that expand in each 
season on E. splendens are in pairs, but those 
which follow are each time increased in 
duplicate ratio, so that those which open last 
are commonly as many as eight together. 
The other perennial species require to be 
treated in the manner of Cacti, and the 
remainder respectively as they belong to the 
hardy or tender cls,sses of the annual, biennial, 
or perennial plants. E. corollaia, a native 
species, is a free-flowering plant, and valuable 
for florist's use, or for cut-flowers. They aie 
small, greenish white, in general appearance 
like the Forget-me-not. This species is readily 
propagaited by root division. 'The French sub- 
stitute the seeds of E. lathyrus for the English 
capers, which, if taken in quantity, prove 
highly deleterious. For E. PoimeUei, see 
Poinsettia pulcherrima. 
Euphorbia'ceae. A very large order of trees, 
shrubs, or herbs, usually abounding in milky 
juice. The species are found in all, except 
Arctic climates. They are generally acrid and 
poisonous. Some yield st3.reh, and others oils 
and Caoutchouc. Castor Oil is obtained from 
the seeds of Ricinus communis and Groton Oil 
from Croton Tiglium. The seeds of Jatropha 
Curcas, the Physio Nut, are purgative. 8tU- 
lingia Sebifera, is the Tallow Tree of China, 
the fatty matter being procured from the 
fruit. Dyes are supplied by Crozophora tinc- 
toria and Rottlera tinctoria. African Oak or 
Teak is yielded by Oldfieldia Africana. Caout- 
chouc by Siphonia elasiiea, S. lutea, S. brevi- 
folia, S. Brazilienais, and S. Spniceana ; and 
the poisonous Manchineel by Hippomane Man- 
dnella. Jamipha Manihot or Manihot utiliasima 
furnishes Cassava and Tapioca, which consist 
of starchy matter from its root. CoUiguaja 
odorifera has peculiar jumping seeds, owing to 
their becoming the habitation of the larva of 
an Insect. Box-wood is the product of Buxua 


sempervirens. There are other useful and 
curious species, some of which are cultivated 
for their beautiful flowers. There are 230 
known generaand about 2,600 species. Evphor- 
bia, Phyllanthus, Croton, Jatropha, Siphonia 
Ridnvs, and Poinsettia are examples of the 

Euphra'sia. Eyebi:ight. From ewphraino, to de- 
light; fabled to cure blindness. Nat Ord. 

■ ScrophulariacecE. 

E. ojffkinalis. Eye bright, is a little annual 
common in dry pastures and roadsides in this 
country and Europe. It seldom grows more 
than three or four inches in height, and often 
not more than one or two. From the frequent 
mention of the Euphrasia by the poets, it 
would appear to have been formerly held in 
high repute for its medical virtues, a view 
which is conflrmed by all the old herbalists, 
who recommend its use both outwardly and 
inwardly for complaints of the eyes. It has 
no value as a flowering plant. 

Eu'rya. From ewrys, large ; erroneously applied 
to the flowers, which are comparatively small. 
Nat. Ord. Temstromiacem. 

A genus of very ornamental half-hardy ever- 
green shrubs or low-growing trees, with white 
flowers borne in axillary clusters. They are 
natives of Japan, India, China and the Indian 
Archipelago. The variegated variety of E. 
Japoniea laiifolia is a most useful plant for 
decorative purposes, as it stands the dry heat 
of rooms or halls well, and its glossy varie- 
gated leaves contrast well with Palms or other 
fine-foliage plants. 

Eu'ryale. Ewrydle, one of the Gorgqns, repre- 
sented with fierce, thorny locks ; in allusion 
to the thorny nature of the plant. Nat. Ord. 

An annual stove aquatic. Before the intro- 
duction of the Victoria regia this was the 
noblest aquatic plant in cultivation. Its leaves 
are circular, about two feet in diameter, with 
prominent spiny veins. Flowers deep violet, 
opening in September. Introduced from the 
East Indies in 1809. 

Eury'bia. From eiwibies, wide-spreading; re- 
ferring to the roots. Nat. Ord. Compositoe. 

A genus of evei'green trees and shrubs and 
a few herbaceous perennials. They are mostly 
tropical, natives of Tasmania, and New Zea- 
land. E. argophylla, syn. Aster argophyllus, a 
Tasmanian species, is called by the natives 
the silver-leaved Musk tree. It is occasion- 
ally seen in green liouses, where it is culti- 
vated for the musky odor of its leaves. Most 
of the species are noted for their ornamental 
foliage; they would be valuable for lawn 
planting in the Southern States. 

Eiiry'cles. From eurys, broad, and kla^, a 
branch; referring to the broad leaves or 
branch-like foot-stalks. Nat. Ord. Amaryl- 

A genus of strong-growing bulbs, found in 
the Eastern Archipelago and in New Holland. 
This genus was formerly included in Pancra- 
tium, from which it is distinguished by its 
broad, nearly heart-shaped leaves, and its 
flowers witli a long oylindrioal tube, with 
equal and regular petals. The flowers are 
borne in umbels, and are pure white. They 
are generally grown in the green-house, and 
must have complete rest during winter, 

















but If planted out in May they will flower 
finely. Propagated by suckers, which should 
be taken off when a new growth commences 
in spring. First introduced in 1821. 

Xiuiyga'nia. Named after Eurygania, the wife 
of Jidipus. Nat. Ord. Vaceinacem. 

A genus of about a dozen species of orna- 
mental evergreen shrubs with pendant 
branches and bright-colored, generally red, 
flowers, allied to Thibaudia. All are natives 
of the Andes of South America. 

Eusca'pbis. Prom eu, well, and akaphia, a bowl : 
in allusion to the persistent, bowl-like calyx. 
Nat. Ord. Sapindacem. 

A genus of two species of hardy glabrous 
shrubs, natives of Japan. E. staphyleoidea has 
white or yellowish flowers, borne in terminal 
panicles, succeeded by red, bladdery fruit, 
remaining on the bush until winter. This 
plant is highly prized in its native country for 
its medicinal properties. 

Eu'stoiua. From eustomos, of beautiful counte- 
nance; referring to the corolla. Nat. Ord. 

A genus containing only two species, with 
bright purple or purplish-blue flowers, closely 
allied to Liaianthvs. They are elegant little 
plants, -found from Florida and Texas to Ne- 
braska, and are readily increased by seeds. 

Euta'2ia. From eutaxia, modesty ; referring to 
the delicate aspect of the flowers. Nat. Ord. 

A genus of very pretty green-house shrubs, 
natives of Western Australia. They are 
chiefly low growing and bushy, with small 
heath-like leaves, and pure yellow pea-shaped 
flowers, produced in small axillary clusters. 
E. myrtifolia is a popular green-house plant, 
whose slender stems are often seen tliickly 
covered in the spring and summer months 
with Its bright yellow flowers. The species 
are increased by cuttings. Introduced in 1803. 

Eute'rpe. After Euterpe, one of the nine Muses. 
Nat. Ord. Palmacem. 

A genus of Palms of extremely graceful 
habit, natives of South America and the West 
Indies. With the exception of E. montana, 
from the latter country, all are too tall grow- 
ing for the green-house. This species attains 
a height of about twenty feet, and has the 
base of the stem much swollen or bulged out. 
The leaf bud and the central portion of the 
upper stem are cooked as a vegetable or 
pickled by the natives, and is highly esteemed. 
Propagated by seed. 

Euto'ca. From eutokoa, fruitful; referring to 
the abundance of seeds. Nat. Ord. Hydro- 

A genus of hardy annuals, with blue, pink, 
or lilac flowers, mostly from California. A 
few species are found in Virginia, and south 
and west, but are not of sufficient merit to 
warrant their introduction into the garden. 
Those from California are free-flowering, and 
of the easiest culture. The seed should be 
sown as early in spring as possible. 

Evening Flovrer. See Heaperantha. 

Evening Glory. See Ipomaea. 

Evening Primrose. See (Enothera. 

Evergreens. A term applied to trees, shrubs, 
or other plants, that retain their foliage 
during winter. 


Everlasting FloTwer. See Helichryaum. 
Common American. Gnaphaliumpolycephahim,, 

and G. decwrrena. 
Swan Biver. Rhodanthe Mangleaii. 
Yellow. Helieh/ryawm orientate and H. arena- 
Everlasting Pea. See Lathyrua laiifoUua. 
Evolved. Unfolded. 

Evo'lvulus. From evolvo, to roll out, the op- 
posite to Convolvulus ; referring to the plant 
not twining. Nat. Ord. Convolvulacem. 

An extensive genus of annuals and peren- 
nials, mostly from the East Indies and South 
America, a few species being found in Florida, 
The flowers of these plants are extremely 
beautiful, mostly of a large size, and of various 
shades of blue and white. The annuals should 
be started in a hot-bed or green-house, and 
planted out as soon as the weather wiU. per- 
mit, or they may be grown in pots and trained 
on a balloon frame. The perennials should 
be kept dry and dormant through the winter, 
and started in a brisk heat in spring. During 
summer they may be grown in the green- 
house, or in pots, and trained on a trellis, or 
other suitable place for a climbing plant. The 
perennials may be increased by cuttings of 
young shoots. First introduced in 1817. 

E'xacum. This name was used by Pliny, and 
by him derived from ex, out, and ago, to 
drive; in allusion to its supposed expelling 
powers. Nat. Ord. Gentianacece. 

Annual, or perennial herbs, with opposite 
sessile leaves, and showy blue, yellow or 
white flowers. This genus contains nearly 
twenty species, though they are not yet all in 
cultivation. E. macranthwrn from Ceylon, has 
rich blue-purple colored flowers, about two 
inches in diameter, with large bright yellow 
stamens. All the species are showy and de- 
serving of cultivation. Propagated by seeds 
or cuttings. 

Excoriate. Stripped of the bark or skin. 

Excretion. Any superfluous matter thrown 
off by the living plant externally ; the action 
by which a superabundance of secreted mat- 
ter is rejected from a secreting vessel. Also 
the matter itself thus excreted ; gum, resin, 
etc., are examples. 

Excurrent. Projecting or running beyond the 
edge of anything ; running out. When a 
stem remains always central, all the other 
parts being regularly disposed round it, as in 
the stem of a Fir Tree. 

Exocho'rda. Pearl Bush. From exo, out of, 
and chor'de, a cord ; referring to the cords by 
which the seeds are suspended. Nat. Ord. 

E. grandiflora, the only species yet in culti- 
vation, is a beautiful hardy shrub from China, 
introduced a few years since, and as yet com- 
paratively little known. It is in substance 
described in the late edition of the Treasury 
of Botany as being remarkable for the struc- 
ture of its fruits, which consist of flve small 
compressed bony carpels adhering round a 
central axis in a star-like manner. From the 
axis or growing point stand five erect placen- 
tary cords, which enter the -carpels on their 
inner face near the top, suspending from the 
apex two thin seeds. These cords remain after 
the carpels have fallen, and have suggested 




the name of the genus. It Is a smooth shrub 
or dwarf tree, with alternate nearly lance- 
shaped entire leaves, the stems terminated 
by racemes of handsome white flowers, which 
appear in May and June, and are about an 
inch in diameter. They have a, bell-shaped 
calyx with a five-parted border, five rounded 
petals, and fifteen to twenty stamens. The 
plant is also known as Spiraea grandijlora. It 
is a beautiful tall-growing shrub, worthy of a 
place on the lawn and in the shrubbery. It is 
stUl a rare plant in the United States, chiefly 
because it is difficult to propagate, and in 
consequence is not easy to get. It is propa- 
gated by seeds, layers, or suckers. 

Rsogens. A name given to one of the great 
classes of the vegetable kingdom, correspond- 
ing with the Dicotykdons. The name Exogen 
is from the Greek, and signifies outward and 
to grow, meaning growing outwardly, and has 
reference to the manner in which the woody 
circles are produced, viz., from the center 
outwardly toward the circumference. The 
age of an exogenous tree, especially in tem- 
perate climates, may be determined by count- 
ing the number of zones or circles in the 
woody stem, each circle marking one year's 
growth, and the last formed circle being ex- 
ternal. The characters of the class ai-e given 
under Dicotyledons, which see. 

Xizogo'nium. From exo, external ; referring to 
the exserted stamens. Nat. Ord. Convolmda- 

The few species that are included in this 
genus are closely allied to, and very nearly 
resemble the tuberous-rooted IpomoRoa. They 
are desirable climbers, flowering freely nearly 


the whole summer. During winter the tubers 
should be kept dry and free from frost. E. 
purga, a Mexican species, has beautiful sal- 
ver-shaped, purplish flowers, and furnishes 
the true Jalap tubers of commerce. These 
are roundish, of variable size, the largest being 
about as large as an orange,- and of a dark 
color. They owe their well-known purgative 
properties to their resinous ingredients. They 
can be rapidly increased by cuttings, or by 
division of tubers in spring, like the Dahlia. 

likosinose. That force which causes a viscid 
fluid lying on the outside of an organic mem- 
brane to attract watery fluid through it. 

Iizoste'nuna. From exo, external, and stermna, 
a crown ; referring to the exserted stamens. 
Nat. Ord. Rubiacece. 

A genus of tropical trees or shrubs, valued 
more for the medicinal properties they pos- 
sess, than for the beauty of their foliage or 
flowers. They are natives of the West Indies. 
One of the species, S. Caribceum, has become 
naturalized in southern Florida. The bark 
possesses the same active principle as that of 
the Cinchona. 

Exotic. Plants that are brought from foreign 
countries. Not native. 

Exserted. "Where one part protrudes beyond 
another by which it is surrounded; as the 
stamens or styles beyond the mouth of some 
tubular corollas. 

Eye. A term in gardening for a leaf-bud ; also 
for the center or the central markings of a 

Eye-bright. See Evphrasia. 



la'ba. The old Latin name for the Bean, 
now included under Vicia, which see. 

Fabacese. A sub-order of Leguminosm. 

Pabia'na. Named after F. Fabiano, a Spaniard. 
Nat. Ord. Solanacem. 

A small genus of half-hardy evergreen, 
heath-like shrubs. F. imbricata, the best 
known species, is a neat evergreen shrub of 
compact habit, densely covered, during the 
spring months, with pure white tubular 
flowers. Propagated by seeds or fronl cuttings. 

Fadye'nia. Named after Dr. Fadyen, author of 
a Flora of Jamaica. Nat. Ord. Polypodiacew. 

F. prolifera, the only species, is a curious 
Fern, a native of the West Indies. It grows 
but a few inches in height ; the fronds have 
netted veins, and are remarbable for the large 
size of the sori. It was introduced from 
Jainaica in 1843, and is occasionally found in 
choice collections. Propagated by spores. 

Faecula. The farinaceous matter which forms 
Starch, etc. 

Fage'lia. Named after Fagel, a botanist. Nat. 
Ord. Leguminoece. 

A genus of green-house evergreen, twining, 
herbaceous plants, found in South Africa and 
Abyssinia. The leaves somewhat resemble 

those of Phaseolua, but are smaller. Their 
flowers are pea-shaped, yellow, and borne on 
long axillary racemes. Young plants are ob- 
tained from seeds. 

Fagopy'rum. Buckwheat. From phago, to 
eat, and pyros, wheat ; seeds edible. Nat. Ord. 

F. eaeulentum, the only species worthy of 
notice, is our common buckwheat, which see. 

Fa'gus. The Beech. FTom phago,' to eat; in 
early ages the nuts of the Bi-ech-tree were 
used as food. Nat. Ord. Cupulifcrm. 

A small genus of hardy deciduous trees, re- 
markable for their graceful and symmetrical 
habit of growth, and their great size and 
beauty, which render them objects of admira- 
tion, whether in their native woods, or when 
planted on the lawn for shade. F. ferruginea, 
the American Beech, is one of the tallest and 
most majestic of our forest trees. It grows 
most abundantly in the Middle and Western 
States, though common east of the AUeghanies, 
attaining its greatest size on the bank^ of the 
Ohio, where the trees are frequently found 
100 feet high, with a diameter from three to. 
four feet; its foliage is superb, and Its general 
appearance magniflcent. The sexes are bornfe 
on different branches of the same tree. The 




male flowers are borne in pendulous, globular 
heads, the female flowers are small, and of a 
greenish color. It is so abundant as often to 
constitute extensive forests, the flnest of 
which grow on fertile, level, or gently sloping 
lands, with a humid surface. The European 
Beech, F. sylvatica, is almost identical with 
our native species. The Weeping Beech, F. 
nylvatica pendada, is one of the most curious 
and beautiful of lawn trees. The original 
tree stands in the park of Baron de Mau, at 
Beersel, Belgium. " The trunk is three and 
half to four feet in diameter, and grows in a 
twisted form to a height of twelve feet to 
fifteen feet, with an appearance of being 
pressed down by an immense weight. The 
branches cover an area nearly a 100 feet in 
diameter. Its history is curious. Some sixty 
years ago the baron's gardener was planting 
an avenue of Beech trees, and the baron, ob- 
serving a very crooked specimen, directed to 
have it thrown out, but the gardener planted 
it in a corner of the grounds little visited, 
where it grew to be one of the most beautiful 
and singular freaks of sylvan nature." — Scolt. 
The Purple-Leaved Beech, F. pwrpurea, now 
BO popular for lawn decoration, is a sport from 
the common Beech, found in a German forest. 
The Copper-colored Beeoh, F. cu/prea, is a sub- 
variety of the Purple Beech. The Fern and 
Cut-leaved Beeches are very ornamental 
varieties, the leaves resembling the fronds of 
a Fern. There are varieties with variegated 
foliage. They are all varieties of F. sylvatica. 

Fair Maids of France. Ranunculiis aconitifolivs 
Jlore-pleno, Saxifraga granulata, and Achillea 

Fairy Fingers. Digitalis purpv/rea. 

Fairy Flax. lAnum eatharticum. 

Fairy Iiily. See Zephyranihes. 

Fairy Rings. Green circles or parts of circles 
seen in pastures, and produced by the peculiar 
mode of growth of several species of Agarics 
and other Fungi. 

Falcate, Falciform. Plane and curved in any 
degree, with parallel edges, like the blade of 
a sickle ; as the pod of Medicago falcata. 

False ii.cacia. The common Yellow Locust, 
Robinia Pseudacacia. 

False Asphodel. A popular name of the genus 
Tqfieldia, small flowering Liliaceous plants. 

False Dragon-head. Physostegia virginica. 

False Fox-Glove. Qerardia flava. 

False Hellebore. See Veratrum. 

False Honeysuckle. A popular name of our 

native Azaleas. 
False Indigo. See Anwrpha. 
False Mistletoe. American Mistletoe. Pho- 

False Red Top. A popular name of Poa serotima, 

because of its resemblance to Agrostis vulga/ris, 

the true Red Top Grass. 
False Solomon's Seal. See Smilacina. 
False Spikenard. See Smilacina racemosa. 
Family. A synonym for " Order." 
Fan Palm. See Corypha. 

Pafada'ya. Named in honor of Michael Faraday, 
-thiB celebrated chemist. Nat. Ord. Verbenacece. 


A small genus of tall climbing glabrous 
plants, with showy white flowers, borne in 
corymbose panicles, natives of Australia, 
Java, and the Paciflc Islands. Several species 
have been introduced, but have not yet 
flowered in cultivation. 

Farfu'gium grande. See Ligula/ria. 

Farinaceous. Having the texture of flour, as 
the albumen of Wheat. 

Farinose. Covered with a white, mealy sub- 
stance, as the leaves of the Auricula, Primula 

Parkle-berry. A local name lor one of the 
Cranberries, Vaccinium arboreum. 

Fasciated. When a stem becomes much flat- 
tened, instead of retaining its usual cylin- 
drical figure, as in the Cockscomb, the Lilivm 
monstrosum, etc. 

Fastiglate. Tapering to a narrow point, pyra- 
midal ; as where many like parts are parallel, 
. and point upwards, as the branches of Populus 

Fat Hen. A popular name tovChenopodiwm alburn^ 

Fa'tsia. Derived from the Japanese name of 
one of the species. Nat. Ord. Araliacem. 

A genus consisting of a few evergreen 
shrubs, natives of Japan, China, and north- 
west America. It is well represented by the 
Aralia Japonica or A. Sieboldii of gardens, 
which is now Fatsia Japonica, and. Aralia papy- 
rifera, the Chinese Rice-paper plant, now F. 
papyrifera, both of which are very ornamental 
and useful decorative plants. Two variegated 
varieties of F. Japonica, one with white and 
the other with rich yellow markings, are 
highly prized for green-house and house deco- 

Feathered Columbine. 


Thalictrum aquilegifo- 

Feather Foil, or 'Water Violet. Hottonia in- 

Feather Geranium. Jerusalem Oak. Popular 
names for Chenopodium Botrys. 

Feather Grass. See Stipa permata. 

Feather-veined. Where the veins of a leaf 
spring from the mid-rib at an acute angle. ' 

Fedia olitoria. A synonym for Valerianella 
olitoria (Corn Salad). 

Fe'ea. In honor of M. Fee, Professor of Botany 
at Strasburg. Nat. Ord. Polypodiacem. 

A small genus of interesting little Ferns 
found in Guiana and the West Indies. They 
require to be grown in a very warm, moist 

Fennel. See FcerUculwm. 
G;iant. See Ferula. 

Feiiugreek. See Trigonella. 

Fe'nzlia. Named in honor of Dr. Fenel, author 
of a monograph on AlsinaeecB. Nat. Ord. 

A genus of beautiful dwarf California hardy 
annuals. They bear a profusion of delicate, 
rosy-tinted flowers, with yellow throat, sur- 
rounded with dark-colored dots. F. dianthi- 
flora is a very dwarf and closely tufted species, 
keeping in flower the whole summer, making 
it desirable for small beds or edgings. It is 
also very pretty for window gardens. This 
genus is now by many botanists included 
under QiUa. 




Fern, Adder's. Polypodivmi vulgare. 
Adder's Tongue. Ophioglossum vulgatum. 
American G-rape. Botrichium IwnarUyldes. 
Australian Tree. Dickaonia antartica. 
Beech. Polypodiwn Phegopleria. 
Blrd's-nest. Thamnopteris nidus (Aapleiniwm). 
Brake, or Bracken. Pteris aquilina. 
Bristle. The genus Trichomcmea. 
Buckler. The genus Laatrea. 
Chain. The genus Woodwardia. 
Chignon. CiboUum regale. 
Christmas Shield. Aspidium acrostichoides. 
Cinnamon. Osmunda cAmnamomea. 
Climbing Snake's-tongue. Lygodiwm scandens. 
Deer. Lomaria spieant (Blechnum). 
Elk's Horn. Platycerium alcicome. 
FUmy. A name applied to those kinds which 

have pellucid or transpai-ent fronds, as Hy- 

memophyllvm, Todea and Trichomanes. 
Haresfoot. The genus Davallia. 
Hartford. Lygodium palmatvm. 
Hart's-tongue. The genus Scolopendrium. 
Japan Climbing. Lygodiwm scandens. 
Japan Haresfoot. Davallia Mariesii. 
Killamey. Trichomanes radicans. 
Lady. Aihyrimn Filix-fcemina. 
Maiden Hair. Many of the genus Adiantum. 
Maiden Hair. American. Adiantum, pedatwm. 
Moon. Botrychium Ijiinaria. 
Oak. Polypodivmi Dryopteris. 
Oregon Cliff-Brake. Pellma densa. 
Oregon Hock-Brake. Allosorus achrostichoides. 
Parsley. Allosorus or Cryptogramma crispvs. 
Pod. Ceraiopteria thalictroides. 
Sensitive. Onoclea sensibilis. 
Shield. The genus Aspidium. 
Stag's Horn. . Platycerium gramde and other 

Sweet. Myrrhis odorata and Comptonia aaplen^ 

Tree. Various species of Dicksonia, Alsophila, 

Cyaihea, etc. 
Virginian Kattlesnake. Botrychium Virginicmn. 
Walking-leaf. Campiosorus rhizophyllus. 
Water. Osmunda regalis. 
Fernery. See Wardian Case. 
Perns. From their extreme beauty and diver- 
sity as well as from th,eir general adaptability 
in arrangements with flowering and omar 
mental-foliaged plants, Ferns, when well- 
grown are indispensable and possess peculiar 
attractions. As their ijianagement gets better 
understood, their popularity increases, and 
the now almost universal use of plants, and 
especially of cut fronds, intermixed in floral 
decorations, has led to the production of a 
few of the most suitable species in immense 
quantities. The earlier modern botanists 
knew little about ferns, and Linnseus, who is 
regarded as the father of modem botany, 
seems to have supposed that in one sense 
they had flowers as other plants had, the 
little brown dots on the back of the fronds 
being supposed to be seeds of the same char- 
acter as ordinary flowering plants. During 
thelast fifty or more years, many discoveries 
have been made about Ferns, most notably 
that these little dusty brown dots are not 
really seeds but little bud ferns. When they 
fall or are sown in damp plapes they open and 
form little flat green membranes, and in this 
membrane the real flowers appear, and all the 
processes common to flowering plants are car- 
ried out. 


In scientific treatises on ferns, all these pro- 
cesses of fern-growth and their functions, are 
given different names from what they would 
have in other plants ; thus the germinating 
green blade is called a prothallium, and the 
mass that would be the stamens in a flowering 
plant is the anthevidia, while the pistil is the 
archegonium. There is this difference, how- 
ever, that while flowering plants after fertili- 
zation retain the germ, in what we call a seed, 
for some time before it grows, in the fern the 
germ commences at once to grow and make 
a little plant. This has some bearing on the 
raising of hybrid ferns. New varieties are 
obtained by sowing the spores of different 
forms of the same species together, for as in 
flowering plants it is only in case of very - 
close relationship that intermixture is possi- 
ble. Those who have experimented and ob- 
served closely, tell us that the chances of in- 
termixture is not great, still this is the only 
way to get new varieties. By taking the 
spores from the crested portion of "Crested 
Ferns " the certainty of getting crested 
seedlings is much increased. 

Raising Ferns from spores is a very inter- 
esting operation requiring considerable care 
and attention to accomplish successfully. 
They are best sown in pots or shallow pans 
that have been half filled with broken rubble, 
the remainder being filled to within half an inch 
of the top with a finely sifted compost of 
loam, peat and sand. As the fern spores are 
extremely minute the soil should be watered 
and allowed to drain before sowing as" by 
watering afterwards the spores might be 
washed away. Scatter thinly over the sur- 
face, pieces of glass boing placed over the 
tops of the pots which should then be stood 
in saucers of water thus obviating the 
necessity of watering overhead. They should 
be kept well shaded at all times, and when 
the spores are suf&ciently grown to be visible 
. as very minute plants, they should be taken 
up in small patches, and pricked off carefully, 
these in turn when they get established and 
fit to handle should be divided and potted off 
singly. The most popular species Adiantums, 
Pteris, etc., are raised from spores In immense 
quantities. Many others as Nephrolepis, 
Davallia, etc., that form several crowns or 
have creeping rhizomes are easily increased 
by division. A few species produce small 
bulbils along, or at the end of the frond, and 
these, if removed and placed on the soil 
eventually form plants. 

Trunks of Tree Ferns are imported in large 
numbers, both from the West Indies and 
Australia, and a large proportion generally 
succeed. Young plants may be raised from 
spores, and such quick-growing species as 
Dicksonia, Alsophila, etc., soon make elegant 
plants for decorative purposes. Hardy Ferns 
succeed best when planted on rock-work or in 
a shady situation sheltered from high winds ; 
as there is so much diversity both in their 
size and habit, particular attention should be 
directed to their arrangement, placing the 
evergreen and deciduous species at irregular 
intervals, so that the whcJle may be more or 
less furnished at all seasons. 

Fero'nia. The Wood-apple or Elephant-apple 
of India, closely allied to the Orange. F. ete- 
phantum, the only species of this genus of 




RutaeetB, Is common throughout India, Bur- 
mah, Ceylon and Java, and forms a large tree, 
yielding a hard heavy wood, of great strength, 
but not durable. The leaves have the odor of 
Anise, and the fruit is edible. Increased by 
cuttings of the ripe young wood. Introduced 
from Coromandel, in 1804. 

rerra'ria. Named after Ferrari, an Italian bot- 
anist. Nat. Ord. Iridacem. 

A genus of dwarf bulbs from the Cape of 
Good Hope, producing very curious, oddly- 
colored flowers, perhaps more singular than 
beautiful. They are of easy culture, requir- 
ing to be kept dry during winter. They 
should be started in the green-house in Feb- 
ruary, in small pots and as soon as they com- 
mence growth, given plenty of air, sunlight, 
and water, and they will come into flower in 
April. They will grow finely in a cold frame 
if carefully protected from frost during win- 
ter, and are increased freely by offsets. In- 
troduced in 1800. 

Femiginous. Iron-colored ; rusty light brown, 
with a little mixture of red. 

Fertile. Producing fruit. Also, capable of ef- 
fecting the process of fertilization ; or of pro- 
ducing perfect seeds, as the anthers when 
filled with pollen ; fertilized. 

Fertilization. The reproductive function by 
which the action of the pollen renders the 
ovule fertile. 

Fertilizers. This word is generally used only 
in connection with commercial fertilizers, 
or concentrated fertilizers, though, of course, 
in its full significance it refers to any sub- 
stance suitable for the food of plants. The 
best known fertilizers of commerce are Pe- 
ruvian Guano and Bone Dust, though there 
are numbers of others, such as Fish Guano, 
Dry Blood Fertilizer, Blood and Bone Fertil- 
izer, with the various brands of Superphos- 
phates, all of more or less value for fertilizing 
purposes. It is useless to go over the list, 
and we will confine ourselves to the relative 
merits of pure Peruvian Guano and pure 
Bone Dust. Guano at $65 per ton we consider 
relatively equal in Bone Dust at $40 
per ton, for in the lower priced article we find 
we have to increase the quantity to produce 
the same result. Whatever kind of concen- 
trated fertilizer is used, we find it well repays 
the labor to prepare it in the following man- 
ner before it is used on the land : to every 
bushel of Guano or Bone Dust add three 
bushels of either leaf mould (from the woods), 
well pulverized dry muck, sweepings from a 
paved street, stable manure so rotted as to be 
like pulverized muck, or, if neither of these 
can be obtained, any loamy soil wiU do ; but 
in every case the material to mix the fertili- 
zers with must be fairly dry and never in a 
condition of mud ; the meaning of the opera- 
tion being, that the material used Is to act as 
a temporary absorbent for the fertilizer. The 
compost must be thoroughly mixed, and if 
Guano is used, it being sometimes lumpy, it 
must be broken up to dust before being mixed 
with the absorbent. The main object of this 
operation is for the better separation and di- 
vision of the fertilizer, so that, when applied 
to the soil, it can be more readily distributed. 

■ Our experiments have repeatedly shown that 


this method of using concentrated fertilizers 
materially increases their value probably 
twenty per cent. The mixing should be done 
a few months previous to spring, and it 
should, after being mixed, be packed away in 
barrels, and kept in some dry shed or cellar 
until wanted for use. Thus mixed, it is par- 
ticularly beneficial on lawns or other grass 
lands. The quantity of concentrated fertil- 
izer to be used is often perplexing to begin- 
ners. We give the following as the best rules 
we know, all derived from our own practice in 
growing fruits, fiowers, and vegetables : Tak- 
ing Guano as a basis, we would recommend 
for all vegetables or fruit crops, if earliness 
and good quality are desired, the use of not 
less t-han 1,200 pounds per acre (an acre con- 
tains 4,840 square yards, and cultivators for 
private use can easily estimate from this the 
quantity they require for any area), mixed with 
two tons of either of the materials recom- 
mended. If Bone Dust is used, about one 
ton per acre should be used, mixed with three 
tons of soil or the other materials named. 
When' used alone without being mixed with 
the absorbent, it should be sown on the soil 
after plowing or digging, about thick enough 
to just color the surface, or about as thick as 
sand or sawdust is sown on a floor, and then 
thoroughly harrowed in if plowed, or, if dug, 
chopped in with a rake. This quantity is used 
broadcast by sowing on the ground after 
plowing and deeply and thoroughly harrowing 
in, or, if in small gardens, forked in lightly 
with the prongs of a garden fork or long- 
toothed steel rake. When applied in hUls or 
drills, from 100 to 300 pounds should be used 
to the acre, according to the distance of these 
apart, mixing with soil, etc., as already di- 

When well-rotted stable manure is procur- 
able at a cost not to exceed $2 or $3 per ton, 
whether from horses or cows, it is preferable 
to any concentrated fertilizer. Rotted stable 
manure, to produce full crops, should be 
spread on the ground not less than three 
Inches thick, and should be thoroughly 
mixed with the soil by plowing or spading. 
The refuse hops from breweries form an ex- 
cellent fertilizer, at least one-half more valu- 
able, bulk for bulk, than stable manure. 
Other excellent fertilizers are obtained from 
the scrapings or shavings from horn or whale- 
bone manufactories. The best way to make 
these quickly available is to compost them 
with hot manure in the proportion of one ton. 
of refuse horn or whalebone with fifteen ton& 
of manure. The heated manure extracts the 
oil, which is intermingled with the whole. 

The manure from the chicken or pigeoa 
house Is very valuable, and when composted 
as directed for Bone Dust and Guano, has at 
least one-third their value. Castor oil pom- 
ace is also valuable. 

Ashes. The ashes of vegetable matter con- 
sist of such elements as are always required 
for their perfect maturity, and it is evident 
they must furnish one of the best saline 
manures which can be supplied for their 
growth; they contain in fact every element, 
and generally in the right proportions, for 
insuring a full and rapid growth. The annual 
exhaustion of salts from a large crop of grain, 
roots, or grass, is from 180 to 250 pounds per 
acre, and the aggregate of a few years will so 




far impoverish the soil In one or more of the 
principles necessary to sustain a luxuriant 
vegetation that it ■will cease to yield remuner- 
ating returns. Ashes are ^mong the best of 
fertilizers for Onions; a handful to the hill 
before com is hoed will give good returns. 
They are also excellent for top dressing grass- 
land, and as there is no danger of their con- 
taining weed-seeds they are valuable for top 
dressing lawns. The quantity used should 
be about the same as bone dust, which see. 

NiTKATB OP Soda, and Sitlphatb op Am- 
monia, are both powerful fertilizers, are used 
to a considerable extent, and are deemed es- 
pecially valuable to grain crops. Nitrate of 
Soda cannot be kept too dry as it attracts mois- 
ture the same as common Salt does and may be 
applied at the rate of about two and one-half 
hundred weight to the acre as a top dressing 
in moist weather or just before rain. Owing 
to its nature it is more suited to hot dry soils 
than Sulphate of Ammonia, which, though 
not so quick in its action, is more lasting in 
its effects, and is often used as a supplement- 
ary top dressing to the former. 

PoTJDBETTE is the name given to a commer- 
cial fertilizer, the composition of which is night 
soil and dried swamp muck or charcoal dust 
as an absorbent. It is sold at about $12 to 
$15 per ton, and at that price may be equal In 
value, if too much of the absorbing material 
is not used, to Bone Dust at $40 per ton. 

Salt has little or no value as a fertilizer, ex- 
cept as a medium of absorbing moisture. For 
experience shows that soils impregnated by a 
saline are no more fertile than those inland 
out of the reach of such an atmosphere. See 

Fe'ruJa. Criant Fennel. From/e»^, to strike, 
the stems are used as rods. Nat. Ord. Um- 

A genus of very showy, hardy herbaceous 
plants, relatives of southern Europe, north- 
ern Africa, and central and western Asia. 
They are admirable plants for growing near 
water, or on banks, or margins of lawns, 
where their deep green elegant foliage is 
shown to the best advantage. The two most 
showy species are F. comrmmis, and F. Tingir 
tana. They are propagated by seeds, or by 
divisions of the root. 

rescue Grass. See Festiica. 

Festu'oa. A genus containing some of the best 
pasture grasses. F. glauca is a very hand- 
some ornamental grass, which, though hardy, 
is very suitable for the green-house and the 

Fetid Horehound. See Ballota, 

Fettious. See Valericmella. 

Fever Bush. A local name of the Lindera; 

given for the supposed medicinal properties 

of the shrub. 
Feverfew. See Pyrethrum Parthenium. 
Fever Tree, or Fever Gum-Tree. Eucalyptus 

Fever Weed. Oeraa-dia pediculaHa. 
Fibre, Elementary. That thread which is 

turned round the interior of the tubes that 

are called spiral vessels, or of any similar 

kind of tissue. 


Fibrous. Containing a great proportion of 
woody fibre, as the rind of a Cocoanut ; com- 
posed of fibres. 

Fica'ria. Fig-wort. 'From Jieus, a fig ; in refer- 
ence to the fig-shaped little tubers of the root. 
Nat. Ord. RamunculacecR. 

A hardy herbaceous perennial with bright 
yellow flowers, closely resembling the Ranun- 
culus, to which it is allied, the only difference 
being in the shape of the petals. It is one of 
the earliest spring flowers in the English ' 
woods or waste places. 

Ficoi'deaae. A large natural order of small 
shrubs, under-shrubs, or herbs, containing 
over 400 species, natives chiefly of tropical 
and sub-tropical regions. Tetragonia (the New 
Zealand Spinach) and Mesembryanthemum are 
the best known genera ; indeed, the order is 
called Mesembryanthemacem by some botanists. 

Fi'cus. Fig-tree. The Fig-tree has nearly the 
same name in all the European languages, and 
is supposed to be derived from the Hebrew 
name f eg. Nat. Ord. Urticacem. 

A genus of trees, some of which require to 
be grown in the hot-house. It contains sev- 
eral-valuable species, especially the India 
Eubber tree (F. elastica), and the Banyan tree 
(J*'. Indica) ; the foliage of all of them is very 
imposing, and their culture is of the easiest 
description, requiring heat and plenty of water 
in their growing season. F. elastica, if culti- 
vated in a humid atmosphere, such as that of 
an Orchid-house, willemitroots from its stem 
and branches, and attach itself to any contig- 
uous object, such as a wall, in the manner of 
an epiphyte. This is the India Eubber tree 
of commerce. It is much valued as a decora- 
tive plant for rooms. A very effective variety 
with golden-edged leaves has been lately 
introduced, the golden band about an inch 
wide, contrasting beautifully with the glossy 
green of the center of the leaf. F. Parcelli 
has bright-green serrated leaves, irregularly 
blotched with dark green and ivory white. It 
forms a very neat and ornamental decorative 
plant. F. Carica, the cultivated Fig, is sup- 
posed to be a native of Caria, in Asia. It has, 
however, been so long under cultivation 
throughout southern Europe that its nativity 
is lost sight of. The fruit can be grown here 
without artificial heat, an ordinary pit alone 
being sufficient protection in winter ; or the 
plants can be laid down and covered up with 
six inches of soil in November and uncovered 
in April, and will thus withstand our severest 
northern winters. The Fig is generally hardy 
south of Washington. Propagated by cuttings 
or layers. 

Fiddle-Wood. See Citharexylwn. 

Fig Marigold. See Mesembryanthemum. 

Fig-Tree. The genus Ficus, which see. 
Adam's. Musa paradisiaca. 
Balsam, of the West Indies. Several species 

of Clusia. 
Creeping. Ficus stipulata. 
Devil's, or Infernal. Argemone Mexicama. 
Mangrove. Rhwiophora Mamgle. 
Sacred. Ficus religiosa. 

Fig-VT-ort. The genus SerophMlairia ; also Ficaria, 
which see. 

Filamentose. Thready. 




Pilioes. One of the principal groups of Crypto- 
gams, commonly called Ferns, consisting of 
herbaceous or arborescent perennial, very 
rarely annual, plants, with fibrous roots, or 
creeping root-stalks. Those of an arborescent 
or tree habit have trunks varying from two or 
three to sixty or eighty feet in height, 
and formed of the consolidated bases of 
the fronds, surrounding a soft central mass 
of tissue. Many schemes have been proposed 
for the classification of Ferns, but that seems 
to be preferable which is based on the modi- 
fications of the vascular system in conjunc- 
tion with the fructification. All Ferns may be 
referred to one of the groups Ophioglosaacem, 
MaraltiacecB, or Polypodiace(B, of which the first 
two, sometimes called pseudo-Perns, are very 
limited, while the latter, containing the true 
Ferns, includes the greater portion of all the 
known species. There are about seventy-five 
genera, and about 2,500 species. The follow- 
ing are some of the principal and most exten- 
sive genera: Adiantum, Asplenium, Aapv- 
dium, Polypodium, and Pteris. 

Filiform. Cylindrical and slender, like a 

Filipendulous. Where tuberous swellings are 
developed in the middle or at the extremities 
of filiform rootlets as in SpircBafiUpendula. 

Fimbriate. Fringed. 

Fiorin or Fiorin-Graas. (Butter Grass.) Agroatis 

Fir. A general name for various species of 
Abies, Picea, and Pimus. 
Balm of Gilead, or Balsam. Abies balsamea. 
Black Spruce. Abies nigra. 
Douglas Spruce. Abies (P8eudo4suga)Douglasii. 
Hemlock Spruce. Tsuga Canadensis. 
Japan Silver. Piceafirma. 
Norway Spruce. AMea excelsa. 
Parasol, or Umbrella. The genus Sdadopitys. 
Pitch, or Siberian Silver. Picea Pichta. 
Sacred Silver. Pinus religioaa. 
Scotch. Pinus sylvestris. 
Silver. Picea pectinata. 

Fire Cracker Plant. See Cuphea. 

Fire Pink. A local name of Silene Virginica. 

Fire Tree. See Nuytsia. 
Of Queensland. See Stenocarpus. 

Fire-'Weed. A name given to Ereehites hieraai- 
folia', because of its appearance on new 
grounds, when brush has been burned. It is 
a coarse worthless weed, though not apt to 
be troublesome.. 

Firming the Soil. See Sowing and Planting, 
Use of the Feet in. 

Pish Bone Thistle. Chamcepeuce Oasabonm. 

Fish Guaao. See Fertilizer. 

Fish-Tail Palm. See Caryota. 

Fissus. Divided half way usually into a deter- 
minate number of segments. We say, bifldus, 
split in two, trijidus, in three, and so on ; or 
muUifidus, when the segments are very 

Fistular, Fistulous. This is said of a cylin- 
drical or terete body which is hollow, but 
closed at each end, as the leaves and stem of 
the Onion. 

Fitto'nia. Named in honor otE. and 8. M. Fit- 
ton, authors of " Conversations on Botany," 
Nat. Ord. Acanthacem. 


A genus of trailing perennials with bril- 
liantly marked leaves, natives of Peru and 
requiring Stove-house treatment. They are 
excellent plants for the Wardian case and use- 
ful also for planting on the surface of pots or 
tubs in which large plants or other decorative 
plants are grown, and also for forming narrow 
borders to the walks in heated structures. F. 
argyroneura, has oval leaves of a vivid green, 
traversed by a net-work of pure white veins ; 
other species have the midrib and veins deep 
red or carmine. They are easily increased 
by cuttings. Syn. Gymnostachyum. 

Five Fingers. See Potentilla. 

Flabelliform. Fan-shaped. 

Placourtia. Named after Etienne de Flacourt, 
a botanist and director of the French East 
India Company in 16i8. The typical genus of 
Flacowrtiacem, comprising a few species of 
fruit-bearing, thorny trees or shrubs, natives 
of tropical Asia, Africa, and America. The 
fruits of several of the species are used in 
India, and have a pleasant sub-acid fiavor, 
when perfectly ripe, but the unripe fruit is 
exceedingly astringent. The young shoots 
and leaves of F. cataphracta are used medici- 
nally by the native Indian doctors as a cure 
for diarrhoea. The species are rarely seen 
in cultivation. 

FlacourtiaoesB. (Bixacese.) A natural order 
of shrubs or small trees, with alternate leaves, 
often marked with transparent dots. They are 
natives, principally, of the East and West 
Indies ; a few species are found at the Cape of 
Good Hope, and one or two in New Zealand. 
Some of the plants yield edible fruits, others 
are bitter and astringent. The order includes 
about twenty-five genera and 150 species. 

Flag. A general name for the genus Iris. 
Yellow, or Water. Iris Pseudo-acorus. 

Flagelliform. Flexible, narrow, and tapering, 
like the thong of a whip, as the runners of 
many plants. 

Flame Flower. One of the popular names of 

Flame Lily. See Pyrolirkin. 

Flame Tree, or Tree of Fire. See Nuytsia. 

Flamingo Plant. Popular name of AntJmriwm 

Plavescent. A pure pale yellow. 

Flax. See Limim. 
New Zealand, or Flax Lily. Phormium tenax. 

Fleabane. See Erigeron. 

Pleur-de-Luce. See Iris. 

Flezuose. Zig-zag; having a wavy direction, 
gently bending alternately inward and out- 

Floating Heart. See Limnanthemum. 

Ploccose. Covered with little tufts of hair, like 

Flora. (The goddess of flowers.) "The aggre- 
gate of all the species of plants inhabiting a 
particular country. 

Floral. Of or belonging to the flower. 

Floral Envelopes. The calyx and corolla, one 
or both. 

Florets. When many small flowers are collected 
in clusters or heads, each flower is called a 
floret. The florets of the disk are those which" 




occupy the center of the head of a Composite ; 
while florets of the ray occupy the circumfer- 

Florida Bean. See Entada. 

Florida Moss. See TiHandaia. 

Florists' Flowers. These are defined as, 
"Flowers which, by their beauty, or fra- 
grance, power to produce permanent varieties, 
and facility of cultivation, are so largely in de- 
mand as to render them especially worthy of 
cultivation as an article of commerce." The 
term is most generally applied to that large 
section of green-house and hardy plants, 
which have originally descended from a 
limited number of species, but which, either 
by cultivation, careful selection, or systematic 
hybridization the "Florist," has caused to 
"break" from the original species into 
varieties much superior to the original, it 
may be in the habit of the plant or variety of 
color and form of the flower. The variety of 
plants included among Florists' flowers, is 
annually extending, as genera that have 
hitherto been neglected are being brought 
under the same influences with a view of ob- 
taining similar results. Perfection in habit 
of plant, and in form of flower, with distinct 
coloring, are points always aimed at and only 
those flowers which are most desirable in 
these respects, should be used for hybridizing 
or seeding purposes. Seeds having a ten- 
dency to produce varieties of an inferior 
quality, it is necessary to perpetuate those 
good sorts already secured, by cuttings or 
offsets, as the case may be ; the advantages of 
the improvements effected are thus available 
for all, in the select varieties now in general 
cultivation, as well as those now annually 
distributed. Among the best known examples 
of the Florist's success are the AuricuUi, 
Ghryaomthemv/m, Carnation, Dahlia, Fuchsia, 
Gladiolvs, Pelargonivm, both show and Zonal, 
Tulip, Hyacinth, Verbena, Rose, etc. 

Flower. That assemblage of organs in a plant, 
of which the stamens or pistils, or both, form 

FloTwer Border. See Border. 

Flower-de-Luoe. See Iris. 

Flower Fence. See Poindana. 

Flower of the Holy Spirit. See Peristeria. 

Flowering Ash